VERGIL Aeneid IV: Notes


These are practical student-aid notes derived from several late l9th c. school-editions, used at a time when eight years of serious Latin study was absolutely requirement for the B.A. degree anywhere in this country. The notes are tight and terse, they never verge into artistic comment or furnish poetic insight, yet they are still quite servicable as a line for line companion to the Latin text. With cautious use of Conington's translation, careful reading of these notes, and the use of the electronic Humanist's Latin Dictionary available from CentaurSystems (http://www.centaursystems.com), you can expect to read Latin fast enough to enjoy it as literature.


1. at, contrasting the tumult in the queen's heart with the peaceful scene at the end of Book iii.--

gravi cura, by grievous love.

2. venis, abl. of means -- trans. with her heart's blood.

3. multa, multus, connect in translation with recursat -- often,often.--animo, dat. with recursat, instead of ad with the aee.

6. Phoebea lampade, A Homeric reminiscence, of a sort.--lustrabat, was lighting.

7. umentem... umbram, Note how this brackets the line.

8. male sana = insana, distraught -- this is a special use of male as a negative = in-

10. quis... hospes, who is this wonderful (novus) guest that has come to our home?

11. quem... ferens, how charming in appearance -- quem is in pred. app. with sese and is equivalent to qualem -- ore is abl. of specifieation. -- pectore et armis abl. of quality -- armis = warlike deeds.

13. degeneres... arguit, fear proves souls low- born. Aeneas has been fearless -- hence, she argues, he must be of divine origin

14. exhausta, undergone.

16. sederet, see n. on ii, 660. The subject is the following clause

17. deceptam morte fefellit, played me false and cheated me by death -- see i, 343- 359.

18. pertaesum fuisset, sc. me.--taedae, the torch carried in the procession which escorted the bride to her husband's house.

19. potui, = posuissem -- culpae -- earlier Roman sentiment did not approve of second marriage.

21. fraterna caede, with a brother's blood -- fraterna serves to emphasize the horror of the crime -- Syehaeus was the brother-in-law of Pygmalion.

22. hic, with short -i- -- labantem, proleptic

24. optem, potential subj., dehiscat, adigat, substantive elauses, objects of optem --

27. ante, a mere repetition of prius in 24.

29. abstulit, i.e. to the tomb.

31. Iuce, than life.--sorori = mihi -- dat. of agent.

32. solane... iuventa, will you waste away, grieving alone through all your youth? --carpere is fut. indic. pass. -- iuventa is abl. of extent of time --.

33. Veneris, connect with praemia.

34. id, that you remain unmarried.

36. esto, referring to the preeeding sentence -- suppose it is so,still you have long enough refrained from love. -- aegram, sc. te -- while you mourned. --- mariti suitors --.

36. Libyae, locative -- Tyro abl. of plaee where

instead of the locative. -- despectus, sc. est. -- Iarbas, king of Numidia.

37. triumphis dives, rich in triumphs -- referring to the many warlike tribes which the Tyrians had conquered.

38. placitone... amori, will you struggle even against a love that pleases you? Note the deponent use of the pass. participle placito. For the ease of amori

40. Gaetulae urbes, the Gaetulians lived far to the south and southwest of Carthage. -- genus, in app. with urbes --

41. Numidae, neighboring tribes on the southwest. -- cingunt sc.. te.-- inhospita Syrtis, the hostile region on the bay called Syrtis Minor southeast of Carthage

42. deserta siti, deserted on account of drought.

43. Barcaei, the only known place to which this can be referred is the eity of Barca far to the east of Carthage beyond the Syrtes. In this sentenee it should be noted that hinc, hinc do not properly refer to opposite sides of Carthage. The eonfusion is probably due to V.'s ignorance of the geography of northern Afriea. -- quid dicam, why should I mention? -- Tyro, from Tyre.

44. germani, = Pygmalion -- see Aen. i, 361, 362.

46. dis auspicibus, with the guidance of the gods, abl. of attendant circumstanee. -- Iunone, she is thinking of Juno as the patroness of Carthage and as the goddess of marriage.

46. hunc cursum, i.e. their course to Carthage

47. quam... cernes, what a city will you see rise here! -- quam is used like quem in 11., ~`

48. coniugio, abl. of cause.

49. rebus, either abl. of cause or manner, or, possibly, dat. with a verb of motion.

50. veniam, favor. -- sacris litatis, having offered acceptable sacrifice.

51. causas innecte morandi, construct pretexts for his lingering.

52. aquosus Orion, see n. on i, 535.

53. quassatae, are battered (by the storm) and needing repairs. --non tractabile, unfavorable -- lit. unmanageable.

54. incensum... amore, inflamed with love her heart already kindled.

56. solvit pudorem, loosened the restraints of shame -- ef. 27.

56. per aras, i.e. going from altar to altar.

57. bidentis, two-year-old sheep. In the second year sheep have two prominent teeth of the seeond and permanent set..

Or is is bi-d-annus, with a euphonic dental separator. "two year"?

58. legiferae, applied to Ceres as the goddess of grain, a fundamental necessity of civilized life. She will be, therefore, an important fact or in the union of Tyrians and Trojans and in the future of Carthage. Dido sacrifiees to Phoebus as the god who had knowledge of the future, and to Bacchus as the giver of joy. These divinities are elsewhere all associated with marriage.

59. ante, above. -- curae, dat. of purpose.

60. pateram, object of fundit as well as of tenens.

61. media, pleonastic with inter cornua -- for a similar pleonasm ef. i, 348.

62. ante ora deum, i.e. before their statues. -- pinguis, rich. referring to the sacrifiees she has offered.

63. instaurat diem donis, renews the day with gifts, i.e. repeats her offerings again and again during the day. -- pecudum... inhians, poring over the opened breasts of the sheep.

64. spirantia, quivering.

65. heu... mentes, with particular referenee to their ignorance of the fatal outcome of her passion. -- quid... iuvant, of what help are vows or shrines to one who is wild with love? i.e. it makes no difference whether the gods are favorable or not. -- quid is acc. of kindred meaning with iuvant.

66. est, from edo. NOT sum -- mollis medullas -, her tender heart -- Just so i, 660 ossibus = cor.

69. qualis... sagitta, like a deer pierced by an arrow -- lit. Of what sort (wanders) a deer when an arrow has been shot, coniecta sagitta being abl. abs.

71. agens telis, pursuing with his darts. Note that sagitta, telis, ferrum, and harundo (in 73) all refer to the same weapon.

72. nescius, i.e. not knowing that he had hit the deer. It is perhaps implied that Aeneas is still ignorant of the love he has inspired in Dido.

73. Dictaeos, see n. on iii, 171.

74. media per moenia, through the midst of the city.

76. Sidonias... paratam, she hopes that Aeneas will be induced to remain in Carthage.

77. eadem, agreeing with convivia i.e. like the one of the night before.

78. demens, in her folly Such repetition would only increase her passion for Aeneas.

79. pendet ab ore, hangs upon his words.

80. digressi, sc. sunt. -- lumen... premit, the disappearing (obscura) moon in turn conceals her light. -- vicissim -,in turn, i.e. as the sun had done before.

82. stratis... incubat, lies upon the couch that he had left.

83. absens absentem, the repetition emphasizes the contrast between his physical absence and his vivid presence in her thoughts. This sentence is not to be eonnected with the previous sentence as referring to the same time -- the meaning is, Whenever they are separated, she seems to hear and see him.

84. Ascanium, this is the real Ascanius -- V. does not mention his return from Idalium -- see i, 691-694.

86. si possit, to see if she can -- cf. 1, 181, si... videat.

87. bello, best taken as dat. of reference with propugnacula, safe ramparts for war.

88. pendent interrupta, are interrupted and suspended. -- minae... ingentes, threats= the great towering walls -- For the meaning of minae ef. i, 162, minantur.

89. machina, probably a derrick, a winch.. With this subjeet pendent has a somewhat different meaning, is idle.

90. quam, Dido.

91. nec... furori, and that her reputation was no bar to her mad passion.

93. refertis, the technical word for bringing back the spoils of battle.

94. puer, Cupid. -- numen, your divine power, sc. erit.

96. nec... fallit, and indeed it does not escape me, -- adeo

emphasizing the whole clause. -- The subject of fallit is veritam... altae.

98. sed... tanto, but what is to be the end or how far now (are we to go) in such rivalry? quo = whither. -- certamine is abl. of manner.

99. quin, why not?

101. traxit... furorem, has drawn passion into her heart -- for ossa see i, 660.

102. communem, predicate adj. -- in common therefore let us rule, etc.. -- communem and paribus are the emphatic words.

103. auspiciis, authority, a meaning derived from the fact that only the highest magistrates or, in war, the commander-in-chief had the privilege of taking the auspices. -- liceat... dextrae, let her serve a Phrygian husband and deliver the Tyrians into your hand as a dowry -- It is implied that the Carthaginians, being handed over to Aeneas, will thereby come into the power of Venus. -- servire is used sneeringly and bitterly in place of nubere. t

106. olli, see i, 254. -- enim, introducing the reason for the insincerity of her reply. -- simulata mente, with deceitful purpose.

106. quo, ut would be more natural, as the purpose elause contains no comparative -- regnum Italiae,that which Aeneas was to found. Juno's purpose was to make Carthage rather than Rome the mistress of the world. -- oras, acc. of limit of motion.

109. quod memoras factum, the course which you propose.

110. fatis, either abl. of specification with incerta or, less probably, abl. of means with feror. -- si, whether

111, si... videat. -- unam, note the emphatic position.

114. perge, sequar, i.e. proeeed with your plan, I will do my part. -- excepit, replied, lit. took (the conversation) from her.

116. iste, referring, as usual, to the second person (which you mention). -- quod instat, what is at hand i.e. the immediate task. -- paucis, sc. verbis. -- adverte, sc. animum, attend.

117. venatum, supine with ire.

119. Titan, Sol -- Hyperion, father of Sol, was a Titan. -- radiis.. . orbem, shall uncover the earth with his rays, i.e. dispel the darkness.

120. his, dat. -- with infundam, future

121. dum trepidant alae, while the horsemen are busy. It was the task of these men to drive the game toward the hunters. Since in battle the cavalry of the Roman army were placed on the wings, the word ala (wing) came to mean a troop of horsemen. -- saltus... cingunt, nets were stretched aeross the openings of the woods.

123. nocte opaca, i.e. with darkness like that of night.

126. adero, as the goddess of marriage.

126. conubio, Pron. as three syllables, the -i- being consonantal.

-- propriam, personal property, cf. 1.73

127. hic hymenaeus erit, this will be their marriage -- hic is attracted into the gender of the predicate. nom.

128. dolis repertis, abl. abs. -- repeating the thought of 105.

7 130. portis, abl. of the road or, possibly, abl. of place whence.

-- iubare, sc. solis.

131. retia rara, wide-meshed nets. -- plagae, possibly smaller or finer nets, but the differenee between rete and plaga cannot be determined -- lato ferro, with retia, plagae, and venabula, ruunt may be translated, are carried . A case of zeugma.

132. Massyli, the Massyli lived in Numidia, in northern Africa. -- odora canum vis, the strong, keen-scented dogs -- the expression is like rotarum lapsus in ii, 235, 236.. But vis is also used as a "band"

133. limina, of the palace. -- primi, the nobles.

137. chlamydem, acc. with circumdata used reflexively.

138. nodantur in aurum, are knotted into gold, probably a golden band.

139. vestem, the chlamys.

1168. pecora inertia, the goats and deer. -- votis, dat. of indirect 42. agmina iungit, i.e. unites his companions with Dido's.

143. hibernam Lyciam, his winter home in Lycia (in southern Asia Minor) -- There was a famous oracle of Apollo at Patara, near the mouth of the Xanthus in Lycia. As Aeneas is here compared with Apollo, so in i, 498- 501, Dido is compared with Diana.

144. Delum maternam, his mother's Delos, where Apollo was born.

146. Cretesque. Note the lengthening of the enclitic

91.--Dryopes, living in the central part of northern Greece. -- fremunt, shout. -- picti, painted or tattooed. -- Agathyrsi, from north of the Danube. Even a people so remote worshipped Apollo and came to his festival at Delos.

147. Cynthi, the mountain on the island of Delos where Apollo and Diana were worshipped. -- molli... auro, arranges (fingens) and confines his flowing locks with a soft garland and entwines them with gold.

140. tela, the arrows in the quiver. -- haud segnio, with no less graceful activity.

160. tantum... ore, cf. i, 588-593.

161. ventum, sc. est -- when they came. This use of the impersonal is common to many languages,. e.g. Fr., on va, Germ., man geht.

162. deiectae, driven down.

163. alia de parte, on another side, elsewhere.

164. transmittunt cursu, run across. -- agmina glomerant, gather their bands object with dari.

160. magno misceri murmure, see i, 124.

163. nepos, Ascanius.

164. tecta, places of shelter. -- petiere, 3 pl. perf. -- ruunt... amnes, swollen by the rain.

166. prima, primeval. Earth is the oldest of all divinities. Earth and Heaven (Aether) were regarded as the mother and father of all life. -- pronuba, the patroness of marriage. The pronuba was properly a matron who attended the bride on her wedding day.

167. fulsere ignes, a heavenly substitute for the usual marriage torches -- conscius conubiis, witness to the marriage For the scansion of conubiis see note on 126.

168. ulularunt Nymphae, suggesting either the marriage song, the cries of congratulation, or quite possibly an unholy uproar by mountain spirits as foreboding.

169. ille... fuit, that day first was the cause of death and first was the cause of disasters. The repetition of primus serves as a repetition of ille dies primus. -- Recall dies irae/ dies ille of the Medieval hymn.

170. specie, by appearances.

172. coniugium vocat, she calls it marriage, the proper relationship between a Roman man and wife. Conubium was a second class marriage between a Roman and a non-Roman, as here. Dido deludes herself using the wrong term.

173. Fama, Rumor. The following description of Rumor (fama) as a mammoth bird with feet on the ground and head in the clouds, and with as many tongues and ears as feathers, is so extravagant as to be ludicrous. There is inconsistency, moreover, in the fact that this huge creature perches on the house-tops, and the lack of definiteness as to the location of the tongues and ears (unless we may assume that they, too, were underneath the feathers). This vagueness is of course intentional, the very core-characteristic of Rumor.

17S. mobilitate viget, she gathers strength with motion, i.e. the farther she goes, the stronger she is. The latter part of the sentenee is mere repetition. -- Note the rolling sound of the word EUNDO.

176. parva metu primo, small at first on account of fear.

178. deorum, objective gen. ; provoked by anger at the gods. She is said to have been angry with the gods because of their treatment of her sons, the Titans.

179. extremam... progenuit, bore her last, as sister to Coeus and Enceladus -- the former was a Titan, the latter a giant.

182. subter, i.e. there is an eye under every feather. Vergil. was probably thinking of the peacock which has this appearance.

188. subrigit, an old form for surgit.

184. caeli medio terraeque, between heaven and earth -- medio is the neut. adj. used as a noun.

186. stridens, with whirring wings.

186. custos, as a sentinel, watching for anything that may happen.

188. tam... veri, clinging to what is false and distorted, as well as reporting the truth.

190. facta... canebat, was repeating fact and falsehood.

191. cretum, Cretus, the past ppl of cresco, used deponently.

19S. hiemem... fovere, are spending all the long winter in wantonness together. Hiemem fovere is a bold but effective expression -- lit. are keeping the winter warm. With quam longa sc. sit, lit. how long it is.

194. regnorum, i.e. Carthage and Italy.

196. virum, gen. plur., the usual poetry form = -orum, with long -u-.

198. Hammone... nympha, son of Hammon and a ravished Garamantian nymph. Hammon was an African divinity, identified with Jupiter. -- rapta... nympha is abl. abs. The Garamantes lived in the central part of northern Africa.

200. posuit, sacraverat, Note the change in tense (the perf. refers to a past act, with no precise definition of time -- the plpf. refers to an act that was past at the time of another past act, here the coming of Fama) -- vigilem ignem, like the fire in the temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum.

201. excubias, the perpetual fire is conceived as guarding the sanctity of the gods.

202. solum, sc. eras

203. animi, locative, in/at the mind.

206. supinis, In Greek and Roman prayers, the hands were stretched out and the palms turn upward. Our clasped hand position comes from India..

206. nunc, i.e. thanks to my efforts. -- Maurusia, used loosely in the sense of Africana.

207. epulata, having feasted. The libation followed the dinner, see i, 736. -- Lenaeum honorem, an offering of wine. Lenaeus was one of the names of Bacchus.

209. nequiquam... miscent, nequiquam, caeci, and inania are the emphatic words, Do we fear you without reason, are they aimless flashes that terrify our minds, and are we disturbed by empty sounds? -- murmura is the subject of miscent, and animos is the object of miscent as well as of terrificant.

212. pretio, abl. of price -- has bought the right to build a little city. See i, 367.

213. loci leges, a legal expression, the terms of occupation.

214. dominum, as her master -- see n. on 103, liceat... destrae.

216. Paris, generally regarded as effeminate, and with special reference here to the fact that he carried off another man's wife.

216. Maeonia mitra, a Phrygian hat with strings tied under the chin. Maeonia is a name of Lydia in western Asia Minor, but Lydian is used loosely here for Phrygian. -- madentem, dripping wet with perfumes.

212. pretio, abl. of price -- has bought the right to build a little city -- see i, 367.

213. loci leges, a legal expression -- we prescribed the terms of occupation.

214. dominum, as her master -- see 103, liceat... destrae.

216. Paris, generally regarded as effeminate, and with special reference here to the faet that he carried off another man's wife.

216. Maeonia mitra, a Phrygian hat with strings tied under the chin. Maeonia is a name of Lydia in western Asia Minor, but Lydian is used loosely here for Phrygian.--madentem, with perfumes.

217. subnixus, lit. supporting his chin underneath. -- rapto, the plunder., object in the abl. of potitur. see iii, 56.

218. famam fovemus inanem, we cherish your empty name; i.e. you have no real power.

219. aras tenentem, thus adding solemnity to his words.

220. moenia regia, the palace walls.

222. adloquitur, Note the lengthening of the final syllable

223. vade age, Come on, let's go!, as in iii, 462. -- voca Zephyros, to help his flight. -- pinnis, the wings of Mercury appear on his cap, his sandals, or his staff; Vergil. here places them on the sandals (cf. 239, talaria, and 259, alatis plantis).

226. exspectat, lingers; this intrans. use does not occur elsewhere, but it is a natural extension of the use of the verb with an object clause. -- non respicit, gives no thought to. --urbes, the future cities in Italy.

227. non... promisit, not such as this did his most beautiful mother promise him to us. -- the non is emphatic and is to be taken with talem in the first clause and with ideo in the second.

228. Graium... armis, and not for this purpose does she twice rescue him from the arms of the Greeks. Aeneas was saved by Venus first from Diomedes (see n. on i, 97), and a second time at the fall of Troy. -- vindicat is historical pres.

229. sed fore qui, but that he would be one who, etc. -- gravidam imperiis, teeming with imperial power; the plur. suggests the various places where that power would be exercised. -- bello frementem, resounding with war.

230. regeret, proderet, mitteret, clauses of characteristic. with 231. proderet, hand down, to future generations. -- mitteret, bring. This whole sentence is an exaggeration, as it was not Aeneas himself, but the race founded by him, that would subdue Italy and, later, the world.

233. super sua laude, for the sake of his own glory.

234. Ascanione pater, emphatic juxtaposition; does the father of Ascanius begrudge him the citadels of Rome?

236. quid struit, what is his purpose? -- spe inimica, for the hiatus see Introd. 28. inimica refers to Juno, enemy of Troy and patroness of Carthage, and to the later wars between Rome and Carthage.

237. haec... esto, this is the important thing, this shall be our message. Haec and hic are attracted into the gender of the predicate nouns. Nostri is a very rare use of the personal pronoun in a possessive sense.

239. pedibus, dat. with a verb denoting union

241. pariter cum, as swiftly as.

242. virgam, the caduceus, usually represented as a long staff with snakes and, sometimes, wings at one end. -- has... resignat, a parenthesis -- the narrative is resumed in 245. -- Orco, Tartara, used interchangeably of the lower world. -- Orco is abl. of place-whence.

243. alias, sc. animas.

244. lumina morte resignat, unseals the eyes in death -- an allusion to the Roman custom of opening the eyes of the dead on the funeral pyre that they might be ready for the journey to the lower world, on which they were conducted by Mercury.

246. illa, the virga. -- agit, drives, as if they were horses.

247. Atlantis, Mount Atlas, and also the Titan on whose shoulders the world turns. See i, 741. -- duri, rugged

248. cui, dat. of reference.

250. tum, moreover. -- mento, the chin. The detailed personification of the mountain as an old man, not only with head and shoulders, but with chin and beard, is so extravagant that, even if we understand that Vergil is describing a god changed into a mountain, the picture is confused. This dual-nature is a part of Roman animistic religious belief, which Vergil was most aware of.

252. paribus nitens alis, poising on level wings. -- Cyllenius =Mercury was born and brought up on Mt. Cyllene in northeastern Areadia.

253. toto corpore, the expression implies effort, with all his strength.

257. ad, a monosyllabic prep. rarely follows its noun.

258. materno ab avo, Atlas was father of Maia, the mother of Mercury. -- Cyllenia proles, the offspring of Cyllene. see n. on 252.

260. fundantem, pouring (concrete) a Roman specialty. -- tecta novantem, not building new houses, but repairing old ones !.

263. demissa, hanging. -- munera, including the sword and the cloak, though the relative clause as a whole applies only to the latter.

264. tenui... auro, had divided the web with golden threads (lit. with thin gold) i.e. she had woven golden threads into the woolen texture.

265. invadit, attacks. Note the adjs. altae, pulchram, perhaps a suggestion that Carthage is lofty enough and beautiful enough already to threaten the future reputation of Rome.

267. oblite, a poetical use of the voc. instead of the nom.

269. torquet, controls, with caelum The verb may be understood in its physical sense, causes to revolve

270. ipse, note the emphatic repetition.

271. teris otia, you waste your idle days?

274. spes heredis Iuli, the hopes that he is justified in having. Ascanium and Iuli in the same vs., two names for the same person!.

277. medio sermone, even while he was speaking.

279. amens, amazed.

282. tanto monitu, by a warning from so high a source.

283. agat... sumat, indirect discourse, representing deliberative questions in the thought of Aeneas. -- quo... adfatu, with what speech should he undertake to soothe the impassioned queen? -- ambire (to canvass or solicit) suggests the delicacy and difficulty of his task.

286. atque... versat, and he sends his mind speedily now in this direction, now in that, and directs it hurriedly to one thing after another, and busies it with all the details.

287. alternanti, to him, hesitating.

289. aptent, cogant, parent, dissimulent, commands in indirect discourse, depending upon the idea of ordering implied in vocat.

290. rebus novandis, for their change of purpose. For this use of novo cf. 260.

291. sese, subject of temptaturum (esse) -- indirect discourse.

292. rumpi, the use of the pres. pass. infin. with spero -- speret, expects.

293. quae... modus, the two indirect questions, quae... tempora (se. sing) and quis... modus (se. sit), are objects of

temptaturum. -- mollissima, most adorable.

294. rebus dexter, propitious for his purpose. -- ocius, a neut. comparative, but here, as often, with the force of a positive adv., quickly

297. motusque... futuros, was first to catch the news of their coming departure.

298. omnia tuta timens, i.e. she was anxious even when there was no cause for anxiety.

300. inops animi, distracted in mind,either gen. of specification or locative

301. qualis... Thyias, like a worshipper of Bacchus, roused by the moving of the sacred emblems -- With Thyias sc. bacchatur.

302. ubi... Cithaeron, when, the cry of Bacchus being heard, the biennial revels goad her and at night, Cithaeron summons her with

shouts. In alternate years (trieterica, every third year, according to the Roman method of reckoning, which counted both ends) there was a festival of Baeehus on Mt. Cithaeron near Thebes in Boeotia.

805. dissimulare, tacitus, as highly emphatic words. -- etiam, also, i.e. not only to do it, but to do it secretly.

308. tacitus, Note this use of the nom. instead of the acc. agreeing with the omitted subject -- te.

308. moritura Dido, the knowledge that Dido will perish, but she means that she will die by her own hand if he deserts her.

309. quin... classem, why, you are even preparing your fleet in the wintry season -- quin, here: Why is it that...?

311. quid, anticipating and emphasizing the following question. -- si.. . aequor, if you were seeking lands not strange and homes not unknown, and if ancient Troy survived, would Troy be sought in your boats over the stormy sea? The argument is this, that if he would not return to Troy itself under such unfavorable conditions, there must be some special reason for his departure to an unknown land -- he must be fleeing from her.

314. te, object of oro down in line 319.

316. conubia, hymenaeos, the second word is intended to be a correction of the first. There has been no formal marriage

(conubium), but Dido chooses to regard their love for each other as constituting the beginning of the wedding rites (hymenaei).

317. fuit... meum, or if anything of mine has been dear to you.

318. domus labentis, my falling house -- she means that it will perish with his departure -- see n. on 308., istam exue mentem, put away that purpose of yours, strip off like a shirt (exuo)..

320. circum.... Nomadum, the same as Numidae in 41.

321. odere, sc. me, cf. lines 36-38. -- infensi Tyrii. This may refer either to the Tyrians or to the Carthaginians. It may mean that unsuccessful suitors in Tyre or Carthage (see 36) were hostile, or that the Carthagininns in general were angry because she had given j herself to a foreigner., eundem, too --

322. qua... prior, my former fame, by which alone I was approaching heaven i.e. was hoping to win immortality. She refers to her fidelity to her dead husband. For the expression cf. iii, 158, tollemus in astra.

323. cui, to what, as in ii, 677

324. hoc nomen, i.e. hospes. -- de coniuge, from that of husband.

325. quid moror, i.e. to die. -- an, or (shall I linger) until, etc. 327. saltem, at least. Connect with non... viderer. -- mihi, dat. of agent. -- suscepta, borne, ordinarily used of the father who takes up the child, thus acknowledging it as his own.

328. mihi, dat. of reference.

329. qui... referret, who, in spite of all, would bring you back in face. The application of tamen is general, but it refers especially to the departure of Aeneas, i.e. though you are gone, yet he........

330. capta, betrayed.

332. obnixus... premebat, by an effort concealed his distress within his heart -- Cf. i, 209, premit altum corde dolorem.

333. pauca, The word indicates the inadequacy of his excuse rather than its brevity; his speech is longer than Dido's. -- quae... vales, the relative clause serves as the object of te promeritam (esse)

336. nec... Elissae, certainly a mild statement under the circumstances.

336. dum... artus, i.e. as long as I can remember and as long as I live -- with ipse sc. sum.

337. pro re, in defence of my conduct.

338. ne finge, do not imagine it. -- nec... veni, nor did I ever propose the ceremony of marriage (lit. offer the torch of a husband) or enter into such a compact.

340. meis auspiciis, under my own guidance -- see n. on 103. meis, standing before its noun and separated from it, as strongly emphasized.

341. sponte... curas, to arrange my affairs in my own way.

342. dulcis meorum reliquias, this refers possibly to the ruins of Troy but, more likely, to those Trojans whom he might have reassembled on the site of Troy.

343. manerent, he does not mean that they would not have been destroyed, but that he would have rebuilt them, as stated in the next clause.

344. recidiva manu posuissem, I should have exerted myself to rebuild -- lit. by my own effort I should have built Pergamum anew -- recidiva is proleptic.

S46. nunc, as it is. -- Gryneus, there was a temple of Apollo at Grynium on the western coast of Asia Minor.

S46. Lyciae sortes, i.e. the oracle of Apollo -- see n. on 143. This oracle has not been mentioned before. It was the one at Delos that commanded them to go to Italy -- See iii, 94-98, and cf. iii, 161168.

847. hic amor, this (i.e. Italy) is my love -- the pronoun takes the gender of the pred. noun. He implies that he can give no thought to love for a woman.

349. quae... est, why do you begrudge that the Trojans, etc. -- lit. what grudging is there.

350. et, too, also.

351. patris Anchisae, connect with imago in 353.

353. turbida, troubled.

354. me... cari, I am disturbed by the thought of the boy Ascanius and the injury to his dear life -- The verbal idea is easily supplied from admonet and terret in the preceding vs.- capitis is objective gen.

356. fatalibus, destined -- assigned to him by fate.

357. utrumque caput, it seems better to refer this to Jupiter and Mereury than to Aeneas and Dido -- caput is used as in 354.

361. sponte, sc. mea.

362. iamdudum aversa tuetur, she had long been eyeing him askance (lit. turned away, as in i, 482).

363. totum, sc. eum -- from head to foot she surveys him in silence (lit. with silent glances).

366. generis... auctor, i.e. you are no real Trojan.

366. cautibus, abl. of place where.

367. admorunt, for admoverunt, offered, sc. tibi.

368. nam, emphasizing quid -- quid dissimulo,why do I conceal my thoughts? -- maiora, greater wrongs, i.e. does the present outrage not justify anything that I may say?

369. ingemuit, note the change of person. She is no longer addressing Aeneas. The following vss. (to 380) are a soliloquy.

370. victus, overcome.

371. quae quibus anteferam, what shall I say first? Lit. what shall I put before what?

372. Saturnius pater, Jupiter. -- haec, i.e. my affairs. --- aequus, just.

376. amissam... reduxi, with classem, the words... a morte reduxi... refer to the fact that she had saved the boats from fire and allowed them to be drawn up on shore and repaired -- With socios they refer to the fact that she had saved the Trojans from attack or arrest and provided them with food and shelter -- see i, 525, 526.

376. nunc, nunc, nunc, scornful repetition of the words of Aeneas (345, 356).

379. scilicet, ironical. -- ea... sollicitat. This anxiety (i.e. for Aeneas) disturbs their repose. Quietos suggests the Epicurean idea that the gods lived a peaceful, happy existence, undisturbed by the affairs of men. Despite ciritcs, Vergil died an Epicurean.

381. sequere Italiam, mockingly repeating Italiam sequor in 361.

382. equidem, with adversative force, though I hope, etc.-- pia -, righteous .

383. supplicia hausurum, that you will drain the cup of punishment -- hausurum is a rare form for hausturum. -- Dido, a rare Greek acc. form here.

384. atris, deadly -- see ii, 221. She pictures herself as one of the Furies, who are represented as carrying firebrands.

386. artus, sc. meos.

386. umbra, in app. with the subject of adero -- Trans, my ghost will be with you.

387. veniet fama, news was supposed to be brought to the lower world by those who had recently died -- cf. ii, 547.

388. medium sermonem, see n. on 277. -- auras, the open air.

390. multa, acc. of kindred meaning, with cunctantem -- cf. iii, 610, multa moratus. The repetition of the -m- sound in this vs., of multa, and of the ending -antem is intended to suggest the stammering of Aeneas.

392. thalamo, dat. with a verb of motion. -- stratis, abl.

393. Pius, after the scene with Dido the adj. is somewhat questionable, but though not loyal, Aeneas is still pious in his devotion to the gods and his destiny. "Aeneas the Good"

396. multa, acc. of kindred meaning.

397. incumbunt, bend to their work, i.e. of dragging the boats into the water.

398. uncta, covered with pitch, to make them slip more easily through the water, and waterproof the boards. -- carina. used collectively.

399. frondentis remos, leafy oars, i.e. boughs from which to make oars (cf. i, 552, stringere remos). This indicates their haste to get away Ordinarily oars would have been made before starting. -- robora silvis infabricata, unfinished timber from the woods. The robora are like the trabes of i, 552.

401. cernas, potential subj.; the subjeet is the indefinite second

person. The pres. is used instead of the more literal impf. just as the historical prey is used for past tenses.

402. ac, here as in ii, 626, the conjunction lacks its ordinary connective force, trans: Even as.

404. The spondaic rhythm suggests the slow progress of the ants.

405. convectant, note the change from sing. to plur. with a collective subject . cf. iii, 676. -- grandia, huge, in comparison with the little ants.

406. agmina cogunt, keep the ranks close together.

408. quis sensus, sc. erat.

409. fervere, an old infin. form of the third declension -- cf. 407, fervet.

411. misceri, Cf. ii, 298.

412. quid, see iii, 56.

414. animos, pride.

416. ne... relinquat, lest she leave anything untried and so die in vain ; i.e. her death would be unnecessary, if she could induce Aeneas to remain.

416. Anna... the lack of a verb of saying makes the transition somewhat abrupt,we are moreover left to assume that Anna has been with Dido since the return to her chamber in 392. -- properari,that they are hurrying ; lit. that it is being hurried.

417. vocat... auras, see iii, 61, dare classibus Austros and contrast iii, 356, 357, aurae vela vocant.

418. puppibus... coronas, an indication that they were about to sail.

419. sperare, to expect -- cf. 292.

420. et, also.

422. colere, had regard for.. Both colere and credere are historical infin.

423. mollis... tempora, -- a favorable method of approach and suitable occasions -- mollis may be taken with tempora as well as aditus cf. 293, 294.

424. hostem, in 172 Dido thinks of him as coniunx, in 323 she calls him hospes (guest), but now here hostis (enemy).

426. Aulide, at Aulis, where the Greek fleet assembled for the expedition to Troy hence the reference to the virgine caesa.

427. nec... revelli, nor have I torn (from the grave) the ashes or spirit of his father Anchises -- i.e. only such an outrage would justify his treatment of me. For the death of Anchises see iii, 708-711.

428. negat demittere, refuse to admit.

430. ferentis, see n. on iii, 473.

431. antiquum, former. -- oro, this may be translated plead or urge, both with coniugium and with the following object elauses.

432. pulchro, ironical.

433. tempus inane, a time of rest, lit. an empty time. Whether she means an interval in which there shall be no preparations for departure or one in which she will not press her claims upon Aeneas, is doubtful. -- requiem... dolere, repose and a respite for my passion until my fortune may teach my conquered soul how to mourn, i.e. until I become accustomed to grief.

436. oro, sc. eum -- i.e. Aeneas.

436. quam... remittam, when he has given me this, I will repay it many fold by my death. She means that she will kill herself and thus make it easier for him to leave Carthage. Anna must be supposed to pay no heed to Dido's words, or to understand her to mean only that death is not far off, for she does not realize that Dido is meditating suicide.

437. talisque. --. soror. Such pitiful messages her most unhappy sister bears again and again (to Aeneas).

439. aut, Nec would have been the proper word, but aut may be justified by the negative element in nullis -- cf. iii, 43.

440. placidas, kindly. -- deus refers to heaven.

442. Alpini Boreae, the north winds from the Alps, in a general sense, i.e. conceived as coming from the general direction of the north, may be said to blow -- nunc hinc nunc illinc.

443. inter se, with one another. -- it, goes forth. -- altae, either from above or, if taken closely with consternunt terram, deep.

447. vocibus, appeals.

450. lacrimae volvuntur inanes, his tears roll down in vain. They have no more effect upon the firmness of his purpose than the falling leaves upon the stability of the oak.

451. exterrita, maddened.

452. taedet, sc. eam. -- caeli convexa, the hollow heaven, the vault of the sky.

453. quo... relinquat, that she may the more carry out her plan and leave the light of day, i.e. the fates made her see and hear portents, that she might be encouraged in her purpose. Strict sequence of tenses would require the impf. subj., but the pres. is used for vividness like the historical pres. in the indic., and in this instance is largely due to the preceding words orat and taedet.

455. latices, water, used for purifying purposes before the sacrifice.

456. obscenum, both foul and of evil omen.

457. hoc visum, this thing that she saw. -- nulli, dat. with effata (est).

457. praeterea... antiqui, besides this, there was in the house a marble shrine of her former husband, i.e. dedicated to his Manes.

458. miro, explained by the following verses. Dido honored Sychaeus not with mourning but with emblems of joy, snowwhite fillets and festal garlands ! Contrast iii, 64, caeruleis maestae vittis atraque cupresso.

461. viri, of her husband.

462. culminibus, on the house-tops.

463. queri, ducere, sc. visa est. -- longas... voces, to drag out its long notes into a wail.

466. furentem, in her frenzy or, possibly, proleptic, into frenzy.

468. viam, acc. of kindred meaning.

469. Eumenidum... Pentheus. A condensed expression. The meaning is, just as Pentheus rushes madly about when he sees, here, as in the case of Orestes in 471, Vergil. is thinking of a tragedy on the stage, the chorus representing the Furies. Pentheus was a king of Thebes who was driven mad on account of his opposition to the rites of Bacchus.

470. solem... Thebas, the sun appearing double and Thebes two-fold. Both geminum and duplicis are pred. adj.

471. scaenis agitatus, pursued across the stage. Scaenis is abl. of the road..

472. armatam... atris, within the house (or temple) his mother pursues him in the guise of the Furies (see n. on 384), while the Furies themselves sit on the threshold to prevent his escape.

474. concepit furias, she fell a prey to madness.

476. tempus... exigit, she determines in her own mind (secum ipsa) the time and manner.

477. consilium... serenat. She conceals her purpose by the exrpression of her face and shows calm hope upon her brow.

479. mihi eum.... eo me, note the chiastic order.

480. Oceani, gen. of definition.

481. Aethiopum, used here in a general sense for Africans. In the historical period they lived south of Egypt.

482. axem, the sky. -- As stellis aptum, studded with stars.

483. hinc... sacerdos, a priestess from here of the Massylian race has been commended to me. The priestess is now in Carthage.

484. Hesperidum, nymphs who had charge of the garden in

which the golden apples grew. -- templi. Elsewhere it is the gardens, not the temple, of the Hesperides. It may be that templi should be taken in a general sense, the sacred enclosure. -- custos... dabat, once guardian and who used to live...

486. servabat, i.e. she protected the branches by feeding the dragon whieh guarded them.

486. spargens... papaver, i.e. on the dragon's food.. Soporiferum is a common epithet of the poppy and poppy- seed, an opiate, here somewhat inappropriate, as the purpose was to keep the dragon awake, not to put him to sleep.

487. haec... solvere, she declares that by incantations she sets free.

488. aliis, sc. mentibus. -- curas, worries, in the same sense as in vs. 1.

489. fluviis, dat. of reference.

490. nocturnos, at night, cf. 303. -- movet, calls forth (from the tomb). -- videbis, of mental perception with mugire, of the eyesight with descendere.

493. caput, cf. 357.--accingier, an old form for accingi, pres. pass. inf. -- Note the omission of the subject, me -- artis, acc. with accingier used reflexively.

404. tecto interiore, see i, 637, and ii, 512.

496. impius, a bitter contradiction of his usual epithet. See n. on 393.

498. monstrat, so directs.

500. tamen, in spite of Dido's pallor., novis, strange

502. concipit, suspects. Contrast the meaning in 474. -- morte, at the death, an abl. of time.

504. penetrali in sede, the same as tecto interiore in 494.

505. taedis, ilice, connect with ingenti, vast with pine boughs and split oak.

506. intendit locum sertis, hangs the place with garlands. A rare construction for a more normal intendit loco serta -- ef. ii, 236.

507. super, adv.

508. effigiem, in whitchcraft it was a common custom to destroy an image of the person against whom the rite was performed. Voodoo! -- haud ignara futuri, though she well knew her intention.

510. ter... deos, with voice of thunder calls upon three hundred gods. The numeral stands for any large indefinite number. Three is common in magic rites -- cf. ii, 174. t

511. tergeminam, Hecate, a goddess of the lower world, was known also as Luna in the sky and as Diana on earth, and is often represented with three faces. As Hecate or Luna she had much to do with magic. -- tria... Dianae. The maiden Diana with her three faces. (ora) is in app. with Hecaten

512. simulatos fontis Averni, that she pretended were those of Lake Avernus

513. messae ad lunam, cut by moonlight. -- aenis, of bronze. Bronze was used before iron and the use of bronze implements in certain ceremonies is a survival of antiquity.

514. pubentes, rank. -- lac,(milk) sap.

516. nascentis equi, of a horse just born.

516. matri praereptus amor, a love-charm saved from the mother, referring to the piece of flesh supposed to be on the forehead of a oolt at birth. The mother bit this off, but, if taken beforehand

(praereptus) it served as a lovecharm.

517. ipsa, Dido. -- Mola and manibus are abl. of manner.

518. unum... vinclis, with one foot stripped of its sandal -- Pedem is acc. with the reflexive participle.

519. conscia fati sidera, The stars were supposed to have knowledge of the future, as astrology was a popular science among the Romans.

520. tum... precatur, then she prays to whatever divinity, just and mindful, cares for those who love with unequal compact -- i.e who do not receive the love whieh has been promised. -- curae is dat. of purpose.

523. quierant, (for quieverant) had sunk to rest, with the falling of the wind at sunset) cf. iii, 568.

524. cum, the time when. Connect with nox erat. -- volvuntur sidera, i.e. with the sky.

526. pictae, many-colored.

523. -que... -que = both... and. Lacus late liquidos, the broad peaceful lakes, lit. broadly peaceful.

527. tenent, haunt.

528. This vs. is bracketed as being probably spurious, it is lacking in the best manuscripts. -- lenibant for leniebant. -- oblita is proleptic, into forgetfulness of toil.

529. non, qualifying a verb to be supplied from the general thought of the preceding verses, e.g. quierat.

530. solvitur, suggesting relaxation of body and mind in sleep.

533. sic adeo insistit, even thus she pursues her thought.

534. quid ago, what am I to do? -- procos, see 36-38. -- inrisa is proleptic, and become an object of derision.

536. experiar, petam, deliberative subj. -- Nomadum see n. on 320.

536. quos... maritos, an adversative relative clause, though I have scorned, etc.

537. igitur sequar, shall I then follow, implying the rejection of the course proposed in 534-536. -- ultima, uttermost, i.e. any orders whatever.

538. quiane... facti, (shall I follow them) because they are thankful that they were once helped (by me) and because gratitude for my former kindness (facti) is firmly fixed in mindful hearts? -- Sc. eos as object of iuvat ,and se as subject of levatos (esse). -- bene is best taken with stat. The question is ironical.

540. fac velle, suppose I wish it.

541. nescis, she addresses herself.

542. Laomedonteae, an allusion to the perjury of Laomedon himself.

543. nautas, i.e. the Trojans, rejoicing because they are setting sail for Italy.

544. Tyriis... meorum, contrasted with sola in 543.

546. inferar, shall I follow them? The verb is used reflexively. -- quos, sc. eos as antecedent and as object of agam.

546. pelago, abl. of the road., here on the sea

547. quin morere, why not rather die, lit. die, why not? The use of quin with the imperative is a development of its use introducing a question. Cf. 99.

548. prima, because Anna urged Dido's union with Aeneas -- see 38-55.

550. thalami... vitam, a blameless life without the marriage chamber -- see n. on 19, culpae.

551. more ferae, i.e. in freedom, untroubled by the complicated cares of eivilized life. -- nec, the negative element is to be taken with tangere, and not to touch = to avoid.

552. servata, sc. est. -- Sychaeo,used here as an adj. qualifying cineri -- ef. i, 686, Lyaeum.

554. eundi, objective gen.

556. forma dei, i.e. a phantom, not Mercury himself. -- voltu eodem i.e. the same as before -- see 238-278.

558. omnia, acc. of specification. -- coloremque, a hypermetric vs.

560. hoc sub casu, in this crisis, lit. under this hazard. -- ducere,to enjoy.

561. deinde, hereafter.

564. mori, complementary infin. with the adj. certa

566. non, for nonne, as often when introducing an indignant question.

566. turbari trabibus, stirred by ships, i.e. the hostile ships of Carthage.

567. fervere, see n. on 409. -- flammis, of the torches, or possibly, of the burning Trojan vessels.

571. umbris, apparition, a poetical plur. for sing.

572. fatigat, urges on. cf. i, 280.

573. praecipites, connect with considite as well as with vigilate.

576. incidere funis, see iii, 640, rumpite, and. iii, 667.

577. quisquis es, Aeneas knows that he is addressing Mercury, but, fearing that he may use an inappropriate title, he uses this general expression, which it may be translated: By whatever name you may be called. This was a common formula in Greek too.

578. sidera dextra feras, may you offer favorable stars, i.e. give good weather -- cf. iii, 515.

581. rapiuntque ruuntque, i.e. they hurry their belongings on board and hasten to set sail.

582. deseruere, an instantaneous perfect

583. The line is repeated from iii, 208. -- Tithoni, brother of Priam and husband of Aurora.

586. regina, subject of ait in line 591.

587. aequatis velis, with sails set square, i.e. the wind was directly astern, and the sails were not turned to either side.

588. vacuos, pred. adj. with litora and portus.

589. pectus, comas, acc. with the reflexive participles.

591. inluserit, fut. perf. because the action will be completed at the time of his going. He already will have made sport of her and her kingdom. -- advena , a mere adventurer.

592. non, see n. on ii, 596. -- expedient, the subject is the Carthaginians.

596. mutat, distorts.

596. facta impia, i.e. her own, since she had been unfaithful to Syehaeus. -- tangunt, as in i, 462.

597. tum... dabas, then was the fitting time (for your unrighteous deeds to touch you) when you were offering him the sceptre.

598. quem, sc. the antecedent eius. -- portare Penatis, cf. i, 378, 379.

599. subiisse umeris, cf. ii, 708.

600. non... corpus, had I not the power to seize and dismember his body?

602. patriis... mensis, an allusion to the story of Thyestes or that of Tereus, child being cut up, cooked and fed to parents.

603. verum, introducing a possible objection. -- fuerat, the plpf. indic. in the conclusion of a contrary to fact condition -- fuisset ,suppose it had been.

604. quem metui moritura, whom did I have to fear, since I was prepared to die? -- tulissem, I ought to have carried

606. implessem, shortened perf. form for implevissem.

606. exstinxem, for exstinxissem. -- memet... dedissem, I ought to have thrown myself upon the flames -- super is an adv. meaning lit. on top.

607. lustras, see n. on 6.

608. harum... Iuno, Juno, mediator and witness of these cares (those of love and marriage) -- cf. 166, pronuba Juno.

609. nocturnis, to be translated as an adv., as in 303., Hecate, see n. on 511. -- ululata, invoked with shrieks, an intrans. verb used passively.

610. Dirae, cf. 473. -- The di morientis Elissae are. any gods who were interested in her fate.

611. accipite... numen, hear these things and give your divine aid to my wrongs that well deserve it. Lit. divine aid merited by my wrongs. malis must be taken both as abl. with meritum and as dat. with advertite.

613. infandum caput, the unspeakable wretch

614. fata Iovis, Jupiter is regarded as the agent of fate.

616. at, as in line i, 543. Dido's curse is virtually a prophecy. Aeneas fought with the Rutulians and the Latins, he had to leave Ascanius while he sought the help of Evander, and finally he dropped the Trojan name and called the combined peoples Latini. He reigned only three years and disappeared after a battle near the river Numicius.

618. cum... tradiderit, when he has submitted to the

conditions of an unfavorable peace, referring to the merging of the Trojans with the Latins and the giving up of the Trojan tame.

619. luce, life -- cf. l. 31.

620. ante diem, prematurely. -- mediaque inhumatus harena,and (lie) unburied on the bare sand.

623. exercete odiis, pursue with your hatred, which is prophetic of the Punic Wars.

624. populis, the Carthaginians and Romans.

626. ultor, in app. with the subject of exoriare, a prophecy of Hannibal's invasion of Italy.

626. qui... colonos, a relative clause of purpose.

627. nunc... vires, now or hereafter, whenever strength is given.

628. Iitora... armis, I call down upon them the hostility of shore to shore, etc. Contraria is to be taken also with undas and arma.

629. ipsi, the Trojans., nepotesque, see n. on 558, coloremque.

630. partis... omnis, cf. 285, 286.

631. abrumpere, with lucem in the sense of vitam, probably with the idea of breaking off the thread of life.

632. adfata, sc. est.

633. suam, sc. nutricem. The word suam is used quite irregularly here, as there is no word to which it can refer. It may be explained, however, on the ground that suam... habebat is virtually the same as suam amiserat. -- cinis, ashes, those of the funeral pyre.

636. corpus, her body. -- properet, ducat are object clauses with the imperative dic, which is used here in the sense of impera -- fluviali spargere Iympha is the ceremonial of purification in preparation for a religious rite.

636. monstrata, as directed.

637. sic, i.e. when she has done the things mentioned in 635, 636.

638. Iovi Stygio, Pluto. Anna and the nurse understand that they are to participate in the symbolic destruction of Aeneas (see n. on 508, effigiem), but Dido has in mind her own death. There is the same double meaning in the phrase, finem... curis in 639.

640. capitis, see n. on 613.

642. coeptis immanibus effera, crazed by her terrible purpose.

643. sanguineam aciem, her bloodshot eyes. -- maculisque... genas, her quivering cheeks suffused with spots

646. limina, rooms -- ef. 494

646. rogos, poetical plur for sing.

647. quaesitum, the sword, therefore, was not merely left behind as stated in 507, but had been sought by Dido from Aeneas as a gift.

648. vestes, cubile, cf. 496.

649. mente, in thought, an abl. of manner.

651. dum... sinebat, connect with dulces, dear while the fates permit. .

653. vixi, i.e. my life is finished

654. magna mei imago, the majestic spirit of myself.

. For the use of mei see n. on 237, nostri.

656. mea, (note the position) my own.

656. ulta, with the meaning of a pres. participle in its relation to recepi -- virum, used for husband. -- poenas... recepi, by carrying off the wealth for which he had killed Sychaeus -.

659. os, acc. with the reflexive participle, pressing her lips to the couch .

660. sic, i.e. on this couch and by this sword.

661. ignem, the pyre that will be kindled after her death.

66S. media, see n. on 61. -- ferro, abl. of means.

664. comites, the reference to these maidservants is unexpected, as they have not been mentioned before in this scene. We must assume that they were at some distance from the pyre.

666. ad alta atria, i.e. toward the front of the palace.

666. concussam, startled. -- bacchatur cf. 301. -- For Fama see 173-188.

667. femineo ululatu, Note the hiatus

669. ruat, Note the use of the pres subj. with quam si (where a contrary to fact condition would be the English idiom)

673. foedans pectora pugnis, breast beating as a sign of pain,

cf. i, 481.

675. hoc illud, was this your purpose? -- me fraude petebas, was it I you were treacherously assailing ?

678. vocasses, you should have called -- see n. on 604, tulissem.

679. ambas tulisset, should have borne us both away.

680. struxi, sc. rogum -- cf. 494-498.

681. sic te posita, with you dying thus -- crudelis, she blames herself for her unintentional cruelty in not anticipating her sister's purpose.

682. exstinxti, shortened poet. form for for exstinxisti. --populumque patresque Sidonios, cf. senatus populusque Romanus.

683. date... legam, grant that I bathe her wounds with water and that I catch on my lips any last breath that still hovers about her. The subj. clauses are objects of date. The Roman custom required the nearest relative to catch the last breath of a dying person, in the belief that his spirit was thus preserved.

686. fata, see n. on 656 -- ulta, thus speaking she had climbed, etc. --gradus, the steps of the pyre.

686. semianimem, the first -i- is treated as a consonant

689. stridit, gurgles.

690. sese, object of levavit as well as of attollens.

692. reperta, sc. luce.

694. Irim, the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods.

696. quae... artus, to release her struggling soul from the limbs that clung to it. cf. 385.

696. fato, i.e. by a natural death. -- merita morte i.e. a deserved death, incurred by her own fault.

697. ante diem, see n. on 620.

698. illi, dat. of reference. -- Proserpina... abstulerat -- A dying person was regarded as an offering to the gods of the lower world, and hairs were plucked from his head as from a sacrificial victim. Proserpina herself, a goddess of the lower world, is here poetically represented as performing the rite.

701. mille... colores, the rainbow marks her path. -- adverso sole, in the face of the sun, an abl. of cause.

702. adstitit, instantaneous perfect ; see n. on i, 84. -- hunc... fero , this lock (sc. crinem) I, being ordered, bear away as an offering to Pluto.

706. in ventos vita recessit, i.e. she breathed her last breath.

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William Harris
Prof. Em. Middlebury College
www.middlebury.edu/~harris