CAESAR: A Thousand Words


Here is a little dictionary of 1000 words with very short definitions, but quite unusual in that these are the words which occur in Caesar I-V, and ALSO in Cicero Catalines, pro leg. Man, Archias, and ALSO in Aeneid I-VI. The collections were done by Gonzalez Lodge, Prof. Columbia College and published in l907 by Columbia, fine work with frequencies and passage citations. But what is best is this listing of words which will be used into the third and fourth years. For a school which is following the traditional readings more or less, this could be very useful; initially on the web with FIND as a working vocab to Caesar, and ideal for a home school person or school wanting to save money and get the text of Caesar from The Latin Library

The numbers which follow eeach definition give an approximation of the frequency in Latin overall, and derive from a careful reading of the entire Oxford Latin Dictionary when I was compiling the HLD (below) as the first electronic Latin dictionary. The range is from "1" as very common, through "5" as quite rare if not a hapax.

The English is a shortened version of the Humanist's Latin Dictionary, which is published on CD for Mac or PC, and lists the 15,000 words which cover the entire range of literary Classical Latin Literature. A demo of this dictionary is downloadable from HLD from Centaur Systems

You can use the browser FIND for a quick search. It often finds compounds, so if you want the basic form, enter a DOT before the word. Two more lists are available on the web, one for the add-on words from Cicero, and another for add-ons from Vergil:

Cicero's Words
Vergil's Words

.a ab abs ---- away, away from; by means of (with abl.)1

.abdo -dare -dedi ---- put away, conceal3

.absum -esse- -fui ---- be absent, be lacking 2

.accedo -ere -cepi ceptum --- approach2

.accipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum ----- to take accept 2

.accommodo - are ----- to fit out to fit to furnish 3

.accuso - are ----- to accuse; prosecute (legal) 3

.acer - cris -cre ----- sharp cutting keen (the -a- is long) 1

.acies -ei f. ----- edge sharpness ; battle line 2

.ad prep. with acc. ----- to toward near 1

.adaequo -are:. ----- to make equal; to match 3

.adduco -ducere -duxi -ductum ----- bring forth bring on 3

.adeo adv. ----- to that point, so far 3

.adeo adv. ----- to that point so far 2

.adhibeo -ere -ui -itum ----- supply furnish 2

.adigo -igere -egi -actum ----- drive forth 1

.adimo -imere -emi -emptum ----- take away 2

.aditus -us m. ----- approach attack (mil.) 2

.adiuvo -iuvare -iuvi -iutum ----- to aid help 1

.administro -are ----- direct administer 3

.admiror -ari dep. ----- be surprised at 3

.adolesco -olescere -olevi ----- to grow up 2

.adorior -oriri -ortus dep. ----- rise up against. 2

.adventus -us m. ----- arrival 2

.adverto (advorto.) -vertere -verti -versum ----- turn toward 2

.aedificium -i n. ----- a building 2

.aedifico -are ----- to build 2

.aeger -gra -grum ----- sick,ailing 2

.aequus -a -um ----- level smooth f= 1

.aestas -atis f. ----- heat, summer season 2

.aestus -us m. ----- heat boiling 3

.affero - ferre -tuli -latum ----- bring forth bear a report; excite 1

.ager agri m. ----- field c1

.agger -eris m. ----- rampart (mil.) dam2

.aggredior -i -ssum ----- approach ; attack 2

.agmen -inis n. ----- line, column of soldiers 3

.ago agere. egi. actum. ----- drive (anything) on,accomplish 1

.alacer -cris -cre ----- quick keen 2

.alienus -a -um ----- strange foreign 3

.aliquis aliquid. pron. ----- some one...or other 3

.aliquot indecl. numeral ----- several 1

.alius -ia -iud. ----- other, the other 1

.alter -tera -terum ----- either (one...or the other) of a pair 1

.altitudo -inis f. ----- height 2

.altus -a -um ----- high, deep. 1

.amicitia -ae f. ----- friendship. 1

.amicus -a -um ----- friendly, a friend 2

.amitto -mittere -misi missum ----- send away, dismiss 2

.amplus -a um ----- big large 1

.an particle ----- whether... or 1

.anceps -cipitis ----- two headed, ambivalent3

.angustiae -arum f. pl. ----- narrowness 3

.angustus -a -um ----- narrow small 2

.animadverto (animadvorto.) -vertere -verti -versum ----- turn toward 2

.animus -i m. ----- the mind 1

.annus -i m. ----- a year 1

.ante adv. of place and time ----- before 1

.aperio aperire aperui apertum. ----- open up 3

.appello -are ----- speak to to, address 3

.appello -pellere -puli -pulsum ----- drive to... 2

.appropinquo -are ----- approach 3

.aptus -a -um ----- well adjusted, fitting 3

.apud prep. with acc. ----- at,, near, in 1

.aqua -ae f. ----- water 1

.aquila -ae f. ----- eagle, standard of a legion3

.arbor (arbos) -oris f. ----- tree, wood 1

.arcesso. (accerso.) -ere -ivi -itum ----- summon up 4

.aridus -a -um ----- dry, arid 3

.arma -orum n. pl. ----- weapons 2

.armo -are ----- outfit with arms 3

.ascendo -scendere -scendi -scensum ----- climb up, embark 4

.atque at and ac ----- and, and also 1

.attingo. -tingere -tigi -tactum ----- touch 3

.auctoritas - atis f. ----- authority 3

.audax -acis ----- bold 2

.audeo -ere -ausus (semi dep.) ----- dare 1

.audio -ire ----- listen, hear. 2

.augeo. augere auxi. auctum. ----- make larger 3

.aut (aut....... aut) ----- either..... or 1

.autem adv. ----- however 1

.auxilium -i n. ----- aid 1

.averto (avorto.) -vertere -verti (-vorti) -versum (-vorsum) ----- turn away 3

.avis -is f. ----- bird 1

.barbarus -a -um ----- foreign 2

.bello -are and bellor -ari dep. ----- to wage war 2

.bellum -i n. ----- war 1

.beneficium -i n. ----- a favor 2

.biduum - i n. ----- period of two days 2

.bini -ae ----- two each, doubles2

.bis ----- twice 1

.bonus -a -um ----- good 1

.bracchium -i n. ----- arm f 2

.brevis -e ----- small in size, short in time 1

.cado cadere cecidi ----- fall down 1

.caedo caedere cecidi caesum ----- strike 1

.calamitas -atis f. ----- disaster 2

.calidus (caldus) -a -um ----- warm 3

.capio capere cepi captum ----- grasp, take 1

.captivus -a -um ----- captive 3

.caput -itis n. ----- head 1

.caro carnis f. ----- meat 2

.carrus -i m. ----- a waggon 5

.castellum -i n. ----- a fort 3

.castrum -i n. (usually castra -orum n. pl.) ----- military camp 1

.casus -us m. ----- falling, danger 1

.catena -ae f. ----- chain 2

.causa (caussa) -ae f. ----- cause case (legal) 1

.cautes -is f. ----- a rock 3

.caveo cavere cavi cautum ----- be careful 2

.cedo cedere cessi cessum ----- proceed ; withdraw 1

.celer -eris -ere ----- quick agile 1

.celeritas -atis f. ----- speed 2

.celo -are ----- hide 2

.centum ----- a hundred 3

.centurio -onis m. ----- centurion (sergeant) 3

.cerno. cernere crevi cretum ----- perceive 1

.certamen -inis n. ----- struggle, battle 2

.cibus. -i m. ----- food 2

.cingo cingere cinxi. cinctum. ----- encircle 1

.circiter adv. and prep. with acc. ----- about 3

.circuitus -us m. ----- circle 4

.circum adv. ----- around;1

.circumdo -dare -dedi -datum ----- place around, encircle2

.circumsisto -sistere -steti or -stiti ----- stand around 3

.circumvenio -venire -veni -ventum ----- surround 2

.citerior -ius ----- nearer, closer. 3

.civitas -atis f. ----- citizenship the state 1

.clam adv. ----- silently secretly 1

.clamor -oris m. ----- a loud shout 2

.classis - is f. ----- a class of society ; the fleet 2

.cliens -entis m. ----- client 2

.coepio* coepi coepere coepi coeptum. ----- to begin 1

.cognosco -gnoscere -gnovi -gnitum ----- to learn about 1

.cogo cogere coegi. coactum. ----- to bring together, force 1

.cohors -tis f. -tis f. ----- a troop of soldiers 1

.cohortor -ari dep. ----- to encourage 3

.collis -is m. ----- hill 2

.colloco -are ----- establish; place e 2

.colloquium -ii n. ----- conference 1

.colloquor -i ----- talk together, discuss2

.commeatus -us m. ----- trade commerce 2

.committo -mittere -misi -um ----- to bring together engage (in battle) 2

.commodus -a -um ----- convenient 2

.commoveo. -movere -movi -motum ----- to arouse, disturb 1

.communis. -e adj. ----- in common, public 1

.commmutatio -onis f. exchange 3

.comparo -are ----- to buy, prepare 1

.compello. -pellere -puli -pulsum ----- to drive together 2

.comperio -ire -i -itum ----- to find out, learn 2

.complector - i -plexus dep. ----- embrace grasp 1

.compleo - plere -plevi -pletum ----- to fill up,complete 1

.complures -ium ----- several, many 3

.comporto -are ----- collect 3

.concedo -cedere -cessi -cessum ----- to withdraw, yield 1

.concido -cidere -cidi -cisum ----- to cut up 2

.concilio -are ----- to bring together 5

.concilium -i n. ----- popular assembly, a council 2

.conclamo -are ----- to shout out 2

.concurro -currere -curri (or -cucurri) -cursum ----- to run together 1

.concursus -us m. ----- crowd 2

.condicio -onis f. ----- agreement,ontract2

.conduco -ducere -duxi -ductum ----- to collect, bring together 2

.confero - ferre -tuli -latum ----- to bring together 1

.confertus -a -um ----- crowded together 4

.confestim adv. ----- immediately, without delay 3

.conficio -ficere -feci -fectum ----- to do, perform, finish off (kill) 1

.confido -fidere -fisus sum ----- to trust 5

.confirmo - are ----- to make firm, strengthen 2

.congredior -gredi -gressus ----- to approach 3

.conicio -icere -ieci -ectum ----- to hurl together shoot 2

.coniungo - iungere -iunxi -iunctum ----- to join together, marry 1

.coniuro - are ----- conspire 2

.conor -ari dep. ----- to try 1

.consanguineus. -a -um ----- of a blood relative 3

.conscendo -scendere -scendi -scensum ----- get up on, mount2

.consector -ari dep. ----- to pursue3

.consentio -sentire -sensi -sensum ----- to agree with 2

.consequor -sequi -secutus dep. ----- to follow after 3

.consido -sidere -sedi -sessum ----- to sit down take up a position (mil.) 2

.consilium -i n. ----- counsel, a council 1

.consisto - sistere -stiti -stitum ----- to take a stand (2

.conspectus -a -um ----- visible, obvious 4

.conspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum ----- to see, perceive 2

.conspicor -ari dep. ----- to catch sight of 3

.constituo -stituere -stitui -stitutum ----- to place, locate 2

.consto -stare -stiti -statum ----- to stand still (i.e. stop) 1

.consuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum ----- to become used to.... 1

.consuetudo -inis f. ----- custom, habit 2

.consulo -sulere -sului -sultum ----- to consult, decide 3

.consumo -sumere -sumpsi -sumptum ----- to consume2

.contendo -tendere -tendi -tentum ----- to stretch out 2

.contineo -tinere -tinui -tentum ----- hold together, retain 1

.continuus -a -um ----- continuous, unbroken 2

.contra adv. ----- opposite against 1

.contraho -trahere -traxi -tractum ----- to draw in. contract 1

.contrarius -a -um ----- contrary, hostile2

.contumelia -ae f. ----- an insult 2

.convenio -venire -veni -ventum ----- to come together 1

.conventus -us m. ----- coming together, assembly 3

.converto -vertere -verti -versum ----- to turn over, convert 2

.convoco -are ----- to call together 4

.coorior -oriri -ortus dep. ----- to arise, attack 3

.copia -ae f. ----- supply, abundance a force (mil.) 1

.coram adv. ----- face to face 1

.cornu. -us n. ----- horn,tumpet horn,wing of an army 1

.corona -ae f. ----- crown ;a ring of soldiers 1

.corpus - poris n. ----- body corpse 1

.cotidianus or cottidianus. ----- daily 5

.cotidie adv. ----- daily 1

.creber - bra -brum ----- crowded, numerous 2

.creo -are ----- to create, produce 2

.cruciatus -us m. ----- torture 3

.cum (older form quom.) conj. ----- when; since 1

.cum prep. with abl. ----- with, together with 1

.cunctor -ari dep. ----- delay, linger 2

.cupidus -a -um ----- desiring, eager for... 2

.cupio cupere. cupivi. or -ii -itum ----- desire. want 1

.cur (archaic quor) ----- why? wherefore? 1

.curo -are ----- care for, take care of 1

.cursus. -us m. ----- a running, attack (mil.). 2

.de prep. with abl. ----- from, away from ; concerning..... 1

.debeo -ere -ui- itum ----- owe (money), ought 1

.decedo - cedere -cessi -cessum ----- go away, yield 2

.decem indecl. ----- ten 2

.decerto -are ----- fight, compete 3

.decimus (older decumus) -a -um ----- tenth 3

.decipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum ----- deceive cheat foil 2

.decurro -currere -cucurri or -curri -cursum ----- run, hurry along 1

.dedecus -oris n. ----- disgrace 2

.deditio -onis f. ----- surrender 2

.dedo dedere -didi -ditum ----- give over, surrender2

.deduco -ducere -duxi -ductum ----- lead away, 1

.defendo -fendere -fendi -fensum ----- ward off, defend; 1

.defero -ferre -tuli -latum ----- carry down, transport 1

.defessus -a -um ----- tired, worn out 2

.deficio -ficere -feci -fectum ----- fail, run out of. 2

.defigo -figere -fixi fixum ----- jam down 2

.deicio -icere -ieci -iectum ----- hurl down 2

.deinde and abbrev. dein ----- then afterwards next 2

.deligo -ligere -legi -lectum ----- pick out, select 3

.demonstro -are ----- point out, demonstrate 2

.demum ----- at (long) last, finally 2

.densus -a -um ----- thick,condensed2

.depono ponere posui (posivi) positum ----- place, locate 2

.desero -serere -serui -sertum ----- withdraw, abandon 2

.desilio -silire -silui -sultum ----- jump down dismount 3

.desisto -sistere -stiti -stitum ----- cease, desist 5

.despicio -spicere -spexi -spectum ----- look down, gaze over; despise 2

.desum -esse -fui ----- be lacking, fail 1

.

.deterior -ius genit. -oris. ----- worse 2

.deterreo -terrere -terrui -territum ----- frighten off, errify 3

.detraho -trahere -traxi -tractum ----- draw away, drag off remove 5

.detrimentum -i n. ----- harm, damage 5

.devenio -venire -veni -ventum ----- come upon, chance upon 2

.dexter -tera -terum (or -tra -trum) ----- right handed, lucky, favorable 1

.díco dicere dixi dictum ----- speak, say,declare 1

.dies -ei m. ----- day, daylight 1

.differo differe distuli dilatum ----- carry away, spread about 2

.difficultas -atis f. ----- difficulty; 5

.diligo -ligere -lexi -lectum ----- prize, love; like 2

.dimico -are -avi ----- fight. 3

.dimitto -mittere -misi -missum ----- send away dismiss. 2

.discedo -cedere -cessi -cessum ----- depart, go away, cease from... 1

.discessus -us m. ----- separation. departure ----- 3

.dispergo -spergere -spersi -spersum ----- spread about. scatter. extend 3

.dispono -ponere -ponui -positum ----- place.. locate,arrange 2

.disto -are ----- stand apart,be far from 2

.distribuo -uere -ui -utum ----- divide up. distribute 2

.diu adv. ----- for a long time. further. longer 1

.divido -videre -visi -visum ----- divide. distribute. separate 1

.do dare dedi datum ----- give. give (the right to...) grant 1

.doceo docere docui doctum ----- tell, inform, teach 1

.doleo dolere dolui ----- hurt grieve (impersonal it grieves.one)1

.domus -us f. ----- house, home 1

.dubito -are ----- question doubt that., be of two minds.., wonder about... 2

.ducenti -orum ----- two hundred 1

.duco ducere duxi ductum ----- lead, lead oneself to,... marry,consider 1

.dum adv. ----- in the meantime ; conj. while, since, as long as, until 1

.duo - ae -o ----- two 1

.duodecim ----- twelve 3

.duplex -plicis ----- double doubled dual 2

.durus -a -um ----- hard, harsh tough 1

.dux ducis c. ----- leader 1

.edo -dere- didi -ditum ----- put forth, bring forth, produce 1

.educo - are ----- lead forth bring forth (offspring) lead up from childhood, educate4

.efficio -ficere -feci -fectum ----- to make, manufacture, cause 1

.ego mei mihi me ----- I; plur. nos. (we) 1

.egredior -gredi -gressus ----- march out (mil.) go forth 1

.egregius -a -um ----- oustanding. distinguished 2

.emo emere emi emptum ----- buy. purchase, gain 1

.enim conj. ----- indeed, to be sure... indeed, yes (as an answer) 1

.enuntio -are ----- announce, reveal, disclose 3

.eo adv. ----- to this point, so far, thus far; therefore 1

.eo ire ivi and ii itum ----- go, proceed 1

.eques -itis m. ----- horseback rider; of the "equestrian" order = knight 1

.equester -stris -stre ----- equestrian ; "equestrian" class of Roman nobility 3

.equitatus -us m. ----- cavalry 3

.equus -i m. ----- horse 2

.eruptio -onis f. ----- bursting forth (fire water etc.), assault (mil.) 3

.et ----- and. (et.... et.... = Engl. "both...and...."). 1

.etiam ----- still, and yet, besides, also 3

.etsi ----- even if,although 2

.evado -vadere -vasi -vasum ----- go out, come away,escape 1

.evenio -venire -veni -ventum ----- come forth, come about,happen 2

.eventus -us m. ----- outcome, consequence 2

.evoco -are ----- call out, summon, arouse 2

.ex or e prep. with abl. ----- out of, from, away from; according to....1

.exanimo -are ----- kill, kill with fear 3

.excedo -cedere -cessi -cessum ----- go away, withdraw 1

.excipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum ----- take out, ; receive (attack blows assault) 1

.exeo -ire -ii (-ivi) -itum ----- go out,come out, emerge escape 1

.exercitatio -onis f. ----- exercise, practice 3

.exercitus -us m. ----- army, training 2

.existimo (existumo) -are ----- put a value on price; judge 2

.expedio - ire -ivi and ii -itum ----- to free from fetters; let loose 1

.expello -pellere -puli -pulsum ----- drive out, force forth, expel 2

.experior -periri -pertus dep. ----- try, test test, experience 2

.explorator -oris m. ----- scout, spy 2

.exploro -are ----- explore, inquire 2

.expugno -are ----- capture (a town) (mil.) mbreak down; 2

.exspecto -are ----- wait for m await m exspect2

.exstruo -struere -struxi -structum ----- pile up, heap up 3

.facilis -e ----- easy 1

.facio facere féci factum (the pass. is fio; q.v.). ----- do, make, build, create 1

.facultas -atis f. ----- faculty, power ; resources 2

.familiaris -e ----- belonging to the household, personal, friendly. 2

.faveo favere favi fautum ----- be favorably disposed towardm partial to 2

.fere adv. ; also ferme ----- almost m just about, virtually2

.fero ferre with perf. tuli latum ----- bear, carry ; betake oneself 1

.ferreus - a -um ----- made of iron, steel; (hence) hard as iron = unfeeling 2

.ferus -a -um ----- wild (of animals) savage, violent 2

.fides -ei f. ----- faith, trust, good-faith 1

.filius -i m. ----- son 2

.fingo fingere finxi fictum ----- mould,shape,create ;magine 2

.finis -is m. ----- boundary; territory; a limit termination death 1

.finitimus and finitumus -a -um ----- near,, neighboring, (as noun in pl.) neighbors) 2

.fio fieri factus sum (used as pass. of facio). ----- happen, take place, occur 1

.firmus -a -um ----- firm strong, 3

.flagito -are ----- demand, request strongly 2

.fleo flere flevi fletum: intransit. ----- weep, cry,wail 1

.floreo -ere -ui ----- flower, bloom, flourish 2

.fluctus -us m. ----- waves 3

.flumen -inis n. ----- river; flood; 1

.fluo fluere fluxi fluxum ----- flow, pour out 1

.fortis -e ----- strong, forceful,powerful 1

.fortuna -ae f. ----- "Fortune", luck, chance; as a diety: Fortuna 1

.fossa -ae f. ----- ditch, drainage ditch; trench (mil.) 2

.frater -tris m. ----- brother ; comrade 1

.fraternus -a-um ----- of a brother, brotherly 4

.fremitus -us m. ----- roar, rumble 5

.frons frontis f. ----- forehead, brow, the front of... 2

.frumentarius -a -um ----- pertaining to the grain supply 2

.frumentum -i n. ----- grain, the grain supply 2

.frustra adv. ----- in vain 1

.fuga -ae f. ----- flight, retreat 1

.fugio fugere fugi fugitum ----- flee, retreat 1

.funis -is m. ----- rope, cable 3

.genus -eris n. ----- birth, race; tribe 1

.gero gerere gessi gestum ----- carry on, do, perform1

.gladius -i ----- a sword;,warefare 1

.gratia -ae f. ----- grace, favor, goodwill 1

.gravis -e ----- heavy, ponderous, serious 1

.gravo -are ----- make heavy, burden, aggravate 2

.gubernator -oris m. ----- pilot, helmsman (of a ship); director 4

.habeo -ere -ui -itum ----- have, hold hold on to ; consider believe 1

.hibernus -a -um ----- of winter, wintery.. 3

.hic haec hoc ----- this one (here) the nearer one (as against ille) 1

.hiemo -are ----- spend the winter, winter-over 2

.hiems (hiemps) -emis f. ----- winter storm; stormy weather 1

.homo -inis ----- a human being, person (male or female) 1

.hora ae f. ----- hour of the day, time of day, an hours time; season 1

.hortor -ari dep. ----- encourage, urge on; incite 2

.hospes -pitis m. and hospita -ae f. ----- host, guest, stranger, a visitor 1

.hospitium -i n. ----- hospitality, entertainment,an inn 2

.hostis -s m. ----- stranger, foreigner; the enemy (mil.) 1

.humilis -e ----- low, lowly humble; ignoble 1

.iacio iacere ieci iectum ----- hurl, throw with force 3

.iam adv. ----- now, already; soon 1

.ibi adv. ----- there, at that place 1

.idem eadem idem adj. ----- the same, same, the very same 1

.idoneus -ea -eum ----- suitable, fitting,good for... 1

.ignis -is m. ----- fire; 1

.ignosco -ere -vi -tum ----- pardon, excuse1

.ille illa illud ----- that, that over there as opposed to hic "this over here.1

.immitto -ere -misi -misum ----- send in, let loose, lhurl 2

.impedimentum -i n. ----- an obstacle. hindrance; heavy baggage (mil.) 2

.impedio -ire ----- obstruct im-pede; block. 2

.impello -ere -puli -pulsum ----- drive on, impel 2

.imperium -ii n. ----- a command, military command; the "Empire"1

.impero -are ----- make demands; give orders, command. 1

.impetro -are ----- ask for (and receive...); request, obtain. 1

.impetus -us m. ----- forward thrust, attack; 2

.imploro -are ----- appealfor aid; implore 2

.impono -ere -sui -situm ----- put on top of, 1

.improvisus -a -um ----- unforeseen 3

.in - joined intensifying prefix ----- highly., more and more.... 1

.in - joined negativizing prefix ----- "not... ; un- 1

.in prep. ----- (with acc.) into, toward at.. ; (with abl.) in on. 1

.incendo -ere -endi -ensum ----- light a fire, kindle 2

.incido -ere --di -casum ----- throw oneself forward, rush headlong; (short -i-) 2

.incipio -ere -cept ceptum ----- begin; undertake 2

.incito -are ----- spur on; stimulate; stir-up 2

.incolo -ere --ui ----- inhabit, dwell in, live in... 2

.incolumis -e ----- unharmed, safe; intact 2

.incredibilis -e ----- unbelievable, not to be believed 2

.inde adv. ----- thence; hence, from that place 1

.induco -ere -xi -ctum ----- lead in, lead on, in-duce 1

.indulgeo -ere -ulsi -ulsum ----- be indulgent to... ; show kindness to.. 1

.ineo -ire -ivi -item ----- enter, enter into; 1

.inermis -e ----- unarmed, defenseless (mil.); pacifistic 3

.infero -ferre- tuli -latum ----- carry, carry forth, bring forth (troops); press forward1

.inferus -a -um ----- (comparative iinferior) - lower, downward2

.inicio -ere -ieci -iectum ----- throw forward, hurl at... 2

.initium -ii n. ----- start, beginning; origin1

.iniuria -iae f. ----- injustice, legal injuryŠ 1

.inopia -iae f. ----- lack, deprivation; needi 2

.insequor -i -cutus ----- follow after, pursue;1

.insidiae -ae f. pl. ----- traps, an ambush (mil.) 2

.insignis -e ----- "distinguished; (an n. noun) a badge2

.insisto -ere -stiti ----- pres forth, press on,insist on.; come to a stand-still 2

.instituo -uere -ui -utum ----- set up, establish, undertake 2

.insto are -stiti ----- stand forth, step forward; take a stand 1

.instruo -ere -uxi -uctum ----- draw up, arrange, organize; 2

.insula -ae f. ----- an island;2

.intellego -ere -exi -ectum ----- understand, figure out, comprehend 2

.inter prep with acc. ----- between, among 1

.intercedo ere -cessi -cessum ----- intervene, intercede 2

.intercludo -ere -cluse -clusum ----- close off, blockade (mil.),precent 2

.interdum adv. ----- from time to time, periodically 1

.interea adv. ----- meanwhile, in the meantime 1

.interficio -ere -feci -fectum ----- kill, destroy ; terminate 1

.interim adv. ----- meanwhile, in the "interim"1

.intermitto -ere -misi -missim ----- let stop, ; interrupt; let go. 2

.interpono -ere -sui ----- place inbetween; take part in.2

.intervallum i n. ----- a valley, a gap; interval of time 2

.intra ----- within, inside, within the area or time of...; (physically) within 1

.invito -are ----- invite, entertain, induce 2

.invitus -a -um ----- unwilling, against ones will 2

.ipse -a -um reflex. pron. ----- himself, herself, itself 1

.is ea id ----- he, she, it; this one (here nearer on this side) 1

.ita adv. ----- thus, really? (ita often fills in for yes) 1

.itaque adv. ----- and so,therefore 2

.item ----- in the same, way likewise 1

.iter itineris n. ----- road, a journey, march (mil.) 1

.iterum ----- again, a second time, over..,again 2

.iubeo iubere iussi iussum ----- order give orders 1

.iudico -are ----- try a case, judge. 1

.iugum -i n. ----- yoke to join animals; a draft pair; marriage (as if = coniugium) 1

.iungo iungere iunxi iunctum ----- join (under a yoke), combine, join in marriage 1

.iuro -are ----- swear, take an oath; promise;1

.ius iuris n. ----- law, the ""LAW" 1

.iustitia -ae f. ----- justice,equity 2

.iuvo -are iuvi iutum ----- help, aid; foster 1

.labor labi lapsus dep. ----- to glide, slide; slip 2

.laboro -are ----- work, take pains 2

.lac lactis n. ----- milk, sap, latex 2

.lacesso -ere -ivi -itum ----- provoke, attack; challenge 2

.lacrima (lacruma) -ae f. ----- a tear, weeping, lament1

.lacus - us m. ----- a lake, pond; 2

.lapis -idis m. ----- a stone; stone in general, masonry, gemstone 2

.largus -a -um ----- generous, liberal, lavish 1

.lateo -ere ----- be in hiding, hide, be invisible 2

.latitudo -inis ----- breadth (of an object); size 2

.latus -a -um ----- broad,, wide, extensive 1

.latus -eris n. ----- side, side in general; a wall 1

.legatio -onis f. ----- legation, an embassy; office of the "legatus" 2

.legio -onis f. ----- a Legion of Roman army,an army in general e 1

.legionarius -a -um ----- a soldier (belonging to a legion) 3

.lego -are ----- bestow. bequeath 2

.levis -e ----- light, quick, lightfooted (the -e- is short) 1

.líber -i m. as. pl. ----- children (the -i- is long) 1

.liberalis -e ----- of free men; (hence) honest " gentlemanly" 2

.libertas -tatis f-----. liberty freedom 2

.licet licuit licitum est impers.. vb. ----- it is permitted; it is clear that....; (as adv.) although2

.lingua -ae f. ----- tongue, speech, language 2

.littera (litera) -ae f. ----- letter (of the alphabet; a letter epistle); (pl.) literature; scholarship 1

.litus -oris n. ----- seashore, coast, beach 3

.XXXX

.locus -i m. ----- place, location. 1

.longinquus -a -um ----- remote, far off 2

.longus -a -um ----- long, large, tall1

.loquor loqui locutus dep. ----- talk, speak 1

.lux lucis f. ----- light, daylight daytime 1

.magistratus -us m. ----- magistracy; public officer2

.magnitudo -inis f. ----- size, expanse, volume 1

.magnus -a -um ----- big, large, great;1

.maleficium -i n. ----- wrongdoing 5

.mando -are ----- entrust (to someone) ; commission; order 1

.maneo manere mansi mansum ----- stay, wait remain; wait for (2

.manus -us f. ----- hand, anything like a hand; handle; a band = platoon 1

.mare -is n. ----- the Sea; (as mare nostrum=) Mediterranean Sea 1

.maritimus (maritumus) -a -um ----- of the sea; near the sea 3

.mater matris f. ----- mother 1

.materia -ae and materies -ei f. ----- wood, timber 1

.maturo -are: intransit. ----- ripen; mature; hasten 3

.maturus -a -um ----- ripe, mature; at the right time 1

.medius -a -um ----- middle, central,in-between 1

.memoria -ae ----- memory 1

.mensis -s m. ----- a month; menstrual cycle 3

.mercator -oris m. ----- merchant 3

.mereo -ere -ui -itum = mereor -eri -itus dep. ----- earn, get paid for, deserve 1

.miles -itis c. ----- soldier, private in the army 1

.militaris -e ----- military; a soldier; of military age 2

.mille ----- a thousand M 1

.minuo -uere -ui -utum ----- make less (minus) lessen ; weaken 2

.mirus -a -um ----- wonderful. extraordinary 1

.mitto -ere misi missum ----- send; let go hurl 1

.modus -i m. ---- measure, manner, way 2

.moles -is f. ----- a large rok lump of stone, earth; boulder; mass. 1

.mollis -e ----- soft, gentle mild; womanly 1

.moneo -ere ----- warn, remind; advise 1

.mons montis m. ----- a mountain, mountains 1

.mora -ae f. ----- delay, lost time; interval1

.moror -ari dep. ----- delay, check ; restrain 1

.mors mortis f. ----- death, Death (as a god) 1

.mos moris m. ----- custom, manner 2

.motus -us m. ----- motion motion of stars; movement of the body mind; any agitation or agitated act passion 2

.moveo movere movi motum ----- move make to move (caus.); change location = "move"; remove oust; disturb agitate provoke 1

.mulier -eris f. ----- woman wife (or mistress); a grown woman (as against girl = virgo) 1

.multitudo -inis f. ----- multitude, the population 1

.multus -a um ----- much, many, very much 1

.munio (moenio) -ire ----- build a defence, walls fortify; protect. 2

.munitio -onis f. ----- fortification, building up of defences 3

.munus (moenus) -eris n. ----- duty, official responsibility; funerary rites, gifts 1

.murus -i n. ----- wall, fortification; 1

.nam conj. ----- for indeed, because 1

.namque adv. ----- indeed, for sure 3

.nanciscor nancisci na(n)ctus dep. ----- get get possession of acquire1

.nascor -i natus dep. ----- be born; come into being 1

.natio -onis f. ----- birth; nation, race 3

.natura -ae f. ----- birth, origin; 'the way things are or come to be'2

.nauta -ae m. ----- sailor, mariner 1

.navigatio -onis f. ----- sailing, voyage 3

.navigo -are intrans. ----- sail, travel by boat, navigate 2

.navis -is f. ----- ship, boat 2

.ne (a negativizing particle enclitic) ----- "lest so that... not; not..." 1

.nec and neque ----- nor, neither...nor 1

.necessarius -a -um ----- necessary, required 2

.neco -are ----- kill, destroy 3

.neglego -legere -lexi -lectum ----- disregard,dismiss; neglect. 2

.negotium -i n. ----- work, business; a task;1

.nemo -inis c. ----- no one, nobody 1

.neque ----- nor, neither... nor; 1

.neuter -tra -trum ----- neither, neither the one (nor the other)2

.nihil or contr. nil ----- nothing, nothing at all. 1

.nisi ni conj. ----- unless, except 1

.nitor niti nisus or nixus dep. ----- lean, rest on, rely on;1

.nobilis -e ----- worth knowing; remarkable notable; 1

.nobilitas -atis f. ----- nobility 2

.noceo -ere ----- harm, hurt,injure 1

.nolo nolle nolui ----- wish...not; be unwilling 1

.nomen -inis n. ----- name ; a noun;1

.nominatim adv. ----- by name 3

.non adv. ----- not 1

.nonaginta ----- ninety 3

.nonne interrog. ----- is it not...? 1

.nonus -a-um ----- ninth, the ninth hour (roughly p.m.) 3

.nosco -ere novi notum ----- know, be acquainted with... 1

.noster -tra -trum ----- ours, of our family, nation 1

.novem ----- nine 2

.novus -a -um ----- new, novel, different; new = recent 1

.nox noctis f. ----- night (as against day)1

.nudo -are ----- bare, uncover ; expose 1

.nullus -a -um ----- none, not any1

.numerus -i m. ----- number, sum; quantity;1

.nuntio -are ----- announce, give orders inform; make a report 1

.nuntius -i m. ----- a messenger; military messenger; information 1

.nutus -us m. ----- a nod (as a signal) 3

.ob prep. with acc. ----- towards, in front of, up against; because of..... 1

.obicio -icere -ieci -iectum ----- hurl forth throw at; 1

.obses -sidis c. ----- a hostage;1

.obsidio -onis f. ----- blockade, seige 3

.obtineo -tinere -tinui -tentum ----- hold on, stay remain; obtain 1

.occasio -onis f. ----- occasion, the right moment; a good chance 2

.occasus -us m. ----- a chance opportunity; setting of the sun, downfall 2

.occído -cidere -cidi -cisum ----- cut down, kill (long -i-) 2

.occulo -are ----- cover, hide conceal 2

.occupo -are ----- occupy, take possession of; take over 1

.occurro -currere -curri -cursum ----- run up to, go to meet; confront 1

.Oceanus -i m. ----- the ocean, sea 3

.octavus -a -um ----- eighth 2

.octingenti -ae -a ----- eight hundred 5

.octoginta ----- eighty 2

.officium -i n. ----- office = service, act of service; function;1

.omnino adv. ----- all in all, altogether; in general 1

.omnis -e ----- all, entire, whole; complete; 1

.onerarius -a -um ----- burdened, carrying i.e. cargo (ships) 5

.onus -eris n. ----- a burden, weighty load; 1

.opera -ae f. ----- work, a job 1

.opinio -onis f. ----- opinion, belief 2

.oportet -tere -tuit impers. ----- ought, should ought to...; 1

.oppidum -i n. ----- a town, a provincial township (a Gaulish-Celtic word). 2

.opportunus -a -um ----- suitable, opportune; timely 2

.opprimo -ere -pressi -pressum ----- press, crush, oppress 2

.oppugnatio -onis f. ----- attack on a walled town 3

.oppugno -are ----- to attack, assault 2

.opus -eris n. ----- work; construction works 1

.oratio -onis f. ----- speaking; a public speech, an oration1

.ordo -inis m. ----- order, rank 2

.orior oriri ortus dep. ----- rise rise up; come into being1

.oro -are ----- pray (to gods); beseech (a person); make an "oration" 2

.ostendo -are ----- show, display, demonstrate 2

.paco -are ----- pacify, bring peace3

.paene adv. ----- nearly, almost 1

.paenitet -ere impersonal verb pers. sing. ----- it is regrettable, it pains one..... 2

.pagus -i m. ----- country area, borough 5

.palus -udis f. ----- marsh, swamp 2

.pando pandere pandi pansum ----- spread out ; open wide 2

.par paris adj. ----- equal, same; matched 1

.paro -are ----- purchase, get, get ready, prepare for 1

.pars partis f. ----- part, portion 1

.parum adv. ----- too little, insufficient, not enough 1

.parvus -a -um ----- small, insignificant 1

.passus -us m. ----- a pace, a 'stride' ; mille passum = one mile 2

.pateo -ere ----- lie open; be open 1

.pater -tris m. ----- father,forefather ; a "paterfamiliás" 1

.patior pati passus dep. ----- suffer, tolerate endure; 1

.paucus -a -um ----- few, small in number,just a few 1

.paulatim (paullatim) ----- gradually, little by little 3

.paulisper (paullisper) ----- for a little while 3

.paulum adv. ----- a little, a bit 1

.pax pacis f. ----- peace, a pact (concluding war), pecaetime1

.pecus -oris n. ----- herd of cattle ; a farm animal 2

.pedes -itis m. ----- pedestrian; a foot soldier, infantryman 2

.pedester -tris -tre adj. ----- pedestrian; walking ; of infantry 2

.pellis -is f. ----- skin; skin as leather a hide; parchment 2

.pello -ere pepuli pulsum ----- drive, push, strike 2

.pendo pendere pependi pensum ----- weigh; pay out, ; weigh = consider 1

.per prep. with acc. ----- through, along, during (a time) ; by means of... 1

.perago -agere -egi -actum ----- drive in every direction; drive on1

.perduco -ducere -duxi -ductum ----- bring through conduct;1

.perfero -ferre -tuli -latum ----- carry through, bring to the end, complete 1

.perficio -ere -feci -fectum ----- bring through to completion, finish; 1

.pergo ere -perrexi perrectum ----- go on, go first, proceed (in walking);1

.periculum (periclum) -i n. ----- danger 1

.peritus -a -um ----- experienced; an expert on... 2

.permitto -mittere -misi -missum ----- let go, release; hurl (a weapon) 2

.permoveo -movere -movi -motum ----- move, agitate stir; perturb 2

.perpetuus -a -um ----- continuous, uninterrupted; l permanent 1

.perspicio -spicere -spexi -spectum ----- look over, examine see into2

.persuadeo -suadere -suasi -suasum ----- persuade; be persuasive to/in... (Dative obj.) 1

.perterreo -ere ----- to completely terrify 5

.pertineo -tinere -tinui ----- reach, extend, pertain to 1

.perturbo -are ----- disorganize, confuse upset 2

.pervenio -venire -veni -ventum ----- arrive (come through); penetrate (= get through); r1

.pes pedis ----- foot, leg; a foot (measurement)1

.peto -ere -ivi -itus ----- seek, search for; ask or beg for, seek2

.phalanx -angis f. ----- an infantry formation in close array 3

.pilum -i n. ----- the javelin of the Roman infantry 3

.planus -a -um ----- flat level (geom.) plane; obvious plain 3

.plerusque -raque -rumque (plur. plerique -raeque -raque) ----- the greater number of, most most of... 2

.polliceor -eri -cirus dep. ----- promise; give a promise2

.pondus -eris n. ----- weight, a weight,mass load;1

.pono ponere posui (posivi) positum ----- place, locate 1

.pons pontis m. ----- a bridge 2

.populo -are and populor -ari dep. ----- plunder (actually= de-populo "depopulate"). 1

.populus -i m. ----- the people; nation; the "people" 1

.porta -ae f. ----- gate, city-gate; gateway; any doorway 1

.porto -are ----- carry,bear 2

.portus -us m. ----- port, harbor2

.posco poscere poposci ----- ask for strongly demand; request 1

.possum posse potui ----- be able, be able to...; 1

.post (older poste) adv. ----- after, afterwards, later; further on 1

.postea adv. ----- afterwards, next 1

.posterus (poster) -a -um ----- later, next; future 2

.postquam adv. ----- after.... 2

.postridie adv. ----- on the following day 2

.postulo -are ----- ask for, demand 2

.potestas -tatis f. ----- power, rule 1

.potior compar. adj. -neut. potius ----- more powerful = preferable; to be preferred... 2

.praebeo -bere -bui -bitum ----- set forth, put forth; provide 1

.praeceps -cipitis ----- head-first, headlong; rushing onwards 1

.praeda -ae f. ----- booty plunder, loot (mil.)1

.praedor -ari dep. ----- plunder, rob 3

.praefero -ferre -tuli -latum ----- carry out front;, consider first = prefer 1

.praeficio -ficere -feci -fectum ----- (place in front of), put in charge of (administrative). 2

.praemitto -ere -misi -misum ----- send ahead, dispatch 2

.praemium -ii n. ----- reward, prize 2

.praescribo -ere -scripsi -scriptum ----- prescribe, give orders... 3

.praesertim adv. ----- especially 2

.praesidium -ii n. ----- military garrison; protection 2

.praesto -are -stiti -stitum ----- stand out excel 2

.praesto adv/adj. ----- ready at hand, ready on the spot 1

.praesum -esse- fui ----- be ahead of = be in charge of 2

.praeter prep with acc. ----- along, past; besides 2

.praeterea conj. ----- beside, moreover 1

.premo premere pressi pressum ----- press crush; compress; 1

.pretium -i n. ----- price, value; ; prize; 1

.prex precis (usually plur:. preces) ----- a request, entreaty 2

.pridie adv. ----- on the day before 3

.primus -a -um ----- first foremost; earliest; nearest;1

.princeps -cipis adj. ----- first ; as noun: = leader ; a prince president1

.prior prius genit. -oris compar. adj. ----- first, prior, previous; ancient 1

.pristinus -a -um ----- ancient, old; original, pristine 3

.priusquam adv. ----- before, earlier than./.." 1

.privo -are ----- deprive of, prevent 2

.pro interj. (roughly equal to) ----- Oh my god! 3

.probo -are ----- approve commend1

.procedo -cedere -cessi -cessum ----- go ahead, go on, proceed;1

.procumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum ----- lean forward, incline forward; genuflectt2

.prodeo -ire -ii -itum ----- come forward; go forth 1

.produco -ducere -duxi -ductum ----- bring forward, forth; bring into view;1

.proelium -i n. ----- battle, fight; 1

.profectio -onis f. ----- origins; departure 5

.proficiscor -ficisci -fectus dep. ----- go forth, set out start on a trip; proceed;3

.profugio -fugere -fugi ----- flee, escape, run away 2

.progredior -gredi -gressus dep. ----- go forward, advance; proceed; go on to... 1

.prohibeo -ere ----- hold back hold off; prohibit prevent restrain 1

.proicio -icere -ieci -iectum ----- hurl, throw forth; rush advance rashly 1

.pronuntio -are ----- state, pronounce; speak out; relate 1

.pronus -a -um ----- bending forward, leaning forward; prone1

.prope adv. ----- close, near; closer; nearly = almost 1

.propero -are ----- rush, hurry be in haste; rush to (do something) 1

.propinquus -a -um ----- near, close by; neighboring; a relative2

.propono -ponere -posui -positum ----- set forth, expose, exhibit; 1

.propter adv and prep. ----- adv: near, beside; (prep. with acc.:) on account of because 1

.propterea adv. ----- on that account, therefore 2

.prosequor -sequi -secutus dep. ----- follow along with ; accompany; s 1

.provideo -videre -vidi -visum ----- see ahead, perceive in advance1

.provincia -ae f. ----- a Roman province 2

.publicus -a -um ----- of the public, of the people, public1

.puer -i m. ----- boy, son; child (boy or girl); "boy" = slave 1

.pugna -ae f. ----- -fight any fight; battle (mil.); 1

.pugno -are ----- fight, battle; engage in battle (mil.); contend 1

.puppis -is f. ----- the poop of a ship; a ship 2

.puto -are ----- think, consider, think about 1

.quadraginta ----- forty 4

.quadringenti ----- four hundred (the numeral)3

.quaero quaerere quaesii or quaesivi quaesitum ----- seek, look for, ask for... 1

.quaestor -oris m. ----- a magistrate, the "quaestor" 1

.quam adv. ----- than 1

.quamvis ----- as much as you please 2

.quantus -a -um ----- how great? how much? 1

.quartus -a -um ----- fourth (in order rank etc.) 2

.quaterni -ae -a ----- four at a time four each 3

.quattuor ----- four 2

.quattuordecim ----- fourteen 2

.que enclitic conj. ----- and; (repeated) -que...-que : both...and... 1

.queror queri questus dep. ----- complain, lament; ; protest 1

.qui quae quod "relative". adj. ----- which, what, what kind of 1

.quicumque (quicunque) quaecumque quodcumque ----- whosoever, whatsoever, whatever 1

.quidam quaedam quodam ----- a certain person or thing 1

.quidem ----- indeed; ne....quidem ----- not even... 1

.quin ----- (in questions) why not?; but that... 2

.quindecim ----- fifteen 3

.quingenti -ae -a ----- five hundred 3

.quini -ae -a ----- five each" 3

.quinquaginta ----- fifty 3

.quinque ----- five 1

.quintus -a -um ----- fifth; one fifth 2

.quis quae quod (in questions quid?) ----- "somebody, anybody" ; = aliquis 2

.quisquam quaequam quidquam (quicquam) ----- anybody anyone anything 2

.quisque quaeque quidque ----- each one, each person (or thing)2

.quivis quaevis quidvis (adj. quodvis) ----- whosoever, whatsoever 5

.quoad conj. ----- up to the point that... until 3

.quod conj. ----- the fact that the point that; as to the fact that; (often=)because 1

.quominus ----- so that not 3

.quoniam ----- since whereas because 2

.quoque placed after the word it emphasizes ----- also too 1

.radix -icis f. ----- root base origin; source 2

.rarus -a -um reticulated (like a nat); airy spacey; (rarely) rare 2

.ratio -onis f. ----- reason reasoning; adding numbers up... 1

.ratis -is f. ----- a raft; a craft a boat 2

.recens -entis ----- new fresh recent; vigorous 2

.recipio -cipere -cepi -ceptum ----- receive, take in; accept; 3

.recuso -are ----- refuse reject; decline to...; oppose... 2

.reddo -dere -didi -ditum ----- hand over; give back, return 1

.redeo -ire -ii (-ivi) -itum ----- go back, come back, return; 1

.redigo -ere -egi -actum ----- drive back, bring down; reduce 2

.redimo -imere -emi -emptum ----- buy back, buy up; pay a ransom1

.reduco -ducere -duxi -ductum ----- bring back; retreat (mil.); bring back = recall to mind 1

.refero referre rettuli relatum ----- bring back,return, carry back; withdraw (mil.); report1

.reficio -ficere -feci -fectum ----- make over, re-do, restore, repair 2

.regio -onis f. ----- direction, area; region 1

.regnum -i n. ----- realm, the kingly power; sovreignty; a kingdom (see rex). 1

.reicio -icere -ieci -iectum ----- throw, hurl,shove;. reject; 1

.relinquo -linquere -liqui -lictum ----- leave, leave behind; depart from. 1

.reliquus (relicus) -a -um ----- the rest, the remainder 1

.remaneo -manere -mansi -mansum ----- to remain,, stay, continue 2

.remitto -mittere -misi -missum ----- send back,return; push back; 1

.removeo -movere -movi -motum ----- move away remove; banish1

.remus -i m. ----- an oar 3

.renovo -are ----- renew, repair; fix up as good as new 4

.renuntio -are ----- report back report 2

.repello -ere ----- drive back ward off repel(mil.) 2

.repentinus -a -um ----- sudden 2

.reperio -ire -per -pertum ----- find. find out (by inquiring)2

.reprehendo -ere -di -nsum ----- grasp grab back get a hold on; 2

.res rei f. ----- A "thing", wealth = property, an estate; goods; the "Res-publica" 1

.reservo -are ----- reserve; conserve; preserve 2

.resisto -sistere -stiti ----- stop, stay still; take a stand, oppose 1

.respicio -spicere -spexi -spectum ----- look back, look around for...;, think back upon.., 1

.respondeo -spondere -spondi -sponsum ----- answer, respond;1

.restituo -uere -ui -utum ----- set up,again renew restore1

.retineo -tinere -tinui -tentum ----- hold back, hold fast; check restrain; retain in mind 1

.reverto (revorto) -vertere -verti (dep.. revertor) ----- turn around, go back, return;. 1

.rex regis m. ----- King, ruler, prince 1

.ripa -ae f. ----- bank shore 3

.robur -oris n. ----- oak; hardwood timber, lumber; strength, force (mil.) 1

.rogo -are ----- ask, ask for, beg for, question.... 1

.rostrum -i n. ----- muzzle of an animal; prow of a ship; platform for speakers in Forum 2

.rumor -oris m. ----- noise, clamor tumult; gossip rumor 2

.rupes -is f. ----- rock, cliff 2

.rursus and rursum ----- backward, back; on the other hand; again 1

.saepe adv. ----- often, frequently 1

.saevio -ire -ii -itum ----- act savagely, be furious rage; roar at... 2

.sagitta -ae f. ----- arrow 2

.salus -utis m.. ----- health; safety" 2

.satis or sat ----- enough, sufficient; sufficiently1

.saucius -a -um ----- wounded, gashed; stricken 3

.saxum -i n. ----- a rock stone; stone as building material 1

.scio scire scivi or scii scitum ----- know; be aware of...; be aware that...; have knowledge of... 1

.scutum -i n. ----- a large shield 2

.secundus -a -um ----- (sequor) following, following after. ; favorable (of the wind).. 1

.sed ----- but however 1

.sedecim ----- sixteen 1

.semel adv. ----- once, one time 1

.senatus -us (or -i) m. ----- the senate 1

.sententia -ae f. ----- thought; an idea; an opinion; 1

.sentio sentire sensi sensum ----- perceive, feel sense; have a feeling about... 1

.septem ----- seven 3

.septentriones -um (pl.) m. ----- the north wind ; the Seven Stars of Ursa Major ; 2

.septimus (septumus) -a -um ----- seventh 4

.septingenti -ae -a ----- seven hundred 5

.septuaginta ----- seventy 5

.sequor sequi secutus dep. ----- follow (in place time or effect) 1

.servitus -utis f. ----- slavery, servitude 2

.sescenti -ae -a ----- six hundred; (as a typical round number!); countless 4

.sex ----- six 1

.sexaginta ----- sixty 3

.sextus -a -um ----- sixth 5

.si sin sive seu ----- if 1

.sic conj. ----- thus so in this manner1

.signum -i n. ----- a mark,sign seal; a sign portent; star 1

.silva -ae f. ----- a wood forest; a plantation grove 1

.simul ----- all together,as one; at the same time (as) 1

.simulatio -onis f. ----- an imitation; pretence 2

.sine prep. with abl. ----- without 1

.singuli -ae -a ----- single separate one at a time 1

.sinister -tra -trum ----- on the left hand; wrong perverse; unfavorable 1

.socius -a -um ----- allied, of a partner or partnership; as noun an ally partner1

.sol solis m. ----- the sun 1

.solus -a -um ----- sole, only; alone; lonely 1

.soror -oris ----- a sister 1

.sors sortis f. ----- lot drawing lots; ones "lot"; destiny fate 1

.spatium -i n. ----- space; open space; space of time; time 1

.species -ei f. ----- sight, seeing; appearance 1

.specto -are ----- look at, watch; inspect 1

.spero -are ----- hope, for hope; wish, desire 1

.spes -ei f. ----- hope, ; hope = (Deity) 1

.sponte adv.----- of ones own free will, spontaneously (sua sponte)1

.statim adv. ----- steadfastly; (more often) on the spot at once 1

.statio -onis f. ----- a standing still; a place of abode; post station (mil.) 2

.statuo -uere -ui -utum ----- set down place locate; stand still 1

.stipendium -i n. ----- a soldiers pay (annual); military service2

.strepitus -us m. ----- any harsh noise, from clatter to crackle 2

.studeo -ere -ui ----- to be eager take pains strive after 1

.studium -i n. ----- zeal, eagerness, application with enthusiasm 1

.sub prep. ----- under, beneath, below; ; after (in time); 1

.subduco -ducere -duxi -ductum ----- pull up, slide up; beach a ship; withdraw (troops) 1

.subeo -ere -ii or -ivi -itum ----- go under, pass under; undergo; come up to 2

.subicio -icere -ieci -iectum ----- shoot up, hurl up; put down below 1

.submitto -ere ----- let grow, permit; hold up hands (in prayer); 1

.subsequor -sequi -secutus dep. ----- follow after, follow up on; follow along... 1

.subsidium -i n. ----- aid, help, protection; reserve troops; reinforcements (mil.) 2

.succedo -cedere -cessi -cessum ----- move down under; come up to; advance up to2

.sui (gen.) sibi se reflective pron. ----- "himself herself.... self" 1

.sum esse fui (futurus) ----- be 1

.sumo -ere sumpsi sumptum ----- take up, pick up, take 2

.superbus -a -um ----- proud, haughty, prideful; "snotty" 2

.supero -are ----- climb on up above,conquer, dominate; be left over 2

.supersum ----- a) be over on top of; be superior to; b) remain survive; be available. 1

.superus -a -um ----- above, higher, aloft; (as noun) the Gods. " 1

.supplex -icis ----- on bended knee, entreating suppliant 1

.supra adv. ----- above on top; higher; over. ; As prep. with acc. above on top; higher 1

.suscipio -ere -cepi -ceptum ----- take up, undertake, take in hand grasp1

.suspicio -ere -exi -ectum ----- look up at; regard with esteem; 3

.suspicor -are ----- have an idea of, have an inkling of ; suspect (as guilty) 2

.sustineo -ere -ui ----- hold up, support, sustain;,hold on, endure 2

.suus -a -um ----- his her its theirs... So called 'reflexive adj.'..1

.tam adv. ----- so, so much, so far, such a.. 1

.tamen adv. ----- however, yet,still (on the other hand) nevertheless 1

.tandem adv. ----- at last, at long last, finally. 1

.tantus -a um ----- of such a (great) size; so great; so large.1

.tardus -a -um ----- slow; lazy, late2

.telum -i n. ----- weapon; sword knife; arrow javelin 2

.temere adv. ----- rashly blindly 1

.tempero -are ----- to moderate; be moderate control oneself 4

.tempestas -atis f ----- time, season; the bad season= storm time; storms2

.tempto -are ----- test; try out feel; attempt to 1

.tempus -oris n. ----- a) time time of the year (season); "the times"; b) the temples of the head.1

.teneo -ere -ui -entum ----- hold; grasp, grip; get a hold on 1

.ter adv. ----- three times; thrice 1

.tergum -i n ----- the back; the hide or skin, of the back on an animal1

.terni -ae -a ----- three at a time, threefold 3

.terra -ae f. ----- the land, the earth; the ground; Earth (the planet) the world 1

.tertius -a -um ----- third1

.testudo -ionis f. ----- shell of a turtle; shell (as ornaments); a military "shell"; the lyre 2

.timeo -ere -ui ----- fear, be afraid; be scared badly 1

.timidus -a -um ----- fearful, timid. 3

.timor -ris m. ----- fear, dread 2

.tollo tollere sustuli sublatum ----- lift up, pick up; hold up hold aloft1

.totidem adv. ----- just so many, just as many 2

.totus -a -um ----- all, entire, whole; complete 1

.trabs -bis f. ----- trunk of a tree;,beam plank;, timber of a boat; a boat; roof 2

.trado -ere tradidi traditum ----- hand over, give over; 1

.traduco -ere -duxi -ductum ----- lead over, convert; change; transfer.2

.traho -ere -traxi tractum ----- drag hail pull; bring along; bring to... ; draw forth 1

.trans prep. ----- With acc.: across, over 1

.transeo -ire -ivi or ii -itum ----- pass over go beyond; transgress; pass over, ignore 2

.transporto -are ----- transport, carry across (the sea) 5

.trecenti -ae -a ----- three hundred 3

.tredecim ----- "thirteen"3

.tres ----- three 1

.tribunus -i m. ----- tribune (the Roman official). 2

.triduum -i n. ----- a three days period 2

.triginta ----- thirty 2

.triplex -icis ----- threefold triple 5

.tuba -ae f. ----- a straight trumpet 1

.tum tunc adv. ----- then. at that time Cum... tum... ="not only... but also..... 1

.tumulus -i m ----- a mound hillock; a burial mound 3

.turris -is f. ----- tower of a citidel; fortified military tower; bower 2

.ubi ----- when; where 1

.ubique adv. ----- everywhere1

.ulciscor -isci ultus ----- avenge; wreak vengeance on; punish 2

.ullus -a -um ----- any1

.ulterior -ioris ----- more distant, further removed; next; farthest 1

.ultra prep. ----- beyond. 1

.ultro adv. and prep. with acc. ----- further, on the farther side; furthermore1

.unde adv. ----- from where.... whence " 1

.undecem num. ----- eleven" 2

.undique adv. ----- from all sides 1

.unus -a -um ----- one 1

.urgeo -ere ursi (urgueo) ----- press urge; urge on; press on hard (mil.); crowd around1

.usus -us m. ----- use; possession and use; usage 1

.ut uti ----- a) that; so that; how how as that.; b) as.. 1

.uter -ra -rum ----- either; either one (of two!);which whichever. 1

.uterque utraque utrumque ----- either one (of a set of two) 2

.utilis -is ----- useful; servicable; profitable effective 3

.utor uti usus dep. ----- use, make us of (obj. in abl.), employ;. 1

.vaco -are ----- be empty vacant (of land) be destitute of. needy. 2

.vacuus -ua -uum ----- empty, unoccupied2

.vadum -i n. ----- a ford on a river; shallows hoals, the sea seas 1

.vagor -ari ----- wander roam about 2

.valeo -ere -ui ----- be healthy, strong; prevail, win out; have the strength to... 1

.valles -is f. ----- valley, vale, a hollow 3

.vallum -i n. ----- a palisade (wooden poles); fortification (mil.) 2

.varius -a -um ----- varied; varied in nature number or color 1

.vasto -are ----- lay waste, ravage, devastate 2

.vel adv. ----- or (As "vel... vel... " = "either.. or").1

.velox -ocis ----- fast speedy quick. 1

.velum -i n. ----- sail, sailcloth, cloth covering 1

.velut veluti adv. conj. ----- just as, as if just,as if... 1

.vendo -ere vendidi venditum ----- sell; be up for sale hireable 1

.venio -ire véni ventum ----- come (with many sub-meanings) 1

.ventus -i m. ----- sailing wind; breeze; the changeable wind 1

.verbum -i n. ----- a word There are any idiomatic uses..1

.vereor -eri -itus ----- be afraid fear; be respectful to respect ("I fear that" is vereor ne.+subj.) 1

.vergo -ere versi versum ----- incline slide down; incline toward..(an idea person)2

.verso -are ----- turn around spin about; turn (over the earth); veer 2

.verto -ere versi versum ----- revolve, rotate; spin. 1

.verus -a -um ----- true; truthful; factual; honest nd decent. 1

.vesper -eris (or -eri)m. ----- the evening; the evening star; the West 2

.vestigium -i n. ----- footprint; track; trace vestige; imprint (2

.vetus -eris ----- old, aged, experienced; ancient 1

.vexo -are ----- shake, shake up; annoy vex 2

.via -ae f. ----- road, roadway; highway; path. A "way "= means to do... 1

.victor -oris m. ----- conqueror2

.victoria -ae f. ----- victory; conquest 3

.victus -us m. ----- food, nourishment for life (vivo) 2

.vicus -i m. ----- a village; section, district of a town 2

.video -ere vidi visum ----- see. perceive 1

.vigilia -iae f. ----- being awake, insomnia; a "watch" (mil); vigilance carefulness 1

.viginti ----- twenty (2

.vincio -ire vinxi vinctum ----- bind tie up; encompass 2

.vinco -ere víci victum ----- conquer win over; subdue 1

.vinea -ae f. ----- vineyard vine-shed; protective shed for soldiers attacking a fortification 2

.vir -i m. ----- a (grown) man. adult male; husband; 1

.virtus -tutis f. ----- manliness courage, manly strength = "virtue"1

.vis acc. vim; abl. vi. n. pl. vires -ium etc. ----- power violence; a military "force" 1

.vix adv. ----- hardly, barely, scarcely 1

.volo velle volui ----- wish; want desire; desire that... ; require 1

.voluntas -tatis f. ----- will,wish, desire; preference 1

.vox -cis f. ----- voice; sound of a voice; a word 1

.vulgus -i n. ----- the common people; the public; a crowd; the rabble 1

.vulnero -are ----- wound 2

.vulnus -eris n. ----- a wound2