Russians in America: The Third Wave

Publishing Ventures

Most of the publishing houses were associated with one or more individuals. It is impossible to imagine Ardis without Carl and Ellendea Proffer, or Hermitage without Igor Efimov. Here follows a very basic list of the major publishing ventures.


Ardis (Ардис)

Ardis was beyond a doubt the lifeline for several writers, including Brodsky, Sasha Sokolov and Vasily Aksyonov. It gave in the original Russian and in English an outlet for voices silenced by Soviet censorship. Moreover there was the ability to expand beyond the typescript of samizdat (самиздат) to reach Russian audiences. Ardis, along with the publishers in Germany such as Posev and Grani, would become the key elements in what came to be known as tamizdat, "literature published over there." But Ardis was so much more. Never before had there been such an opportunity to provide translations of writers, critics, their correspondence, poetry. Ardis published several hundred books from the 1980s to 1990s: Aksyonov, Andrei Bely, anthologies, Bitov, Brodsky, Dostoevsky, Nabokov, Remizov, Sokolov, Tolstoy. In the United States they were for most of the 1970s the single most important publisher of all things related to Russia. See the article in Russian by N. Milman.

Chalidze/Khronika (Чалидзе/Хроника)

When Valery Chalidze's citizenship was revoked in 1972, he remained in the United States and revived under the auspices of Khronika the journals The Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR (Хроника защиты прав в СССР) and The Chronicle of Current Events (Хроника текущих событий) both in Russia. Later an English version of The Chronicle of Current Events would appear. Chalidze also established first in New York City, then later from Benton, Vermont, Chalidze Publishers which published scores of books, including works by Chalidze himself.

Detinec (Детинец)

Among other books, it publishes P. G. Grigorenko, В подполье можно встретить только крыс ... (NY: 1981).


Effekt (Эффект)

Established in 1981, Effekt Publishing under the leadership of Gabriel Valk published a number of Russian authors. Gabriel Valk (212-557-1321) has also continued the traditions of Possev in the United States. Today it is still operating. Click here for the catalogue.


Gnosis (Гнозис)

Arkady Rovner (Аркадий Ровнер) together with his wife Viktoria Andreevna, founders of the Gnozis society in Moscow, both emigrated to the United States in the 1970s and established their own publishing house, Gnosis Press, that produced anthologies of Russian and English literature.


Hermitage (Эрмитаж)

Igor and Marina Efimov had come originally to Ann Arbor, Michigan to work with the Proffers at Ardis. But in the early 1980s they established what would become another major source of publications by and about Russians. Ultimately they would publish over 250 titles. Many are still available directly from the publisher.

Liberty Publishing House

"Liberty Publishing House was founded by Ilya Levkov in April 1985 with its main goal of providing quality books by leading American and Russian authors. With over 150 titles in Russian, English, and bilingual works, Liberty has become the leading American publisher of books on Russian, American, and Israeli history. In August 1995 Liberty became the first Russian language publisher to be on the Internet. We have been publishing the Russian Yellow Pages since 1991. "The venture continues to the present day. Click here for catalogue.
475 Fifth Ave. Suite 511 | Tel. (212) 679-4620 | FAX: (212)447-7558 | Email:

The Third Wave (Третья волна)

Aleksandr Glezer, a major art collector, and well known for his C.A.S.E. Museum of Contemporary Russian Art (80 Grand St., Jersey City (201) 332-5200) came first to France and then later to the United States. His activities included in addition to promoting Russian art, the publication of the monthly journal, Sagittarius (Стрелец) , and the activity of his own Tret'ja Volna Publishing House, produced over sixty original and critical studies of Maksimov, Solzhenitsyn, and original novels, stories and poetry of lesser known Russians. A publishing venture ALNATA was also listed at this address in Литературный курьер for 1982.

Russica (Руссика)

Russica in New York City published over 100 volumes in the 1970s and 1980s from Nina Berberova to Sergey Dovlatov. 799 Broadway, Ste. 301-2, New York, NY,
(212)473-7480. In the 1980s the work of Aleksandr Sumerkin and Irina Kuharets. (

The Silver Age (Серебряный век)

Grigory Poliak oversaw the publishing of such works as Aleksandr Skachinky's Dictionary of Criminal Jargon. Sergey Dovlatov joined the ranks of Konstantin Vaginov in having works published here. Later it would link up with Liberty House Publishing.

Subsidized Publishers

One of the legacies of the Cold War was American subvention of publications of Russian works. One of the earliest ventures was

The Chekhov Publishing House in New York in the 1950s and 1960s that performed a great service in offering Russian émigré materials. An excellent overview along with many of its publications are in the Phillip Mosley collection at the University of Illinois.


As for others I quote from an excerpt of an article on this topic.






There were several Russian émigrés political organizations Russian socialists, National People Alliance of Russian solidarists (NTS), Combatant Union for Russian People Liberation (SBONR), Combatant Union for Russian Liberty (SBSR), Combatant League for People Liberty (LBNS), Central Unification of Political Emigrants from USSR (COPE). They had published periodicals, leaflets, pamphlets, books, had strove to disseminate it in Soviet Union. Alongside the Russian émigrés organizations Russian books abroad were published by so-named Book Program or Book Exchange Program, religion missions, also by some Russian émigrés periodicals.

In 1950–1956 USA governmental institutions had intercepted the main idea of NTS ideologist and one of the leaders V. Poremskiy of necessity to transfer and disseminate West world books for Soviet Union peoples and Chekhov Publishing House was founded in New York. Publishing division of American based Free Europe Committee, named as ,,Free Europe Press“, was established in New York and Munich. Little later was formed analogue division of American Committee for Liberation (Amcomlib) founded in 1951. ,,Free Europe Press“ started mailing books in 1956. According this project there were posted thousands of books to Eastern Europe by occasional addresses. Many Western publishers, periodicals, organizations and individuals were involved in such actions. A great amount of posted books had sneaked past Soviet and Eastern European censors and customs....

Some Russian books publishing and dissemination houses were founded to perform started Book Program: at the end of fifties–at the beginning of sixties – COPE Publishers (Munich), Inter- Language Literary Associates (Washington, DC), in 1968–1969 – ,,Overseas Publications Interchange Ltd.“ (OPI; London), A. Neimanis Buchvertrieb und Verlag (Munich) and others. Publications dissemination network was formed in 1952–1956 and was active till 1993.

Some foreign publishers (Ardis Publishers, Chekhov Publishing House) had published mainly Russian classics, the second („YMCA-Press“, Ardis Publishers, „Possev“, Inter-Language Literary Associates, New Chekhov Publishing House) – Russian literature of the first half of XX century and the newest Russian literature, the third (COPE Publishers, International Literary Association, ,,Overseas Publications Interchange Ltd.“, A. Neimanis Buchvertrieb und Verlag) – historical, politics, publicist works and memoirs, the fourth (,,Possev“, ,,Overseas Publications Interchange Ltd.“, Inter-Language Literary Associates, Alexander Herzen Foundation, ,,Chronika Press“, ,,Chalidze Publications“) – publications of underground, opposition and dissenters movement, human rights and their restraints."


John Glad also indicates the involvement and financial support of the US Government for Russian language publications and their disappearance after the fall of the Soviet Union.

Harvard University lists thirteen titles published in the 1960s by Interlanguage Literary Associates:


Akhmatova, Anna Andreevna, 1889-1966.
Reekviem / Anna Ahmatova ; tõlkinud Marie Under, Alexis Ranniti sissejuhatav essee ja François Mauriac'i epiloog.
New York : Inter-Language Literary Associates, 1967.

Tert︠s︡, Abram, 1925-
Fantasticheskie povesti. Sud idet. Li︠u︡bimov. Chto takoe. Sot︠s︡ialisticheskiĭ realizm.
[New York] Inter-Language Literary Associates, 1967.

Daniėlʹ, I︠U︡liĭ, 1925-
Govorit Moskva : povesti i rasskazy / Nikolai Arzhak [pseud.]
New York : Inter-language Literary Associates, 1966.

Inter-Language Literary Associates.
Katalog 1965-1966..
New York : Inter-Language Literary Associates Book Publishers and Distributors ; Rausen Publishers, [1966].
19 p.


Akhmatova, Anna Andreevna, 1889-1966
Sochinenii︠a︡ / [Obshchai︠a︡ red., vstup. statʹi, svod raznochteniĭ i primechanii︠a︡ G.P. Struve i B.A. Filippova]
Washington, D.C. : Inter-Language Literary Associates, 1965-c1983.

Brodsky, Joseph, 1940-1996.
Stikhotvorenii︠a︡ i poėmy.
[Washington] Inter-Language Literary Associates, 1965.

Frank, S. L. (Semen Li︠u︡dvigovich), 1877-1950, ed.
Iz istorii russkoĭ filosofskoĭ mysli kontsa XIX i natsda XX veka; antologi︠a︡. Posmertnaii︠a︡ red. V. S. Frank.
[Washington, D. C.] Inter-Language Literary Associates, 1965.
299 p. (p. 287-299 advertisements) 21 cm.

Struve, Gleb.
Utloe zhil'e; izbrannye stikhi 1915-1949 gg.
[München, Inter-Language Literary Associates] 1965.

Zabolot︠s︡kiĭ, N. (Nikolaĭ), 1903-1958.
Stikhotvorenii︠a︡. Pod obshcheĭ red. G. P. Struve i B. A. Filippova. Vstup. statʹi Aleksisa Rannita, Borisa Filippova i Ėmmanuila Raĭsa. [Podgotovka teksta, svod variantov i bibliografii︠a︡--B. A. Filippov.
Washington, D.C.] Inter-Language Literary Associates [c1965]

Zaits︡︠ev, Boris, 1881-1972.
[Washington, D.C.] Inter-Language Literary Associates, 1965.

Daniėlʹ, I︠U︡liĭ, 1925-
Iskuplenie; rasskaz.
[New York?] Inter-Language Literary Associates, 1964.
71 p. 20 cm.


Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 1821-1881.
U Tikhona; propushchennai︠a︡ glava iz romana "Besy". Vstup. statʹi︠a︡ Andrei︠a︡ Kozina.
[New York, Inter-Language Literary Associates] 1964.

Mandelʹshtam, Osip, 1891-1938.
Sobranie sochineniĭ / Osip Mandelʹshtam ; pod redakt︠s︡ieĭ G.P. Struve i B.A. Filippova ; vstupitelʹnye statʹi Klarensa Brauna, G.P. Struve i E.M. Raĭsa.
Washington : Inter-Language Literary Associates, 1964-1981.

From 1973-1992 Overseas Publication Interchange in London published over 150 works in Russian.




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