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Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar

.eds. J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, Ginn and Company, 1903



SECTION:#1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English (which is in fact borrowed from it) except that it does not contain J, U, and W.

NOTE 1.--The Latin alphabet was borrowed in very early times from a Greek alphabet (though not from that most familiar to us) and did not at first contain the letters G and Y. It consisted of capital letters only, and the small letters with which we are familiar did not come into general use until the close of the eighth century of our era.

NOTE 2.--The Latin names of the consonants were as follows:-B, be (pronounced bay); C, ce (pronounced kay); D, de (day); F, ef; G, ge (gay); H, ha; K, ka; L, el; M, em; N, en; P, pe (pay); Q, qu (koo); R, er; S, es; T, te (tay); X, ix; Z, zeta (the Greek name, pronounced dzayta). The sound of each vowel was used as its name.

The character C originally meant G, a value always retained in the abbreviations C. (for Gaius) and Cn. (for Gnaeus).

NOTE.--In early Latin C came also to be used for K, and K disappeared except before a in a few words, as Kal. ( Kalendae), Karthago. Thus there was no distinction in writing between the sounds of g and k. Later this defect was remedied by forming (from C) the new character G. This took the alphabetic place formerly occupied by Z, which had gone out of use. In Cicero's time (see N. D. 2.93), Y (originally a form of V) and Z were introduced from the ordinary Greek alphabet to represent sounds in words derived from the Greek, and they were put at the end of the Latin alphabet.

I and V were used both as vowels and as consonants (see Sect: 5).

NOTE.--V originally denoted the vowel sound u (oo), and F stood for the sound of our consonant w. When F acquired the value of our f, V came to be used for the sound of w as well as for the vowel u.

In this book i is used for both vowel and consonant i, u for vowel u, and v for consonant u:-ius, vir, iuvenis.

..Classification of Sounds

SECTION:#2. The simple Vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y.

The Diphthongs are ae, au, ei, eu, oe, ui, and, in early Latin, ai, oi, ou. In the diphthongs both vowel sounds are heard, one following the other in the same syllable.

SECTION:#3. Consonants are either voiced ( sonant) or voiceless ( surd). Voiced consonants are pronounced with the same vocal murmur that is heard in vowels; voiceless consonants lack this murmur.

1. The voiced consonants are b, d, g, l, r, m, n, z, consonant i, v.

2. The voiceless consonants are p, t, c (k, q), f, h, s, x.

SECTION:#4. Consonants are further classified as in the following table:


Voiced ( mediae) b d g

Mutes Voiceless ( tenues) p t c (k, q)

Aspirates phth ch

Nasals m n n (before c, g, q)

Liquids l, r

Fricatives (Spirants) fs, z

Sibilants s, z

Semivowels v consonant i

Double consonants are x (= cs) and z (= dz); h is merely a breathing.

1. Mutes are pronounced by blocking entirely, for an instant, the passage of the breath through the mouth, and then allowing it to escape with an explosion (distinctly heard before a following vowel). Between the explosion and the vowel there may be a slight puff of breath (h), as in the Aspirates (ph, th, ch).

2. Labials are pronounced with the lips, or lips and teeth.

3. Dentals (sometimes called Linguals) are pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching or approaching the upper front teeth.

4. Palatals are pronounced with a part of the upper surface of the tongue touching or approaching the palate.

5. Fricatives (or Spirants) are consonants in which the breath passes continuously through the mouth with audible friction.

6. Nasals are like voiced mutes, except that the mouth remains closed and the breath passes through the nose.

SECTION:#5. The vowels i and u serve as consonants when pronounced rapidly before a vowel so as to stand in the same syllable.Consonant i has the sound of English consonant y; consonant u (v) that of English consonant w.

Consonant i and u (v) are sometimes called Semivowels.

NOTE 1.--The Latin alphabet did not distinguish between the vowel and consonant sounds of i and u, but used each letter ( I and V) with a double value. In modern books i and u are often used for the vowel sounds, j and v for the consonant sounds; but in printing in capitals J and U are avoided: IVLIVS ( Iulius). The characters J and U are only slight modifications of the characters I and V. The ordinary English sounds of j and v did not exist in classical Latin, but consonant u perhaps approached English v in the pronunciation of some persons.

NOTE 2.--In the combinations qu, gu, and sometimes su, u seems to be the consonant (w). Thus, aqua, anguis, consuetus (compare English quart, anguish, suave). In these combinations, however, u is reckoned neither as a vowel nor as a consonant.


SECTION:#6. Latin spelling varied somewhat with the changes in the language and was never absolutely settled in all details.

Thus, we find lubet, vorto, as earlier, and libet, verto, as later forms. Other variations are optumus and optimus, gerundus and gerendus.

The spelling of the first century of our era, known chiefly from inscriptions, is tolerably uniform, and is commonly used in modern editions of the classics.

After v (consonant u), o was anciently used instead of u ( voltus, servos), and this spelling was not entirely given up until the middle of the first century of our era.

The older quo became cu in the Augustan period; in the second century of our era the spelling quu established itself in some words:

cum, older quom;equos, ecus, later equus; sequontur, secuntur, later sequuntur; similarly exstinguont, exstingunt, later exstinguunt.

NOTE.--In most modern editions the spelling quu is adopted, except in cum.

Between consonant i and a preceding a, e, o, or u, an i was developed as a transient sound, thus producing a diphthong ai, ei, etc., before the consonant i. In such cases but one i was written: as, aio (for ai-io), maius (for *mai-ius), peius (for *pei-ius).

Similarly in compounds of iacio but one i was written (as, con-icio, not con-iicio); but the usual pronunciation probably showed consonant i followed by vowel i (see Sect: 11. e).

NOTE.--Some variations are due to later changes in Latin itself, and these are not now recognized in classical texts.

1. Unaccented ti and ci, when followed by a vowel, came to be pronounced alike; hence nuntio was later spelled with a c and dicio with a t.

2. The sound of h was after a time lost and hence this letter was often omitted (as, arena for harena) or mistakenly written (as, humor for umor).

3. The diphthong ae early in the time of the Empire acquired the value of long open e (about like English e in there), and similarly oe after a time became a long close e (about like the English ey in they); and so both were often confused in spelling with e: as, coena or caena for the correct form cena.


SECTION:#7. Every Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs:


aci-ce, mo-ne, fi-li-us, fe-ro-ci-ta-te.

In the division of words into syllables a single consonant (including consonant i and v) between two vowels is written and pronounced with the following vowel. Doubled consonants are separated:

pa-ter, mi-li-tes, in-iu-ri-a, di-vi-do; mit-to, tol-lo.

NOTE 1.--Some extend the rule for single consonants to any consonant group (as sp, st, gn) that can begin a word. In this book, dix-it, sax-um, etc. are preferred to di-xit, sa-xum; the pronunciation was probably dic-sit, sac-sum.

NOTE 2.--A syllable ending with a vowel or diphthong is called open: all others are called close. Thus in pa-ter the first syllable is open, the second close.

In compounds the parts are separated:

ab-est, ob-latus, dis-cerno, du-plex, di-sto.


SECTION:#8. The so-called Roman Pronunciation of Latin aims to represent approximately the pronunciation of classical times.

VOWELS: a as in father

e as in idea

e as eh? (prolonged)

a as in date

e as in eh? (clipped) or e in net.

i as in machine


ae like ay

ei as in eight

oe like oy in boy

eu as eh'oo

au like ow in now

ui as oo'ee.

Consonants are the same as in English, except that

c and g are as in come, get, never as in city, gem.

s as in sea, lips, never as in ease.

Consonanta; i is like y in young

v (consonant u) like w in wing.

nasalization of the preceding vowel, which was also lengthened; and final m in an unaccented syllable probably had a similar nasalizing effect on the preceding vowel.

ph, th, ch, are properly like p, t, k, followed by h (which may, for convenience, be neglected); but ph probably became like (or nearly like) f soon after the classical period, and may be so pronounced to distinguish it from p.

z is as dz in adze.

bs is like ps

bt is like pt.

NOTE. Latin is sometimes pronounced with the ordinary English sounds of the letters. The English pronunciation should be used in Roman names occurring in English (as, Julius Caesar); and in familiar quotations, as, e pluribus unum; viva voce; vice versa; a fortiori; veni, vidi, vici, etc.


SECTION:#9. The Quantity of a Vowel or a Syllable is the time occupied in pronouncing it. Two degrees of Quantity are recognized, long and short.

In syllables, quantity is measured from the beginning of the vowel or diphthong to the end of the syllable.

SECTION:#10. Vowels are either long or short by nature, and are pronounced accordingly (Sect: 8).

A vowel before another vowel or h is short: as in via, nihil.

A diphthong is long: as in aedes, foedus. So, also, a vowel derived from a diphthong: as in excludo (from *ex-claudo).

A vowel formed by contraction is long: as in nil (from nihil).

A vowel before ns, nf, gn, is long: as in constans, infero, magnus.

NOTE.--But the quantity of the vowel before gn is not certain in all cases.

A vowel before nd, nt, is regularly short: as in amandus, amant.

In this book all vowels known to be long are marked (a, e, etc.), and short vowels are left unmarked (a, e, etc.). Vowels marked with both signs at once occur sometimes as long and sometimes as short.

NOTE.--The Romans sometimes marked vowel length by a stroke above the letter (called an apex), as ^ ; and sometimes the vowel was doubled to indicate length. An I made higher than the other letters was occasionally used for i. But none of these devices came into general use {

SECTION:#11. The Quantity of the Syllable is important for the position of the accent and in versification.

A syllable containing a long vowel or a diphthong is said to be long by nature: as, ma-ter, aes, au-a.

A syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants (except a mute before l or r) or by a double consonant (x, z) is said to be long by position, but the vowel is pronounced short: as, est, ter-a, sax-um, Me-zen-tius.

NOTE.--When a consonant is doubled the pronunciation should show this distinctly. Thus in mit-to both t's should be pronounced as in out-talk (not merely a single t as in better).

A syllable containing a short vowel followed by a mute before l or r is properly short, but may be used as long in verse. Such a syllable is said to be common.

NOTE 1.--In syllables long by position, but having a short vowel, the length is partly due to the first of the consonants, which stands in the same syllable with the vowel. In syllables of "common"quantity (as the first syllable of patrem) the ordinary pronunciation was pa-trem, but in verse pat-rem was allowed so that the syllable could become long.

NOTE 2.--In final syllables ending with a consonant, and containing a short vowel, the quantity in verse is determined by the following word: if this begins with a vowel the final consonant is joined to it in pronunciation; if it begins with a consonant the syllable is long by position.

NOTE 3.--In rules for quantity h is not counted as a consonant, nor is the apparently consonantal u in qu, gu, su (see Sect: 5. N. 2).

A syllable whose vowel is a, e, o, or u, followed by consonant i, is long whether the vowel itself is long or short: as, ai-io, mai-ior, pe-ius.

In such cases the length of the syllable is indicated in this book by a circumflex on the vowel.

NOTE.--The length of a syllable before consonant i is due to a transitional sound (vowel i) which forms a diphthong with the preceding vowel: as, ai-o (for ai-io), ma ior (for mai-ior). See Sect: 6. c.

In some compounds of iacio (as, in-icio) the consonant i of the simple verb was probably pronounced (though not written). Thus the first syllable was long by position: as, in-icio (for in-iicio). See Sect: 6. d.

In such cases the length of the syllable is not indicated in this book by a circumflex on the vowel.

When a syllable is long by position the quantity of the vowel is not always determinable. The vowel should be pronounced short unless it is known to be long.

NOTE.--The quantity of a vowel under these circumstances is said to be hidden. It is often determined with a greater or less degree of certainty by inscriptional evidence (see Sect: 10. N.) or by other means. In this book, the quantity of all such vowels known to be long is marked. 7]


SECTION:#12. Words of two syllables are accented on the first syllable: as, Roma, fi'des, tan'go.

Words of more than two syllables are accented on the Penult if that is long (as, ami'cus, mone'tur, contin'git); otherwise on the Antepenult (as, do'minus, ala'cris, dissocia'bilis).

When an enclitic is joined to a word, the accent falls on the syllable next before the enclitic, whether long or short: as, dea'que, amare've, tibi'ne, ita'que (and ... so), as distinguished from i'taque (therefore). So (according to some) ex'inde, ec'quando etc.

Exceptions: 1. Certain apparent compounds of facio retain the accent of the simple verb: as, benefa'cit, calefa'cit (see Sect: 266. a).

NOTE.--These were not true compounds, but phrases.

2. In the second declension the genitive and vocative of nouns in -ius and the genitive of those in -ium retain the accent of the nominative: as, Corne'li, Vergi'li, inge'ni (see Sect: 49. c).

3. Certain words which have lost a final vowel retain the accent of the complete words: as, illic for illice, produc for produce, sati'n for sati'sne.


SECTION:#13. In some cases adjacent words, being pronounced together, are written as one: unusquisque ( unus quisque), siquis ( si quis), quare ( qua re), quamobrem ( quam ob rem; cf. quas ob res), respublica ( res publica), iusiurandum ( ius iurandum), paterfamilia s ( pater familias).

NOTE.--Sometimes a slight change in pronunciation resulted, as, especially in the old poets, before est in homost ( homo est), periculumst ( periculum est), ausust ( ausus est), qualist ( qualis est). Similarly there occur vin', scin' for visne, scisne, sis ( si vis), sodes ( si audes), sultis ( si vultis). Compare in English somebody, to breakfast; he's, I've, thou'rt.

Phonetic Changes

SECTION:#14. Latin, the language of the ancient Romans, was properly, as its name implies, the language spoken in the plain of Latium, lying south of the Tiber, which was the first territory occupied and governed by the Romans. It is a descendant of an early form of speech commonly called Indo-European (by some Indo-Germanic), from which are also descended most of the important languages now in use in Europe, including among others English, German, the Slavic and the Celtic languages, and further some now or formerly spoken in Asia, as Sanskrit, Persian, Armenian. Greek likewise 8]

belongs to the same family. The Romance (or Romanic) languages, of which the most important are Italian, French, Provencal, Spanish, Portuguese, and Roumanian, are modern descendants of spoken Latin.

The earliest known forms of Latin are preserved in a few inscriptions. These increase in number as we approach the time when the language began to be used in literature; that is, about B.C. 250. It is the comparatively stable language of the classical period (B.C. 80-A.D. 14) that is ordinarily meant when we speak of Latin, and it is mainly this that is described in this book.

SECTION:#15. Among the main features in the changes of Latin from the earliest stages of the language as we know it up to the forms of classical Latin may be mentioned the following:

.Vowel Changes

1. The old diphthong ai became the classical ae ( aedilis for old aidilis), old oi became oe or u ( unus for old oinos), and old ou became u ( duco for old douco).

2. In compound verbs the vowel a of the simple verb often appears as i or e, and ae similarly appears as i:

facio, factum, but conficio, confectum; caedo, but occido, and similarly cecidi, perfect of caedo (cf. cado, occido; cecidi, perfect of cado).

NOTE.--This change is commonly ascribed to an accentuation on the first syllable, which seems to have been the rule in Latin before the rule given above (see Sect: 12) became established. The original Indo-European accent, however, was not limited by either of these principles; it was probably a musical accent so-called, consisting in a change of pitch, and not merely in a more forcible utterance of the accented syllable.

3. Two vowels coming together are often contracted:

cogo for co-ago; promo for pro-emo; nil for nihil; debeo for de-hibed ( de-habeo).

.Consonant Changes

4. An old s regularly became r between two vowels (rhotacism), passing first through the sound of (English) z:

eram (cf. est); generis, genitive of genus.

NOTE.--Final s sometimes became r by analogy: as, honor (older honos), from the analogy of honoris, etc.

5. A dental (t, d) often became s, especially when standing next to t, d, or s: as, equestris for equettris, casus for cadtus (cf. 6, below).

6. Many instances of assimilation, partial or complete, are found:

cessi for ced-si; summus for supmus; scriptus for scribtus (b unvoicing to p before the voiceless t); and in compound verbs (see Sect: 16). 9]

Dissimilation, the opposite kind of change, prevented in some cases the repetition of the same sound in successive syllables:

Thus, parilia for palilia (from Pales); meridies for medidi es; naturalis with suffix -alis (after r), but popularis with -aris (after l).

7. Final s was in early Latin not always pronounced; as, plenu fidei.

NOTE.--Traces of this pronunciation existed in Cicero's time. He speaks of the omission of final s before a word beginning with a consonant as "countrified"( subrusticum).

8. A final consonant often disappears: as, virgo for virgon; lac for lact; cor for cord.

9. G, c, and h unite with a following s to form x: as, rex for regs; dux for ducs; traxi for trahsi.

10. G and h before t become c: as, rectum for regtum; actum for agtum; tractum for *trahtum. /p>

11. Between m and s or m and t, a p is often developed: as, sumpsi for sumsi; emptum for emtum.

SECTION:#16. In compounds with prepositions the final consonant in the preposition was often assimilated to the following consonant, but usage varied considerably.

There is good authority for many complete or partial assimilations; as, for ad, acc-, agg-, app-, att-, instead of adc-, adg-, etc. Before a labial consonant we find com- (comb-, comp-, comm-), but con- is the form before c, d, f, g, cons. i, q, s, t, cons. v; we find conl- or coll-, conr- or corr-; co- in conecto, coniveo, conitor, conubium. In usually changes to im- before p, b, m. Ob and sub may assimilate b to a following c, f, g, or p; before s and t the pronunciation of prepositions ending in b doubtless had p; surr-, summ-, occur for subr-, subm-. The inseparable amb- loses b before a consonant. Circum often loses its m before i. The s of dis becomes r before a vowel and is assimilated to a following f; sometimes this prefix appears as di-. Instead of ex we find ef- before f (also ecf-). The d of red and sed is generally lost before a consonant. The preposition is better left unchanged in most other cases.

.Vowel Variations

SECTION:#17. The parent language showed great variation in the vowel sounds of kindred words. /p>

This variation is often called by the German name Ablaut. It has left considerable traces in the forms of Latin words, appearing sometimes as a difference of quantity in the same vowel (as, u, u; e, e), sometimes as a difference in the vowel itself (as, e, o; i, ae): 12

tego, I cover, toga, a robe; pendo, I weigh, pondus, weight; fides, faith, fidus, faithful, foedus, a treaty; miser, wretched, maestus, sad; dare, to give, donum, a gift; rego, I rule, rex, a king; dux, a leader, duco (for older douco), I lead. Compare English drive, drove (drave), driven; bind, bound, band; sing, sang, sung; etc.

.Kindred .Cognate Forms

SECTION:#18. Both Latin and English have gone through a series of phonetic changes, different in the two languages, but following definite laws in each. Hence both preserve traces of the older speech in some features of the vowel system, and both show certain correspondences in consonants in words which each language has inherited from the old common stock. Only a few of these correspondences can be mentioned here.

SECTION:#19. The most important correspondences in consonants between Latin and English, in cognate words, may be seen in the following table: /p>

LATIN ---------------------------ENGLISH

p: ------------pater // f: ------ father, earlier fader /p>

f from bh: ------ fero, frater // -b: to bear, brother

b from bh: ------ lubet, libet v, // f: love, lief

t: tu, ------ tenuis // th: thou, thin /p>

d: ------ duo, dent- // t: -- two, tooth

f from dh:------ facio // d: do

d from dh:------ medius // d: mid

b from dh: ------ ruber // d: red

c: ------ ------ cord-, cornu // h: heart, horn

qu: ---------------quod // wh: what

g:------ ------ genus, gustus // c, k, ch:------ kin, choose

h (from gh): ----- hortus, haedus // y, g: yard, goat

cons. i: ------ iugum // y: yoke

v: ------ ------ --ventus, ovis // w: wind, ewe

v from gv:------ vivus (for *gvivos), venio (for gvemio ). qu, c, k: // quick, come

NOTE 1.--Sometimes a consonant lost in Latin is still represented in English: as, niv- (for sniv-), Eng. snow; a nser (for hanser), Eng. goose.

NOTE 2.--From these cases of kindred words in Latin and English must be carefully distinguished those cases in which the Latin word has been taken into English either directly or through some one of the modern descendants of Latin, especially French. Thus facio is kindred with Eng. do, but from the Latin participle ( factum) of this verb comes Eng. fact, and from the French descendant (fait) of factum comes Eng. feat.

1 Strictly, a labio-dental, pronounced with the under lip touching the upper teeth.

2 The aspirates are almost wholly confined to words borrowed from the Greek. In early Latin such borrowed sounds lost their aspiration and became simply p, t, c.

3 Palatals are often classed as (1) velars, pronounced with the tongue touching or rising toward the soft parate (in the back part of the mouth), and (2) palatals, in which the tongue touches crrises toward the hard palate (farther forward in the mouth). Compare the initial consonants in key and cool, whispering the two words, and it will be observed that before e and i the k is sounded farther forward in the mouth than before a, o, or u

4 Compare the English word Indian as pronounced in two syllables or in three.

5 In such words it is possible that the preceding consonant was labialized and that no distinct and separate consonant u was heard.

6 The spelling quum is very late and without authority.

7 The Penult is the last syllable but one; the Antepenult, the last but two.

8 A similar change can be seen in English: as, were (cf. was), lorn (cf. lose).

9 Really for *traghsi. The h of traho represents an older palatal sound (see Sect: 19).

10 Really for traghtum. These are cases of partial assimilation (cf. 6, above).

11 This variation was not without regularity, but was confined within definite limits.

12 In Greek, however, it is more extensively preserved.

13 The Indo-European parent speech had among its consonants voiced aspirates (bh, dh, gh). All these suffered change in Latin, the most important results being, for bh, Latin f, b (English has b, v, or f); for dh, Latin f, b, d (English has d); for gh, Latin h, g ( English has y, g). The other mutes suffered in Latin much less change, while in English, as in the other Germanic languages, they have all changed considerably in accordance with what has been called Grimm's Law for the shifting of mutes.

14 Theth in father is a late development. The older form fader seems to show an exception to the rule that Englishth corresponds to Latin t. The primitive Germanic form was doubtless in accordance with this rule, but, on account of the position of the accent, which in Germanic was not originally on the first syllable in this word, the consonant underwent a secondary change to d.

15 But to the group st of Latin corresponds also English st; as in Latin sto, English stand.


SECTION:#20. Words are divided into eight Parts of Speech: Nouns, Adjectives (including Participles), Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections.

A Noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea: as, Caesar; Roma, Rome; domus, a house; virtus, virtue.

Names of particular persons and places are called Proper Nouns; other nouns are called Common.

NOTE.--An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality or idea: as, audacia, boldness; senectus, old age. A Collective Noun is the name of a group, class, or the like: as, turba, crowd; exercitus, army.

An Adjective is a word that attributes a quality: as, bonus, good; fortis, brave, strong.

NOTE 1.--A Participle is a word that attributes quality like an adjective, but, being derived from a verb, retains in some degree the power of the verb to assert: as, Caesar consul creatus, Caesar having been elected consul.

NOTE 2.--Etymologically there is no difference between a noun and an adjective, both being formed alike. So, too, all names originally attribute quality, and any common name can still be so used. Thus, King William distinguishes this William from other Williams, by the attribute of royalty expressed in the name king.

A Pronoun is a word used to distinguish a person, place, thing, or idea without either naming or describing it: as, is, he; qui, who; nos, we.

Nouns and pronouns are often called Substantives.

A Verb is a word which is capable of asserting something: as, sum, I am; amat, he loves.

NOTE.--In all modern speech the verb is usually the only word that asserts anything, and a verb is therefore supposed to be necessary to complete an assertion. Strictly, however, any adjective or noun may, by attributing a quality or giving a name, make a complete assertion. In the infancy of language there could have been no other means of asserting, as the verb is of comparatively late development.

An Adverb is a word used to express the time, place, or manner of an assertion or attribute: as, splendide mendax, gloriously false; hodie natus est, he was born to-day.

NOTE.--These same functions are often performed by cases (see Sect: 214-217) of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, and by phrases or sentences. In fact, all adverbs were originally cases or phrases, but have become specialized by use.

A Preposition is a word which shows the relation between a noun or pronoun and some other word or words in the same sentence: as, per agros it, he goes over the fields; e pluribus unum, one out of many.

NOTE.--Most prepositions are specialized adverbs (cf. Sect: 219). The relations expressed by prepositions were earlier expressed by case-endings.

A Conjunction is a word which connects words, or groups of words, without affecting their grammatical relations: as, et, and; sed, but.

NOTE.--Some adverbs are also used as connectives. These are called Adverbial Conjunctions or Conjunctive (Relative) Adverbs: as, ubi, where; donec, until.

Interjections are mere exclamations and are not strictly to be classed as parts of speech. Thus,--heus, halloo! o, oh!

NOTE.--Interjections sometimes express an emotion which affects a person or thing mentioned, and so have a grammatical connection like other words: as, vae victis, woe to the conquered (alas for the conquered)!


SECTION:#21. Latin is an inflected language.

Inflection is a change made in the form of a word to show its grammatical relations.

Inflectional changes sometimes take place in the body of a word, or at the beginning, but oftener in its termination:

vox, a voice; vocis, of a voice; voco, I call; vocat, he calls; vocet, let him call; vocavit, he has called; tangit, he touches; tetigit, he touched.

Terminations of inflection had originally independent meanings which are now obscured. They correspond nearly to the use of prepositions, auxiliaries, and personal pronouns in English.

Thus, in vocat, the termination is equivalent to he or she; in vocis, to the preposition of; and in vocet the change of vowel signifies a change of mood.

Inflectional changes in the body of a verb usually denote relations of tense or mood, and often correspond to the use of auxiliary verbs in English:

frangit, he breaks or is breaking; fregit, he broke or has broken; mordet, he bites; momordit, he bit.

SECTION:#22. The inflection of Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Participles to denote gender, number, and case is called Declension, and these parts of speech are said to be declined.

The inflection of Verbs to denote voice, mood, tense, number, and person is called Conjugation, and the verb is said to be conjugated.

NOTE.--Adjectives are often said to have inflections of comparison. These are, however, properly stem-formations made by derivation (p. 55, footnote).

SECTION:#23. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are not inflected and are called Particles.

NOTE.--The term Particle is sometimes limited to such words as num, - ne, an (interrogative), non, ne (negative), si (conditional), etc., which are used simply to indicate the form or construction of a sentence.

.Root, Stem, and Base

SECTION:#24. The body of a word, to which the terminations are attached, is called the Stem.

The Stem contains the idea of the word without relations; but, except in the first part of a compound (as, arti-fex, artificer), it cannot ordinarily be used without some termination to express them.

Thus the stem voc- denotes voice; with -s added it becomes vox, a voice or the voice, as the subject or agent of an action; with -is it becomes vocis, and signifies of a voice.

NOTE.--The stem is in many forms so united with the termination that a comparison with other forms is necessary to determine it.

SECTION:#25. A Root is the simplest form attainable by analysis of a word into its component parts.

Such a form contains the main idea of the word in a very general sense, and is common also to other words either in the same language or in kindred languages.

Thus the root of the stem voc-is voc, which does not mean to call, or I call, or calling, but merely expresses vaguely the idea of calling, and cannot be used as a part of speech without terminations. With a-it becomes voca-, the stem of vocare (to call); with av-it is the stem of vocavit (he called); with ato- it becomes the stem of vocatus (called); with ation- it becomes the stem of vocationis (of a calling). With its vowel lengthened it becomes the stem of vox, voc-is (a voice: that by which we call). This stem voc-, with -alis added, means belonging to a voice; with -ula, a little voice.

NOTE.--In inflected languages, words are built up from Roots, which at a very early time were used alone to express ideas, as is now done in Chinese. Roots are modified into Stems, which, by inflection, become fully formed words. The process by which roots are modified, in the various forms of derivatives and compounds, is called Stem-building. The whole of this process is originally one of composition, by which significant endings are added one after another to forms capable of pronunciation and conveying a meaning.

Roots had long ceased to be recognized as such before the Latin existed as a separate language. Consequently the forms which we assume as Latin roots never really existed in Latin, but are the representatives of forms used carlier.

SECTION:#26. The Stem may be the same as the root: as in duc-is, of a leader, fer-t, he bears; but it is more frequently formed from the root.

1. By changing or lengthening its vowel: as in scob-s, sawdust (SCAB, shave); reg-is, of a king (REG, direct); voc-is, of a voice (VOC, call).

2. By the addition of a simple suffix (originally another root): as in fuga-, stem of fuga, flight (FUG + a-); regi-s, you rule (REG + stem-ending e/o-); sini-t, he allows (SI + ne/o-).

3. By two or more of these methods: as in duci-t, he leads (DUC + stemending e/o-).

4. By derivation and composition, following the laws of development peculiar to the language. (See Sect: 227 ff.)

SECTION:#27. The Base is that part of a word which is unchanged in inflection: as, serv- in servus; mens- in mensa; ign- in ignis.

The Base and the Stem are often identical, as in many consonant stems of nouns (as, reg- in reg-is). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional termination. Thus the stem of servus is servo-; that of mensa, mensa-; that of ignis, igni-.

SECTION:#28. Inflectional terminations are variously modified by combination with the final vowel or consonant of the Stem, and thus the various forms of Declension and Conjugation (see Sect: 36, 164) developed.

1 The only proper inflections of verbs are those of the personal endings; and the changes here referred to are strictly changes of stem, but have become a part of the system of inflections.

2 Another exception is the imperative second person singular in -e (as, rege).

3 For example, the root STA is found in the Sanskrit <

>, Latin sistere and stare, German fteben, and English stand.

4 These suffixes are Indo-European stem-endings.


SECTION:#29. The Genders distinguished in Latin are three: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.

SECTION:#30. The gender of Latin nouns is either natural or grammatical.

Natural Gender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted: as, puer (M.), boy; puella (F.), girl; rex (M.), king; regina (F.), queen.

NOTE 1.--Many nouns have both a masculine and a feminine form to distinguish sex: as, cervus, cerva, stag, doe; cliens, clienta, client; victor, victrix, conqueror.

Many designations of persons (as nauta, sailor) usually though not necessarily male are always treated as masculine. Similarly names of tribes and peoples are masculine: as, Romani, the Romans; Persae, the Persians.

NOTE 2.--A few neuter nouns are used to designate persons as belonging to a class: as, mancipium , your slave (your chattel).

Many petenames of girls and boys are neuter in form: as, Paegnium, Glycerium.

NOTE 3.--Names or classes or collections of persons may be of any gender: as, exercitus (M.), acies (F.), and agmen (N.), army; operae (F. plur.), workmen; copiae (F. plur.), troops, senatus (M.), senate; cohors (F.), cohort; concilium (N.), council.

Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no actual sex exists in the object. It is shown by the form of the adjective joined with the noun: as, lapis magnus (M.), a great stone; manus mea (F.), my hand.

.Gender (grammatical)

SECTION:#31. Names of Male beings, and of Rivers, Winds, Months, and Mountains, are masculine:

pater, father; Iulius, Julius; Tiberis, the Tiber; auster, south wind; Ianuarius, January; Apenninus, the Apennines.

NOTE.--Names of Months are properly adjectives, the masculine noun mensis, month, being understood: as, Ianuarius, January.

A few names of Rivers ending in - a (as, Allia), with the Greek names Lethe and Styx, are feminine; others are variable or uncertain.

Some names of Mountains are feminine or neuter, taking the gender of their termination: as, Alpes (F.), the Alps; Soracte (N.).

SECTION:#32. Names of Female beings, of Cities, Countries, Plants, Trees, and Gems, of many Animals (especially Birds), and of most abstract Qualities, are feminine:

mater, mother; Iulia, Julia; Roma, Rome; Italia, Italy; rosa, rose; pinus, pine; sapphirus, sapphire; anas, duck; veritas, truth.

Some names of Towns and Countries are masculine: as, Sulmo, Gabii (plur.); or neuter as, Tarentum, Illyricum.

A few names of Plants and Gems follow the gender of their termination: as, centaureum (N.), centaury; acanthus (M.), bearsfoot; opalus (M.), opal.

NOTE.--The gender of most of the above may also be recognized by the terminations, according to the rules given under the several declensions. The names of Roman women were usually feminine adjectives denoting their gens or house (see Sect: 108. b).

SECTION:#33. Indeclinable nouns, infinitives, terms or phrases used as nouns, and words quoted merely for their form, are neuter:

fas, right; nihil, nothing; gummi, gum; scire tuum, your knowledge (to know); triste vale, a sad farewell; hoc ipsum, this very thing; diu, very long

SECTION:#34. Many nouns may be either masculine or feminine, according to the sex of the object. These are said to be of Common Gender: as, exsul, exile; bos, ox or cow; parens, parent.

NOTE.--Several names of animals have a grammatical gender, independent of sex. These are called epicene. Thus lepus, hare, is always masculine, and vulpes, fox, is always feminine.



Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, and Participles are declined in two Numbers, singular and plural; and in six Cases, nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, vocative.

The Nominative is the case of the Subject of a sentence.

The Genitive may generally be translated by the English Possessive, or by the Objective with the preposition of.

The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object (Sect: 274). It may usually be translated by the Objective with the preposition to or for.

The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object of a verb (Sect: 274). It is used also with many of the prepositions.

The Ablative may usually be translated by the Objective with from, by, with, in, or at. It is often used with prepositions.

The Vocative is the case of Direct Address.

All the cases, except the nominative and vocative, are used as objectcases; and are sometimes called Oblique Cases ( casus obliqui).

In names of towns and a few other words appear traces of another case (the Locative), denoting the place where: as, Romae, at Rome; ruri, in the country.

NOTE.--Still another case, the Instrumental, appears in a few adverbs (Sect: 215. 4).


SECTION:#36. Declension is produced by adding terminations originally significant to different forms of stems, vowel or consonant. The various phonetic corruptions in the language have given rise to the several declensions. Most of the case-endings, as given in Latin, contain also the final letter of the stem.

Adjectives are, in general, declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed with them; but they have several peculiarities of inflection (see Sect: 109 ff.).

SECTION:#37. Nouns are inflected in five Declensions, distinguished by the final letter (characteristic) of the Stem, and by the case-ending of the Genitive Singular.



Decl. 1 Nom sg. -a

Decl. 2 Nom sg.- -o/u

Decl. 2 Nom sg. --

Decl. 3 Nom sg. -u

Decl. 4 Nom sg. -ie


Decl. 1 Gen Sg. -ae

Decl. 2 Gen Sg. -rum

Decl. 3 Gen Sg. -is

Decl. 4 Gen Sg. -us

Decl. 5 Gen Sg. -ies

The Stem of a noun may be found, if a consonant stem, by Decl. 3 omitting the case-ending; if a vowel stem, by substituting Decl. 4 for the case-ending the characteristic vowel.

SECTION:#38. The following are General Rules of Declension:

The Vocative is always the same as the Nominative, except in the singular of nouns and adjectives in -us of the second declension, which have - e in the vocative. It is not included in the paradigms, unless it differs from the nominative.

In neuters the Nominative and Accusative are always alike, and in the plural end in -a.

The Accusative singular of all masculines and feminines ends in -m; the Accusative plural in -s.

In the last three declensions (and in a few cases in the others) the Dative singular ends in -i.

The Dative and Ablative plural are always alike.

The Genitive plural always ends in -um.

Final -i, -o, -u of inflection are always long; final -a is short, except in the Ablative singular of the first declension; final -e is long in the first and fifth declensions, short in the second and third. Final -is and -us are long in plural cases.

.Case-endings of the Five Declensions

SECTION:#39. The regular Case-endings of the several declensions are the following:

Endings of the Five Declensions


SECTION:#40. The Stem of nouns of the First Declension ends in a-. The Nominative ending is -a (the stem-vowel shortened), except in Greek nouns.

SECTION:#41. Latin nouns of the First Declension are thus declined:

stella, F., star

STEM stella-


Nom stella

Gen. stellae

Dat. stellae

Acc. stellam

Abl. stella

Voc. stella


Nom stellae

Gen. stellarum

Dat. stellis

Acc. stellas

Abl. stellis

Voc. stellae

The Latin has no article; hence stella may mean a star, the star, or simply star.

.Gender in the First Declension

SECTION:#42. Nouns of the first declension are Feminine.

Exceptions: Nouns masculine from their signification: as, nauta, sailor. So a few family or personal names: as, Murena, Dolabella, Scaevola; also, Hadria, the Adriatic.

Case-Forms in the First Declension

SECTION:#43. a. The genitive singular anciently ended in -ai (dissyllabic), which is occasionally found: as, aulai. The same ending sometimes occurs in the dative, but only as a diphthong.

An old genitive in -as is preserved in the word familias, often used in the combinations pater ( mater, filius, filia) familias, father, etc., of a family (plur. patres familias or familiarum).

The Locative form for the singular ends in -ae; for the plural in - is (cf. p. 34, footnote): as, Romae, at Rome; Athenis, at Athens.

The genitive plural is sometimes found in -um instead of -arum, especially in Greek patronymics, as, Aeneadum, sons of Aeneas, and in compounds with -cola and -gena, signifying dwelling and descent: as, caelicolum, celestials; Troiugenum, sons of Troy; so also in the Greek nouns amphora and drachma.

The dative and ablative plural of dea, goddess, filia, daughter, end in an older form -abus (deabus, filiabus) to distinguish them from the corresponding cases of deus, god, and filius, son ( deis, filiis). So rarely with other words, as, liberta, freed-woman; mula, she-mule; equa, mare. But, except when the two sexes are mentioned together (as in formulas, documents, etc.), the form in -is is preferred in all but dea and filia.

NOTE 1.--The old ending of the ablative singular (-ad) is sometimes retained in early Latin: as, praidad, booty (later, praeda).

NOTE 2.--In the dative and ablative plural -eis for -is is sometimes found, and -iis (as in taeniis) is occasionally contracted to -is (taenis); so regularly in words in -aia (as, Bais from Baiae).

Greek Nouns of the First Declension

SECTION:#44. Many nouns of the First Declension borrowed from the Greek are entirely Latinized (as, aula, court); but others retain traces of their Greek case-forms in the singular.


Nom musicae

Dat. musicae

Acc. musicam

Abl. musica

Voc. musicae


Nom eptome

Gen. epitomes

Dat. epitome

Acc. epitomen

Abl. epitome



Nom Aeneas

Gen. Aeneae

Dat. Aeneae

Acc. Aenean

Abl. Aenea

Voc. Aenea


Nom Aeneadae

Gen. Aeneadarum

Dat. Aeneadis

Acc. Aeneadas

Abl. Aeneadis

Voc. Aeneadae

There are (besides proper names) about thirty-five of these words, several being names of plants or arts: as, crambe, cabbage; musice, music. Most have also regular Latin forms: as, cometa; but the nominative sometimes has the a long.

Greek forms are found only in the singular; the plural, when it occurs, is regular: as, cometae, -arum, etc.

Many Greek nouns vary between the first, the second, and the third declensions: as, Bootae (genitive of Bootes, -is), Thucydidas (accusative plural of Thucydides, -is). See Sect: 52. a and Sect: 81.

NOTE.--The Greek accusative Scipiadam, from Scipiades, descendant of the Scipios, is found in Horace.

1 Scaevola is really a feminine adjective, used as a noun, meaning little left hand; but, being used as the name of a man (originally a nickname), it became masculine. Original genders are often thus changed by a change in the sense of a noun.


SECTION:#45. The Stem of nouns of the Second Declension ends in o-: as, viro- (stem of vir, man), servo- (stem of servus or servos, slave), bello- (stem of bellum, war).

The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s in masculines and feminines, and m in neuters, the vowel o being weakened to u (see Sect: 6. a, 46. N.1).

In most nouns whose stem ends in ro- the s is not added in the Nominative, but o is lost, and e intrudes before r,if not already present: as, ager, stem agro-; cf. puer, stem puero-.

Exceptions: erus, hesperus, iuniperus, morus, numerus, taurus, umerus, uterus, virus, and many Greek nouns.

The stem-vowel o has a variant form e,which is preserved in the Latin vocative singular of nouns in -us: as, serve, vocative of servus, slave.

NOTE.--In composition this -e- appears as -i. Thus,--belli- ger, warlike (from bell- o/e-, stem of bellum, war).

SECTION:#46. Nouns of the Second Declension in -us (- os) and -um (-om) are thus declined:

servus, M., slave bellum, N., war Pompeiius, M., Pompey

STEM servo- STEM bello- STEM Pompeio-

Masculine. . servus (- os) -


Nom servus (os)

Gen. servi

Dat. servo

Acc. servum (-om)

Abl. servo

Voc. serve


Nom servi

Gen. servorum

Dat. servis

Acc. servos

Abl. servis

Voc. servi



Nom bellum

Gen. belli

Dat. bello

Acc. bellum

Abl. bello

Voc. bellum


Nom bella

Gen. bellorum

Dat. bellis

Acc. bella

Abl. bellis

Voc. bella

NOTE 1.--The earlier forms for nominative and accusative were - os, -om, and these were always retained after u and v up to the end of the Republic. The terminations s and m are sometimes omitted in inscriptions: as, Cornelio for Cornelios, Corneliom.

NOTE 2.--Stems in quo-, like equo-, change qu to c before u. Thus,--ecus (earlier equos), equi, equo, ecum (earlier equom), eque. Modern editions disregard this principle.

SECTION:#47. Nouns of the Second Declension in -er and -ir are thus declined:

puer, M., boy ager, M., field vir, M., man

STEM Masc.puero- STEM Masc.viro-


Nom puer

Gen. pueri

Dat. puero

Acc. puerum

Abl. puero

Voc. puere


Nom pueri

Gen. puerorum-

Dat. pueris

Acc. pueros

Abl. pueris

Voc. pueri


Nom vir

Gen. viri

Dat. viro

Acc. virum

Abl. viro

Voc. vir


Nom viri

Gen. virorum

Dat. viris

Acc. viros

Abl. viris

Voc. viri

NOTE.--When e belongs to the stem, as in puer, it is retained throughout; other, wise it appears only in the nominative and vocative singular, as in ager.

Gender in the Second Declension

SECTION:#48. Nouns ending in -us (- os), -er, -ir, are Masculine; those ending in -um (-on) are Neuter.

Exceptions: Names of countries and towns in -us (- os) are Feminine: as, Aegyptus, Corinthus. Also many names of plants and gems, with the following: alvus, belly; carbasus, linen (pl. carbasa, sails, N.); colus, distaff; humus, ground: vannus, winnowing-shovel.

Many Greek nouns retain their original gender: as, arctus (F.), the Polar Bear; methodus (F.), method.

The following in -us are Neuter; their accusative (as with all neuters) is the same as the nominative: pelagus, sea; virus, poison; vulgus (rarely M.), the crowd. They are not found in the plural, except pelagus, which has a rare nominative and accusative plural pelage.

NOTE.--The nominative plural neuter cete, sea monsters, occurs; the nominative singular cetus occurs in Vitruvius.

Case-Forms in the Second Declension

SECTION:#49. a. The Locative form of this declension ends for the singular in - i: as, humi, on the ground; Corinthi, at Corinth; for the plural, in - is: as, Philippis, at Philippi (cf. p. 34, footnote).

The genitive of nouns in - ius or -ium ended, until the Augustan Age, in a single - i: as, fili, of a son; Pompeii, of Pompey ( Pompeiius); but the accent of the nominative is retained: as, inge' ni, of genius.

Proper names in - ius have - i in the vocative, retaining the accent of the nominative: as, Vergi'li. So also, filius, son; genius, divine guardian: as, audi, mi fili, hear, my son.

Adjectives in -ius form the vocative in -ie, and some of these are occasionally used as nouns: as, Lacedaemonie, O Spartan.

NOTE.--Greek names in -ius have the vocative -ie: as, Lyrcius, vocative Lyrcie.

The genitive plural often has -um or (after v) -om (cf. Sect: 6. a) instead of - orum, especially in the poets: as, deum, superum, divom, of the gods; virum, of men. Also in compounds of vir, and in many words of money, measure, and weight: as, Sevirum, of the Seviri; nummum, of coins; iugerum, of acres.

The original ending of the ablative singular (-o d) is sometimes found in early Latin: as, Gnaivod (later, Gnaeo), Cneius.

Proper names in -aius, - eiius, -eius (as, Aurunculeiius, Boi), are declined like Pompeiius. (N Sg deus N.Pl dei

NOTE.--The vocative singular of deus does not occur in classic Latin, but is said to have been dee; deus (like the nominative) occurs in the Vulgate. For the genitive plural, divum or divom (from divus, divine) is often used.

SECTION:#50. The following stems in ero-, in which e belongs to the stem, retain the e throughout and are declined like puer (Sect: 47):

adulter, adulterer; gener, son-in-law; puer, boy;

socer, father-in-law; vesper, evening; Liber, Bacchus.

Also, the adjective liber, free, of which liberi, children, is the plural (Sect: 111. a), and compounds in - fer and -ger (stem fero-, gero-): as, lucifer, morning star; armiger, squire.

An old nominative socerus occurs. So vocative puere, boy, as if from *puerus (regularly puer).

Vir, man, has genitive viri; the adjective satur, sated, has saturi; vesper, evening, has ablative vespere (locative vesperi, in the evening).

Mulciber, Vulcan, has -beri and -bri in the genitive. The barbaric names Hiber and Celtiber retain e throughout.

SECTION:#51. The following, not having e in the stem, insert it in the nominative singular and are declined like ager (Sect: 47):

ager, field, stem agro-; coluber, snake; magister, master;

aper, boar; conger, sea eel; minister, servant;

arbiter, judge; culter, knife; oleaster, wild olive;

auster, south wind; faber, smith; onager (-grus), wild ass;

cancer, crab; fiber, beaver; scomber (-brus), mackerel.

caper, goat; liber, book;

Greek Nouns of the Second Declension

SECTION:#52. Greek nouns of the Second Declension end in - os, - os, masculine or feminine, and in -on neuter.

They are mostly proper names and are declined as follows in the Singular, the Plural, when found, being regular:


Nom Del os

Gen. Deli

Dat. Delo

Acc. Delon

Abl. Delo

Voc. Del e


Nom Ilion

Gen. Ilii

Dat. Ilio

Acc. Ilion

Abl. Ilio

Voc. Ilion

Many names in - es belonging to the third declension have also a genitive in - i: as, Thucydides, Thucydidi (compare Sect: 44. b).

Several names in -er have also a nominative in -us: as, Teucer or Teucrus. The name Panthus has the vocative Panthu (Sect: 81. 3).

The genitive plural of certain titles of books takes the Greek termination -on: as, Georgicon, of the Georgics.

The termination -oe (for Greek -oi) is sometimes found in the nominative plural: as, Adelphoe, the Adelphi (a play of Terence).

Greek names in -eus (like Orpheus) have forms of the second and third declensions (see Sect: 82).

1 Compare the English chamber from French chambre.

2 Compare Greek agros, which shows the original o of the stem.

3 By so-called Ablaut (see Sect: 17. a).

4 The genitive in -ii occurs once in Virgil, and constantly in Ovid, but was probably unknown to Cicero.


SECTION:#53. Nouns of the Third Declension end in

a, e, i, o, y, c, l, n, r, s, t, x.

SECTION:#54. Stems of the Third Declension are classed as follows:

I. Consonant Stems a. Mute stems. b. Liquid and Nasal stems.

II. I-Stems a. Pure i-stems. b. Mixed i-stems.

SECTION:#55. The Nominative is always derived from the stem.

The variety in form in the Nominative is due to simple modi fications of the stem, of which the most important are.

1. Combination of final consonants: as of c (or g) and s to form x; dux, ducis, stem duc-; rex, regis, stem reg-.

2. Omission of a final consonant: as of a final nasal; leo, leonis, stem leon-; oratio, orationis, stem o ration-.

3. Omission of a final vowel: as of final i; calcar, calcaris, stem calca ri-.

4. Change of vowel in the final syllable : as of a to e; princeps (for -caps), principis, stem princip- (for -cap-).


Mute Stems

SECTION:#56. Masculine and Feminine Nouns with mute stems form the Nominative by adding s to the stem.

A labial (p) is retained before s: as, princep- s.

A lingual (t, d) is dropped before s: as, miles (stem milit-), custos (stem custod-).

A palatal (c, g) unites with s to form x: as, dux (for *duc-s), rex (for reg-s).

In dissyllabic stems the final syllable often shows e in the nominative and i in the stem: as, princeps, stem princip- (for -cap-).

SECTION:#57. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

princeps, C., chief radix, F., root miles, M., soldier

STEM princip- "chief"


Nom princeps

Gen. princip is

Dat. princip i

Acc. princip em

Abl. princip e

Voc. princeps


Nom princip es

Gen. preincipum

Dat. principibus

Acc. princip es

Abl. principibus

Voc. princip es


Nom radix

Gen. radic is

Dat. radic i

Acc. radic em

Abl. radic e

Voc. radix


Nom radic es

Gen. rade cum

Dat. radicibus

Acc. radic es

Abl. radicibus

Voc. radic es


Nom miles

Gen. milit is

Dat. milit i

Acc. milit em

Abl. milit e

Voc. miles


Nom milit es

Gen. militum

Dat. militibus

Acc. milit es

Abl. militibus

Voc. milit es


Nom custos

Gen. custod is

Dat. custod i

Acc. custod em

Abl. custod e



Nom custod es

Gen. custodum

Dat. custodibus

Acc. custod es

Abl. custodibus

Voc. custod es


Nom dux

Gen. ducis

Dat. duci

Acc. ducem

Abl. duce

Voc. dux


Nom duces

Gen. ducum

Dat. ducibus

Acc. duces

Abl. ducibus

Voc. duc es


Nom rex

Gen. reg s

Dat. regi

Acc. regem

Abl. rege

Voc. rex


Nom reges

Gen. regum

Dat. regibus

Acc. reges

Abl. regibus

Voc. reges

In like manner are declined--

aries, - etis (M.), ram; comes, - itis (c.), companion; lapis, -idis (M.), stone; iudex, -icis (M.), judge; cornix, -icis (F.), raven, and many other nouns.

SECTION:#58. Most mute stems are Masculine or Feminine. Those that are neuter have for the Nominative the simple stem. But:

Lingual Stems (t, d) ending in two consonants drop the final mute: as, cor (stem cord-), lac (stem lact-). So also stems in ea t- from the Greek: as, poe ma (stem poemat-).

The stem capit- shows u in the nominative (caput for capot).

SECTION:#59. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

cor, N., heart caput, N., head poema, N., poem

STEM cord- STEM capit- STEM poemat-


Nom cor

Gen. cordis

Dat. cord i

Acc. cor

Abl. corde

Voc. cor


Nom cord a

Gen. cordum

Dat. cordibus

Acc. cord a

Abl. cordibus

Voc. cord a


Nom caput

Gen. capitis

Dat. capiti

Acc. caput

Abl. capite

Voc. caput


Nom capita

Gen. capiyum

Dat. capitibus

Acc. capita

Abl. capitibus

Voc. capita


Nom poema

Gen. poemat is

Dat. poemat i

Acc. poema

Abl. poemat e

Voc. poema


Nom poemat a

Gen. poematum

Dat. poematum

Acc. poemat a

Abl. poematum

Voc. poemat a

SECTION:#60. The following irregularities require notice:

Greek neuters with nominative singular in - a (as poema) frequently end in - is in the dative and ablative plural, and rarely in - orum in the genitive plural; as, poematis (for poematibus), poematorum (for poematum).

A number of monosyllabic nouns with mute stems want the genitive plural (like cor). See Sect: 103. g. 2.

.Liquid and Nasal Stems (l, n, r)

SECTION:#61. In Masculine and Feminine nouns with liquid and nasal stems the Nominative is the same as the stem.

Exceptions are the following:

1. Stems in on- drop n in the nominative: as in legio, stem legion-.

2. Stems in din- and gin- drop n and keep an original o in the nominative: as in virgo, stem virgin-.

3. Stems in in- (not din- or gin-) retain n and have e instead of i in the nominative: as in cornicen, stem cornicin-.

4. Stems in tr- have -ter in the nominative: as, pater, stem patr-.

SECTION:#62. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

consul, M., consul leo, M., lion virgo, F., maiden pater, M., father


Nom consul

Gen. consul is

Dat. consul i

Acc. consul em

Abl. consul e

Voc. consul


Nom consul es

Gen. consulum

Dat. consulibus

Acc. consul es

Abl. consulibus

Voc. consul es


Nom leo

Gen. leonis

Dat. leoni

Acc. leonem

Abl. leone

Voc. leo


Nom leon es

Gen. leonum

Dat. leonibus

Acc. leones

Abl. leonibus

Voc. leon es


Nom virgo

Gen. virginis

Dat. virgini

Acc. virginem

Abl. virgine

Voc. virgo


Nom virgines

Gen. virginum

Dat. virginibus

Acc. virgines

Abl. virginibus

Voc. virgines


Nom pater

Gen. patris

Dat. patri

Acc. patrem

Abl. patre

Voc. pater


Nom patres

Gen. patrum

Dat. patribus

Acc. patres

Abl. patribus

Voc. patres

NOTE 1.--Stems in ll-, rr- (N.) lose one of their liquids in the nominative: as, far, farris; mel, mellis.

NOTE 2.--A few masculine and feminine stems have a nominative in -s as well as in -r: as, honos or honor, arbos or arbor.

NOTE 3.-- Canis, dog, and iuvenis, youth, have - is in the nominative.

SECTION:#63. In Neuter nouns with liquid or nasal stems the Nominative is the same as the stem.

Exceptions: 1. Stems in in- have e instead of i in the nominative: as in nomen, stem nomin-.

2. Most stems in er- and or- have -us in the nominative: as, genus, stem gener-.

SECTION:#64. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

nomen, N., name genus, N., race corpus, N., body aequor, N., sea


Nom nomen

Gen. nomin is

Dat. nomin i

Acc. nomen

Abl. nomin e

Voc. nomen


Nom nomin a

Gen. nominum

Dat. nominibus

Acc. nomin a

Abl. nominibus

Voc. nomin a


Nom genus

Gen. generis

Dat. generi

Acc. genus

Abl. genere

Voc. genus


Nom genera

Gen. generum

Dat. generibus

Acc. genera

Abl. generibus

Voc. gener a


Nom corpus

Gen. corporis

Dat. corpori

Acc. corpus

Abl. corpore

Voc. corpus


Nom corpora

Gen. corporum

Dat. corporibus

Acc. corpore

Abl. corporibus

Voc. corpora


Nom aequor

Gen. aequoris

Dat. aequori

Acc. aequor

Abl. aequore

Voc. aequor


Nom aequor a

Gen. aequorum

Dat. aequoribus

Acc. aequora

Abl. aequoribus

Voc. aequora

So also are declined opus, - eris, work; pignus, - eris or - oris, pledge, etc.

NOTE.--The following real or apparent liquid and nasal stems have the genitive plural in -ium, and are to be classed with the i-stems: imber, linter, uter, venter; glis, mas, mus, [ ren]; also vires (plural of vis: see Sect: 79).


SECTION:#65. Nouns of this class include:

1. Pure i-Stems:

Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic nouns in - is and four in -er.

Neuters in - e, -al, and -ar.

2. Mixed i-Stems, declined in the singular like consonant stems, the plural like i-stems.

1 These differences depend in part upon special phonetic laws, in accordance with which vowels in weakly accented or unaccented syllables are variously modified, and in part upon the influence of analogy.

2 These differences depend in part upon special phonetic laws, in accordance with which vowels in weakly accented or unaccented syllables are variously modified, and in part upon the influence of analogy.

3 These, no doubt, had originally ter- in the stem, but this had become weakened to tr- in some of the cases even in the parent speech. In Latin only the nominative and vocative singular show the e. But cf. Maspitris and Maspiteris (Ma[r]s-piter), quoted by Priscian as old forms.

4 These were originally s-stems (cf. Sect: 15. 4).

5 I.e. having the same number of syllables in the nominative and genitive singular.

.Pure I-Stems --Pure

SECTION:#66. Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic nouns in - is form the Nominative singular by adding s to the stem.

Four stems in bri- and tri- do not add s to form the nominative, but drop i and insert e before r. These are imber, linter, uter, venter.

SECTION:#67. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

sitis, F., thirst turris, F., tower ignis, M., fire imber, M., rain


Nom sitis

Gen. sitis

Dat. siti

Acc. sitim

Abl. siti

Voc. sitis


Nom turris

Gen. turris

Dat. turri

Acc. turrim (-em)

Abl. turri

Voc. turris


Nom turres

Gen. turrium

Dat. turribus

Acc. turres

Abl. turribus

Voc. turres


Nom ignis

Gen. ignis

Dat. igni

Acc. ignem

Abl. igne

Voc. ignis


Nom ignes

Gen. ignium

Dat. ignibus

Acc. ignes

Abl. ignibus

Voc. ignes


Nom imber

Gen. imbris

Dat. imbri

Acc. imbrem

Abl. imbre

Voc. imber


Nom imbres<

Gen. imbrium<

Dat. imbribus

Acc. imbres<

Abl. imbribus

Voc. imbres<

SECTION:#68. In Neuters the Nominative is the same as the stem, with final i changed to e: as, mare, stem mari-. But most nounsin which the i of the stem is preceded by al or ar lose the final vowel and shorten the preceding a: as, animea l, stem animali-.

Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar have - i in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive plural, and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural: as, animal, animali, -ia, -ium.

SECTION:#69. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:


Nom sedile

Gen. sedilis

Dat. sedili

Acc. sedile

Abl. sedile

Voc. sedile


Nom sedilia

Gen. sedilium

Dat. sedilibus

Acc. sedilia

Abl. sedilibus

Voc. sedilia


Nom animal

Gen. animalis

Dat. animali

Acc. animal

Abl. animali

Voc. animal


Nom animalia

Gen. animalium

Dat. animalibus

Acc. animalia

Abl. animalibus

Voc. animalia


Nom calcar

Gen. calcaris

Dat. calcari

Acc. calcar

Abl. calcari

Voc. calcar


Nom calcaria

Gen. calcarium

Dat. calcaribus

Acc. calcaria

Abl. calcaribus

Voc. calcaria

1 Such are animal, bacchanal, bidental, capital, cervical, cubital, lupercal, minutal, puteal, quadrantal, toral, tribunal, vectigal; calcar, cochlear, exemplar, lacunar, laquear, tucar, luminar, lupanar, palear, pulvinar, torcular. Cf. the plurals dentalia, frontalia, genualia, sponsalia; altaria, plantaria, specularia, talaria; also many names of festivals, as, Saturnalia.

2 Exceptions are augurale, collare, focale, navale, penetrale, ramale, scutale, tibiale; alveare, capillare. cochleare.

.Mixed i-Stems

SECTION:#70. Mixed i-stems are either original i-stems that have lost their i-forms in the singular, or consonant stems that have assumed i- forms in the plural.

NOTE.--It is sometimes impossible to distinguish between these two classes.

SECTION:#71. Mixed i-stems have -em in the accusative and - e in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitiveand - is or - es in the accusative plural. They include the following:

1. Nouns in - es, gen. - is.

2. Monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a consonant: as, ars, pons, arx.

3. Polysyllables in -ns or -rs: as, cliens, cohors.

4. Nouns in -tas, genitive - tatis (genitive plural usually -um): as, civitas.

5. Penat es, optimates, and nouns denoting birth or abode (patrials) in -as, - is, plural -ates, - ites: as, Arpinas, plural Arpinates; Quiris, plural Quirites.

6. The following monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a vowel: dos, fraus, glis, lis, mas, mus, nix, nox, strix, vis.

SECTION:#72. Nouns of this class are thus declined:

nubes, F., cloud urbs, F., city nox, F., night cliens, M., client aetas, F., age


Nom nubes

Gen. nubis

Dat. nubi

Acc. nubem

Abl. nube

Voc. nubes


Nom nubes

Gen. nubium

Dat. nubibus

Acc. nubes

Abl. nubibus

Voc. nubes


Nom urbs

Gen. urbis

Dat. urbi

Acc. urbem

Abl. urbe

Voc. urbs


Nom urbes

Gen. urbium

Dat. urbibus

Acc. urbes

Abl. urbibus

Voc. urbium


Nom nox

Gen. noctis

Dat. nocti

Acc. noctem

Abl. nocte

Voc. nox


Nom noctes

Gen. noctium

Dat. noctibus

Acc. noctes

Abl. noctibus

Voc. noctes


Nom cliens

Gen. clientis

Dat. clienti

Acc. clientem

Abl. clientem

Voc. cliens


Nom clientes

Gen. clientium

Dat. clientibus

Acc. clientes

Abl. clientibus

Voc. clientes


Nom aetas

Gen. aetatis

Dat. aetati

Acc. aetatem

Abl. aetate

Voc. aetas


Nom aetates

Gen. aetatum

Dat. aetatibus

Acc. aetates

Abl. aetatibus

Voc. aetates

1 There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having -ium, some -um, and some both.

2 These are acinaces, aedes, alces, caedes, cautes, clades, compages, contages, fames, feles, fides (plural), indoles, labes, lues, meles, moles, nubes, palumbes, proles,propages, pubes, sedes, saepes, sordes, strages, strues, suboles, tabes, torques, tudes, vates, vehes, vepres, verres, vulpes; aedes has also nominative aedis.

3 There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having -ium, some -um, and some both.

4 Rarely clientum.

5 Also aetatium. Cf.Sect: 71. 4.

Summary of i-Stems

SECTION:#73. The i-declension was confused even to the Romans themselves, nor was it stable at all periods of the language, early Latin having i-forms which afterwards disappeared. There was a tendency in nouns to lose the i-forms, in adjectives to gain them. The nominative plural (-is)was most thoroughly lost, next the accusative singular (-im), next the ablative (-i); while the genitive and accusative plural (-ium, - is) were retained in almost all.

SECTION:#74. I-stems show the i of the stem in the following forms:

They have the genitive plural in -ium (but some monosyllables lack it entirely). For a few exceptions, see Sect: 78.

All neuters have the nominative and accusative plural in -ia.

The accusative plural (M. or F.) is regularly - is.

The accusative singular (M. or F.) of a few ends in -im (Sect: 75).

The ablative singular of all neuters, and of many masculines and feminines, ends in - i (see Sect: 76).

SECTION:#75. The regular case-ending of the Accusative singular of i- stems (M. or F.) would be -im: as, sitis, sitim (cf. stella, -am; servus, -um); but in most nouns this is changed to - em (following the consonant declension).

The accusative in -im is found exclusively:

1. In Greek nouns and in names of rivers.

2. In buris, cucumis, ravis, sitis, tussis, vis.

3. In adverbs in -tim (being accusative of nouns in -tis), as, partim; and in amussim.

The accusative in -im is found sometimes in febris, puppis, restis, turris, securis, sementis, and rarely in many other words.

SECTION:#76. The regular form of the Ablative singular of i-stems would be - i: as, sitis, siti; but in most nouns this is changed to - e.

The ablative in - i is found exclusively:

1. In nouns having the accusative in -im (Sect: 75); also securis.

2. In the following adjectives used as nouns: aequalis, annalis, aqualis, consularis, gentilis, molaris, primipilaris, tribulis.

3. In neuters in - e, -al, -ar: except baccar, iubar, rete, and sometimes mare.

The ablative in - i is found sometimes:

1. In avis, clavis, febris, finis, ignis,imber, lux, navis, ovis, pelvis, puppis, sementis, strigilis, turris, and occasionally in other words.

2. In the following adjectives used as nouns: affinis, bipennis, canalis, familiaris, natalis, rivalis, sapiens, tridens, triremis, vocalis.

NOTE 1.--The ablative of fames is always fam e (Sect: 105. e). The defective mane has sometimes mani (Sect: 103. b. N.) as ablative.

NOTE 2.--Most names of towns in - e (as, Praeneste, Tergeste) and Soracte, a mountain, have the ablative in - e. Caere has Caerete.

NOTE 3.--Canis and iuvenis have cane, iuvene

SECTION:#77. The regular Nominative plural of i-stems is -es,but - is is occasionally found. The regular Accusative plural - is is common, but not exclusively used in any word. An old form for both cases is -eis (diphthong).

SECTION:#78. The following have -um (not -ium) in the genitive plural:

1. Always,-- canis, iuvenis,ambages, mare (once only, otherwise wanting), volucris; regularly, sedes, vates.

2. Sometimes,-- apis, caedes, clades, mensis, strues, suboles.

3. Very rarely,--patrials in -as, -atis; - is, - itis; as, Arpinas, Arpinatum, Samnis, Samnitum.

.Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension

(Editor: In the original format these are in a table, here you can find the same forms in plain text format.)

SECTION:#79. In many nouns the stem is irregularly modified in the nominative or other cases. Some peculiar forms are thus declined:

bos, C.--- senex, M. ---caro, F. ---os, N. ---vis, F.


NOM. bos ----senex ----caro ----os ----vis

GEN. bov is ----sen is---- carn is ----oss is ----vis (rare)

DAT. bov i ----sen i ----carn i ----oss i---- vi (rare)

ACC. bov em ----sen em ----carn em ----os ----vim

ABL. bov e ----sen e---- carn e---- oss e---- vi


NOM. bov es---- sen es---- carn es ----oss a ----vir es

GEN. boum ----senum ----carnium ----ossium ----virium

DAT. bobus---- senibus---- carnibus---- ossibus---- viribus

ACC. bov es ----sen es---- carn es ----oss a ----vir is (- es

ABL. bobus---- senibus ----carnibus---- ossibus ----viribus


NOM. sus------Iuppiter------nix------iter

GEN. su is ------Iov is ------niv is ------itiner is

DAT. su i------ Iov i------ niv i ------itiner i

ACC. su em ------Iov em ------niv em ------iter

ABL. su e------ Iov e ------niv e------ itiner e


NOM. su es ------niv es ------itiner a

GEN. suum ------nivium ------itinerum

DAT. suibus ------ nivibus ------itineribus

ACC. sues------ niv es------ itiner a

ABL. suibus ------ nivibus ------itineribus

Two vowel-stems in u-, gru- and su-, which follow the third declension, add s in the nominative, and are inflected like mute stems: grus has also a nominative gruis; sus has both suibus and subus in the dative and ablative plural, grus has only gruibus.

In the stem bov- (bou-) the diphthong ou becomes o in the nominative (bos, bovis).

In nav- (nau-) an i is added (navis, - is), and it is declined like turris (Sect: 67).

In Iov- (= Zeus) the diphthong (ou) becomes u in Iu-piter (for -pea ter), genitive I ovis, etc.; but the form Iuppiter is preferred.

In iter, itineris (N.), iecur, iecinoris (iecoris) (N.), supellex, supellectilis (F.), the nominative has been formed from a shorter stem; in senex, senis, from a longer; so that these words show a combination of forms from two distinct stems.

In nix, nivis the nominative retains a g from the original stem, the g uniting with s, the nominative ending, to form x. In the other cases the stem assumes the form niv- and it adds i in the genitive plural.

Vas (N.), vasis, keeps s throughout; plural vasa, vasorum. A dative plural vasibus also occurs. There is a rare singular vasum.

.The Locative Case

SECTION:#80. The Locative form for nouns of the third declension ends in the singular in - i or - e, in the plural in -ibus: as, ruri, in the country; Carthagini or Carthagine, at Carthage; Trallibus, at Tralles.

Greek Nouns of the Third Declension

SECTION:#81. Many nouns originally Greek--mostly proper names-- retain Greek forms of inflection. So especially:

1. Genitive singular in - os, as, tigridos.

2. Accusative singular in - a, as, aethera.

3. Vocative singular like the stem, as, Pericle, Orpheu, Atla.

4. Nominative plural in -es, as, heroe s.

5. Accusative plural in -es, as: heroes.

SECTION:#82. Some of these forms are seen in the following examples:

heros, M., hero lampas, F., torch basis, F., base tigris, C., tiger nais, F., naiad


NOM. heros -----lampas ----- bas is -----tigr is -----nais

GEN. hero is -----lampad os ----- bas eos -----tigr is(-id os) -----naid os

DAT. hero i -----lampad i -----bas i -----tigr i ----- naid i

ACC. hero a -----lampad a ----- bas in -----tigr in(-id a) -----naid a

ABL. hero e -----lampad e vbas i -----tigr i(-id e) -----naid e


NOM. -----heroes -----lampades -----bas es -----tigr es ----- naides

GEN. heroum -----lampadum -----basium(- eon) -----tigrium -----naidum

D.A.heroibus -----lampadibus -----basibus -----tigribus -----naidibus

ACC. heroea s -----lampadea s ----- bas is((-- eis) -----tigr is(-ide a s) -----naide a s


NOM. Dido ------Simois ------Capys

GEN. Didonis(Dedus) ------Simoentis ------ Capy os

DAT. Didoni(Dido) ------ Simoenti ------Capy i

ACC. Didon em(-o) ------ Simoenta ------Capyn

ABL. Didon e(-o) ------Simoente ------Capye

VOC. Dido ------Simois ------Capy

NOM. Orpheus ------Pericles------ Paris

GEN. Orphe i(-e os)------ Pericl is(- i) ------Paridis

DAT. Orphe i(-e o)------ Pericl i(- i)------ Parid i

ACC. Orphe a(-um) ------Periclem(- ea, - en) ------Parid em, Parim(-in)

ABL. Orphe o ------Pericl e ------Parid e, Par i

VOC. Orpheu ------Pericles(- e) ------Pari

NOTE.--The regular Latin forms may be used for most of the above.

SECTION:#83. Other peculiarities are the following:

Delphinus, - i (M.), has also the form delphi n, - inis; Salamis, - is (F.) has acc. Salamina.

Most stems in id- (nom. - is) often have also the forms of i-stems: as tigris, gen. -i dis (-i dos) or - is; acc. -i dem (-i da) or -im (- in); abl. -i de or - i. But many, including most feminine proper names, have acc. - idem (-ida); abl. -ide,--not -im or - i. (These stems are irregular also in Greek.)

Stems in on- sometimes retain -n in the nominative: as, Agamemnon (or Agamemno), genitive -o nis, accusative -o na.

Stems in ont- form the nominative in -on: as, horizon, Xenophon; but a few are occasionally Latinized into on- (nom. - o): as, Draco, -onis; Antipho, -onis.

Like Simo is are declined stems in ant-, ent-, and a few in unt- (nominative in -as, - is, -us): as, Atla s, - antis; Trapezus, -untis.

Some words fluctuate between different declensions: as Orpheus between the second and the third.

-on is found in the genitive plural in a few Greek titles of books: as, Metamorphoseon, of the Metamorphoses (Ovid's well-known poem); Georgicon, of the Georgics (a poem of Virgil).

Gender in the Third Declension

SECTION:#84. The Gender of nouns of this declension must be learned by practice and from the Lexicon. Many are masculine or feminine by nature or in accordance with the general rules for gender (p. 15). The most important rules for the others, with their principal exceptions, are the following:

SECTION:#85. Masculine are nouns in -or, - os, -er, -e s (gen. - itis), - ex (gen. -i cis): as, color, flos, imber, gurges ( gurgitis), vertex ( verticis).

Exceptions are the following:

Feminine are arbor; c os, dos; linter.

Neuter are ador, aequor, cor, marmor; os ( oris); also os ( ossis);

cadaver, iter, tuber, uber, ver; and names of plants and trees in -er: as, acer, papaver.

SECTION:#86. Feminine are nouns in - o, -as, - es, - is, -us, -x, and in -s preceded by a consonant: as, legio, civitas, nubes, avis, virtus, arx, urbs. The nouns in - o are mostly those in - do and -go, and abstract and collective nouns in -io.

Exceptions are the following:

Masculine are leo, leonis; ligo,-onis; sermo, -onis; also cardo, harpago margo, ordo, turbo; and concrete nouns in -io: as, pugio, unio, papilio;

acinaces, aries, celes, lebes, paries, pes;

Nouns in - nis and -guis: as, ignis, sanguis; also axis, caulis, collis, cucumis, ensis, fascis, follis, fustis, lapis, mensis, orbis, piscis, postis, pulvis, vomis;


calix, fornix, grex, phoenix, and nouns in - ex (gen. -icis) (Sect: 85);

dens, fons, mons, pons.

NOTE.--Some nouns in - is and -ns which are masculine were originally adjectives or participles agreeing with a masculine noun: as, Aprilis (sc. mensis), M., April; oriens (sc. sol), M., the east; annalis (sc. liber), M., the year-book.

Neuter are vas ( vasis); crus, ius, pus, rus, tus.

SECTION:#87. Neuter are nouns in - a, - e, -l, -n, -ar, -ur, -?-s: as, poema, mare, animal, nomen, calcar, robur, corpus; also lac and caput.

Exceptions are the following:

Masculine are sal, sol, pecten, vultur, lepus.

Feminine is pecus (gen. - udis).


SECTION:#88. The Stem of nouns of the Fourth Declension ends in u-. This is usually weakened to i before -bus. Masculine and Feminine nouns form the nominative by adding s; Neuters have for nominative the simple stem, but with u (long).

SECTION:#89. Nouns of the Fourth Declension are declined as follows:


Nom manus

Gen. manus

Dat. manui(-u)

Acc. manum

Abl. manu

Voc. manus


Nom manus

Gen. man uum

Dat. man uum

Acc. manus

Abl. manuum

Voc. manus


Nom lacus

Gen. lacus

Dat. lacui(-u)

Acc. lacum

Abl. lacu



Nom lacus

Gen. lacuum

Dat. lacubus -ibus

Acc. lacus

Abl. lacubus -ibus

Voc. lacus


Nom genus

Gen. genus

Dat. genu

Acc. genus

Abl. genu



Nom genua

Gen. genuum

Dat. genibus

Acc. genua

Abl. genibus

Voc. genua

1 An old, though not the original ending (see p. 32. footnote 2).

2 Always in the formula aqua et igni interdici (Sect: 401).

3 The Indo-European ending of the nominative plural, -es (preserved in Greek in consonant stems, as ortux, ortug- es), contracts with a stem-vowel and gives - es in the Latin i-declension (cf, the Greek plural oeis). This - es was extended to consonant stems in Latin.

4 Canis and iuvenis are really n-stems

5 Also Iupiter.

6 The Indo-European locative singular ended in -i, which became -e in Latin. Thus the Latin ablative in - e is, historically considered, a locative. The Latin ablative in - i (from -id) was an analogical formation (cf. - a from - ad, - o from -od), properly belonging to i-stems. With names of towns and a few other words, a locative function was ascribed to forms in - i (as, Carthagini), partly on the analogy of the real locative of o-stems (as, Corinthi, Sect: 49. a); but forms in -e also survived in this use. The plural -bus is properly dative or ablative, but in forms like Trallibus it has a locative function. Cf. Philippis (Sect: 49. a), in which the ending - is is, historically considered, either locative, or instrumental, or both, and Athenis (Sect: 43. c), in which the ending is formed on the analogy of o-stems.

7 Dative, heroisin (once only).

8 Some nouns of doubtful or variable gender are omitted.

9 Many nouns in - o (gen. -onis) are masculinby signification: as, gero, carrier restio, ropemaker: and family names (originally nicknames): as, Cicero, Naso. See Sect: 236. c, 255.

SECTION:#90. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension in -us are Masculine.

Exceptions: The following are Feminine: acus, anus, colus, domus, idus (plural), manus, nurus, porticus, quinquatrus (plural), socrus, tribus, with a few names of plants and trees. Also, rarely, penus, specus.

SECTION:#91. The only Neuters of the Fourth Declension are cornu, genu, pecu (Sect: 105. f), ver u.

1 A few other neuters of this declension are mentioned by the ancient grammarians as occurring in certain cases.

SECTION:#92. The following peculiarities in case-forms of the Fourth Declension require notice:

A genitive singular in - i (as of the second declension) sometimes occurs in nouns in -tus: as, senatus, genitive senati (regularly senatus).

In the genitive plural - uum is sometimes pronounced as one syllable, and may then be written -um: as, currum (Aen. 6.653) for curruum.

The dative and ablative plural in -ubus are retained in partus and tribus; so regularly in artus and lacus, and occasionally in other words; portus and specus have both -ubus and -ibus.

Most names of plants and trees, and colus, distaff, have also forms of the second declension: as, ficus, fig, genitive ficus or fici.

An old genitive singular in - uis or - uos and an old genitive plural in -uom occur rarely: as, senatuis, senatuos; fluctuom.

The ablative singular ended anciently in -ud (cf. Sect: 43. N. 1): as, magistratud.

SECTION:#93. Domus (F.), house, has two stems ending in u- and o-. Hence it shows forms of both the fourth and second declensions:


Nom domus

Gen. domus (dom i, loc.)

Dat. domui (dom o)

Acc. domum

Abl. domo -u

Voc. dome


Nom domus domi

Gen. domuum (dom orum)

Dat. domibus

Acc. domus domos

Abl. domibus

Voc. --

NOTE 1.--The Locative is domi (rarely domui), at home.

NOTE 2.--The Genitive domi occurs in Plautus; domorum is late or poetic.

SECTION:#94. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension are formed from verb-stems, or roots, by means of the suffix -tus (- sus) (Sect: 238. b):

cantus, song, CAN, cano, sing; casus (for *cad-tus), chance, CAD, cado, fall, exsulatus, exile, from exsulo, to be an exile (exsul).

Many are formed either from verb-stems not in use, or by analogy:

consulatus (as if from *consulo, - are), senatus, incestus.

The accusative and the dative or ablative of nouns in -tus (- sus) form the Supines of verbs (Sect: 159. b): as, spectatum, petitum; dictu, visu.

Of many verbal derivatives only the ablative is used as a noun: as, iussu ( meo), by (my) command; so iniussu ( populi), without (the people's) order. Of some only the dative is used: as, divisui.


SECTION:#95. The Stem of nouns of the Fifth Declension ends in e-, which appears in all the cases. The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s.

SECTION:#96. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are declined as follows:

res, F., thing dies, M., day fides, F., faith


Nom res

Gen. rei

Dat. rei

Acc. rem

Abl. re

Voc. res


Nom res

Gen. rerum

Dat. rebus

Acc. re

Abl. rebus

Voc. res


Nom dies

Gen. diei

Dat. diei

Acc. diei

Abl. die

Voc. dies


Nom dies

Gen. dierum

Dat. diebus

Acc. dies

Abl. diebus

Voc. dies


Nom fides

Gen. fidei

Dat. fidei

Acc. fidem

Abl. fide

Voc. fides


Nom fides

Gen. fiderum<

Dat. fidibus

Acc. fides

Abl. fidibus

Voc. fides

NOTE.--The e of the stem is shortened in the genitive and dative singular of fides, spes, res, but in these it is found long in early Latin. In the accusative singular e is always short.

Gender in the Fifth Declension

SECTION:#97. All nouns of the Fifth Declension are Feminine, except dies (usually M.), day, and meridies (M.), noon.

Dies is sometimes feminine in the singular, especially in phrases indicating a fixed time, and regularly feminine when used of time in general: as, constituta die, on a set day; longa dies, a long time.

Case-Forms in the Fifth Declension

SECTION:#98. The following peculiarities require notice:

Of nouns of the fifth declension, only dies and res are declined throughout. Most want the plural, which is, however, found in the nominative or accusative in acies, effigies, e luvies, facies, glacies, series, species, spes.

The Locative form of this declension ends in - e. It is found only in certain adverbs and expressions of time:

hodie, to-day; die quarto (old, quarti), the fourth day;

perendie, day after to-morrow; pridie, the day before.

The fifth declension is closely related to the first, and several nouns have forms of both: as, materia, -ies; saevitia, -ies. The genitive and dative in - ei are rarely found in these words.

Some nouns vary between the fifth and the third declension: as, requies, saties (also satias, genitive -atis), plebes (also plebs, genitive plebis), fames, genitive famis, ablative fame.

NOTE.--In the genitive and dative - ei (-ei) was sometimes contracted into -ei: as, tribunus pleb ei, tribune of the people ( plebes). Genitives in - i and - e also occur: as, dii (Aen. 1.636) , plebi-scitum, acie (B. G. 2.23) . A few examples of the old genitive in - es are found (cf. -as in the first declension, Sect: 43. b). The dative has rarely -e, and a form in - i is cited.

1 The forms facierum, specierum, speciebus, sperum, spebus, are cited by grammarians, also speres, speribus, and some of these occur in late authors.


Nouns wanting in the Plural

SECTION:#99. Some nouns are ordinarily found in the Singular number only ( singularia tantum). These are:

1. Most proper names: as, Caesar, Caesar; Gallia, Gaul.

2. Names of things not counted, but reckoned in mass: as, aurum, gold; aer, air; triticum, wheat.

3. Abstract nouns: as, ambitio, ambition; fortitudo, courage; calor, heat.

SECTION:#100. Many of these nouns, however, are used in the plural in some other sense.

The plural of a proper name may be applied to two or more persons or places, or even things, and so become strictly common:

duodecim Caesares, the twelve Caesars.

Galliae, the two Gauls (Cis- and Transalpine).

Castores, Castor and Pollux; Ioves, images of Jupiter.

The plural of names of things reckoned in mass may denote particular objects: as, aera, bronze utensils, nives, snowflakes; or different kinds of a thing: as, aeres, airs (good and bad).

The plural of abstract nouns denotes occasions or instances of the quality, or the like:

quaedam excellentiae, some cases of superiority; otia, periods of rest; calores, frigora, times of heat and cold.

Nouns wanting in the Singular

SECTION:#101. Some nouns are commonly or exclusively found in the Plural ( pluralia tantum). Such are:

1. Many names of towns: as, Athenae ( Athens), Thurii, Philippi, Veiii.

2. Names of festivals and games: as, Olympia, the Olympic Games; Bacchanalia, feast of Bacchus; Quinquatrus, festival of Minerva; ludi Romani, the Roman Games.

3. Names of classes: as, optimates, the upper classes; maiores, ancestors; liberi, children; penates, household gods; Quirites, citizens (of Rome).

4. Words plural by signification: as, arma, weapons; artus, joints; divitiae, riches; scalae, stairs; valvae, folding-doors; fores, double-doors; angustiae, a narrow pass (narrows); moenia, city walls.

NOTE 1.--Some words, plural by signification in Latin, are translated by English nouns in the singular number: as, deliciae, delight, darling; fauces, throat; fides, lyre (also singular in poetry); insidiae, ambush; cervices, neck; viscera, flesh.

NOTE 2.--The poets often use the plural number for the singular, sometimes for metrical reasons, sometimes from a mere fashion: as, ora (for os), the face; sceptra (for sceptrum), sceptre; silentia (for silentium), silence.

SECTION:#102. Some nouns of the above classes (Sect: 101. 1-4), have a corresponding singular, as noun or adjective, often in a special sense:

1. As noun, to denote a single object: as, Bacchanal, a spot sacred to Bacchus; optimas, an aristocrat.

2. As adjective: as, Cato Maior, Cato the Elder.

3. In a sense rare, or found only in early Latin: as, scala, a ladder, valva, a door; artus, a joint.

Nouns Defective in Certain Cases

SECTION:#103. Many nouns are defective in case-forms::

Indeclinable nouns, used only as nominative and accusative singular: fas, nefas, instar, nihil, opus (need), secus.

NOTE 1.--The indeclinable adjective necesse is used as a nominative or accusative.

NOTE 2.--The genitive nihili and the ablative nihilo (from nihilum, nothing) occur.

Nouns found in one case only (monoptotes):

1. In the nominative singular: glos (F.).

2. In the genitive singular: dicis, nauci (N.).

3. In the dative singular: divisui (M.) (cf. Sect: 94. c).

4. In the accusative singular: amussim (M.); venum (dative veno in Tacitus).

5. In the ablative singular: pondo (N.); mane (N.); astu (M.), by craft; iussu, iniussu, natu, and many other verbal nouns in -us (M.) (Sect: 94. c).

NOTE.--Mane is also used as an indeclinable accusative, and an old form mani is used as ablative. Pondo with a numeral is often apparently equivalent to pounds. A nominative singular astus and a plural astus occur rarely in later writers.

6. In the accusative plural: infitias.

Nouns found in two cases only (diptotes):

1. In the nominative and ablative singular: fors, forte (F.).

2. In the genitive and ablative singular: spontis (rare), sponte (F.).

3. In the accusative singular and plural: dicam, dicas (F.).

4. In the accusative and ablative plural: foras, foris (F.) (cf. fores), used as adverbs.

Nouns found in three cases only (triptotes):

1. In the nominative, accusative, and ablative singular: impetus, -um, -u (M.); lues, - em, - e (F.).

2. In the nominative, accusative, and dative or ablative plural: grates, -ibus (F).

3. In the nominative, genitive, and dative or ablative plural: iugera, -um, -ibus (N.); but iugerum, etc., in the singular (cf. Sect: 105. b).

Nouns found in four cases only (tetraptotes):

In the genitive, dative, accusative, ablative singular: dicionis, - i, - em, - e (F.).

Nouns declined regularly in the plural, but defective in the singular:

1. Nouns found in the singular, in genitive, dative, accusative, ablative: frugis, - i, - em, - e (F.); opis, - i (once only), - em, - e (F.; nominative Ops as a divinity).

2. Nouns found in the dative, accusative, ablative: preci, - em, - e (F.).

3. Nouns found in the accusative and ablative: cassem, - e (F.); sordem, - e (F.).

4. Nouns found in the ablative only: ambage (F.); fauce (F.); obice (C.).

Nouns regular in the singular, defective in the plural:

1. The following neuters have in the plural the nominative and accusative only: fel ( fella), far ( farra), hordeum ( hordea), ius, broth ( iura), mel ( mella), murmur ( murmura), pus ( pura), rus ( rura), tus or thus (tura).

NOTE.--The neuter ius, right, has only iura in classical writers, but a very rare genitive plural iurum occurs in old Latin.

2. calx, cor, cos, crux, fax, faex, lanx, lux, nex, os ( oris),os ( ossis),pax, pix, ros, sal, sol, vas ( vadis), want the genitive plural.

3. Most nouns of the fifth declension want the whole or part of the plural (see Sect: 98. a).

Nouns defective in both singular and plural:

1. Noun found in the genitive, accusative, ablative singular; nominative, accusative, dative, ablative plural: vicis, - em, - e; - es, -ibus.

2. Noun found in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular; genitive plural wanting: dapis, - i, - em, - e; - es, -ibus.

1 Some early or late forms and other rarities are omitted.

2 The dative singular impetui and the ablative plural impetibus occur once each.

3 The ablative plural oribus is rare, the classical idiombeing in ore omnium, in everybody's mouth, etc., not in oribus omnium.

4 The genitive plural ossium is late; ossuum (from ossua, plural of a neuter u-stem) is early and late.

5 An old nominative daps is cited.


SECTION:#104. Many nouns vary either in Declension or in Gender.

SECTION:#105. Nouns that vary in Declension are called heteroclites.

Colus (F.), distaff; domus (F.), house (see Sect: 93), and many names of plants in -us, vary between the Second and Fourth Declensions.

Some nouns vary between the Second and Third: as, iugerum, - i, - o, ablative - o or - e, plural - a, -um, -ibus; Mulciber, genitive -beri and - beris; sequester, genitive -tri and - tris; vas, vasis, and (old) vasum, - i (Sect: 79. e).

Some vary between the Second, Third, and Fourth: as, penus, penum, genitive peni and penoris, ablative penu.

Many nouns vary between the First and Fifth (see Sect: 98. c).

Some vary between the Third and Fifth. Thus,-- requies has genitive - etis, dative wanting, accusative -etem or - em, ablative - e (once - ete); fames, regularly of the third declension, has ablative fame (Sect: 76. N. 1), and pubes (M.) has once dative pube (in Plautus).

Pecus varies between the Third and Fourth, having pecoris, etc., but also nominative pecu, ablative pecu; plural pecua, genitive pecuum.

Many vary between different stems of the same declension: as, femur (N.), genitive - oris, also - inis (as from *femen); iecur (N.), genitive iecinoris, iocinoris, iecoris; munus (N.), plural munera and munia.

SECTION:#106. Nouns that vary in Gender are said to be heterogeneous.

The following have a masculine form in -us and a neuter in -um: balteus, caseus, clipeus, collum, cingulum, pileus, tergum, vallum, with many others of rare occurrence.

The following have in the Plural a different gender from that of the Singular:

balneum (N.), bath; balneae (F.), baths (an establishment).

caelum (N.), heaven; caelos (M. acc., Lucr.).

carbasus (F.), a sail; carbasa (N.) (- orum), sails.

delicium (N.), pleasure; deliciae (F.), pet.

epulum (N.), feast; epulae (F.), feast.

frenum (N.), a bit; freni (M.) or frena (N.), a bridle.

iocus (M.), a jest; ioca (N.), ioci (M.), jests.

locus (M.), place; loca (N.), loci (M., usually topics, passages in books).

rastrum (N.), a rake; rastri (M.), rastra (N.), rakes.

NOTE.--Some of these nouns are heteroclites as well as heterogeneous.

SECTION:#107. Many nouns are found in the Plural in a peculiar sense:

aedes, - is (F.), temple--- aedes, -ium, house.

aqua (F.), water--- aquae, mineral springs, a watering-place.

auxilium (N.), help--- auxilia, auxiliaries.

bonum (N.), a good--- bona, goods, property.

carcer (M.), dungeon--- carceres, barriers (of race-course).

castrum (N.), fort--- castra, camp.

comitium (N.), place of assembly--- comitia, an election (town-meeting).

copia (F.), plenty--- copiae, stores, troops.

fides (F.), harp-string--- fides, lyre.

finis (M.), end--- fines, bounds, territories.

fortuna (F.), fortune--- fortunae, possessions.

gratia (F.), favor (rarely, thanks)--- gratiae, thanks (also, the Graces).

hortus (M.), a gardon--- horti, pleasure-grounds.

impedimentum (N.) hindrance--- impedimenta, baggage.

littera (F.), letter (of alphabet)--- litterae, epistle, literature.

locus (M.), place [plural loca (N.)]--- loci,topics, places in books.

ludus (M.), sport--- ludi, public games.

mos (M.), habit, custom--- mores, character.

natalis (M.), birthday--- natales, descent, origin.

opera (F.), work--- operae, day-laborers (uhands?).

[ ops,] opis (F.), help (Sect: 103. f. 1)--- opes, resources, wealth.

pars (F.), part--- partes, part (on the stage), party.

rostrum (N.), beak of a ship--- rostra, speaker's platform.

sal (M. or N.), salt--- sales, witticisms.

tabella (F.), tablet--- tabellae, documents, records.

1 That is, "nouns of different inflections"(eteros, another, and klin?, to inflect).

2 That is, "of different genders"( heteros, another, and genos, gender).

3 In early writers the regular plural.


SECTION:#108. A Roman had regularly three names: (1) the praenomen, or personal name; (2) the nomen, or name of the gens or house; (3) the cognomen, or family name:

Thus in Marcus Tullius Cicero we have--

Marcus, the praenomen, like our Christian or given name;

Tullius, the nomen, properly an adjective denoting of the Tullian gens (or house) whose original head was a real or supposed Tullus;

Cicero, the cognomen, or family name, often in origin a nickname,--in this case from cicer, a vetch, or small pea.

NOTE.--When two persons of the same family are mentioned together, the cognomen is usually put in the plural: as, Publius et Servius Sullae.

A fourth or fifth name was sometimes given as a mark of honor or distinction, or to show adoption from another gens.

Thus the complete name of Scipio the Younger was Publius Cornelius Scipio africanus Aemilianus: e fricanus, from his exploits in Africa; Aemilianus, as adopted from the Aemilian gens.

NOTE.--The Romans of the classical period had no separate name for these additions, but later grammarians invented the word agnomen to express them.

Women had commonly in classical times no personal names, but were known only by the nomen of their gens.

Thus, the wife of Cicero was Terentia, and his daughter Tullia. A second daughter would have been called Tullia secunda or minor, a third daughter, Tullia tertia, and so on.

The commonest praenomens are thus abbreviated:

A. Aulus. L. Lucius. Q. Quintus.

App. (Ap.) Appius. M. Marcus. Ser. Servius.

C. (G.) Gaius ( Caius) (cf. Sect: 1. a). M'. Manius. Sex. (S.) Sextus.

Cn. (Gn.) Gnaeus (Cneius). Mam. Mamercus. Sp. Spurius.

D. Decimus. N. ( Num.) Numerius T. Titus.

K. Kaeso (Caeso). P. Publius. Ti. (Tib.) Tiberius.

NOTE 1.--In the abbreviations C. and Cn., the initial character has the value or G (Sect: 1. a).

1 In stating officially the full name of a Roman it was customary to include the praenomina of the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, together with the name of the tribe to which the individual belonged. Thus in an inscription we find M. TVLLIVS M. F. M. N. M. PR. COR. CICERO, i.e. Marcus Tullius Marci filius Marci nepos Marci pronepos Cornelia tribu Cicero. The names of grandfather and great-grandfather as well as that of the tribe are usually omitted in literature. The name of a wife or daughter is usually accompanied by that of the husband or father in the genitive: as, Postumia Servi Sulpicii (Suet. Iul. 50) , Postumia, wife of Servius Sulpicius; Caecilia Metelli (Div. 1.104) , Caecilia, daughter of Metellus.


SECTION:#109. Adjectives and Participles are in general formed and declined like Nouns, differing from them only in their use.

1. In accordance with their use, they distinguish gender by different forms in the same word, and agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. Thus,--

bonus puer, the good boy.

bona puella, the good girl.

bonum donum, the good gift.

2. In their inflection they are either (1) of the First and Second Declensions, or (2) of the Third Declension.


SECTION:#110. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions (a- and o-stems) are declined in the Masculine like servus, puer, or ager; in the Feminine like stella; and in the Neuter like bellum.

The regular type of an adjective of the First and Second Declensions is bonus, - a, -um, which is thus declined:

bonus, bona, bonum, good



NOM. bonus -----------bona -----------bonum

GEN. boni ----------bonae -----------boni

DAT. bono ----------bonae -----------bono

ACC. bonum -----------bonam -----------bonum

ABL. bono ----------bona -----bono

VOC. bon e----------- bon a -----------bonum


NOM. boni ----------bonae ----------bona

GEN. bonorum ----------bonarum ----------bonorum

DAT. bonis ----------bonis ----------bonis

ACC. bonos ----------bonas ----------bona

ABL. bonis ----------bonis ----------bonis

NOTE.--Stems in quo- have nominative -cus (- quos), - qua, - cum (- quom), accusative - cum (- quom), - quam, - cum (- quom), to avoid quu- (see Sect: 6. b and 46. N. 2). Thus,:

NOM. propincus (-quos) propin qua propin cum (- quom)

GEN. propin qui propin quae propin qui, etc.

But most modern editions disregard this principle.

The Genitive Singular masculine of adjectives in - ius ends in - ii, and the Vocative in -ie; not in - i, as in nouns (cf. Sect: 49. b, c); as, Lacedaemonius, - ii, -ie.

NOTE.--The possessive meus, my, has the vocative masculine mi (cf. Sect: 145).

SECTION:#111. Stems ending in ro- preceded by e form the Nominative Masculine like puer (Sect: 47) and are declined as follows:

miser, misera, miserum, wretched



NOM. miser--------- -- miser a -----------miserum

GEN. miseri -----------miserae -----------miseri

DAT. misero -----------miserae -----------misero

ACC. miserum -----------miseram -----------miserum

ABL. misero -----------misera -----------misero


NOM. miseri -----------miserae -----------misera

GEN. miserorum --------miserarum --------miserorum

DAT. miseris ----------miseris ----------miseris

ACC. miseros ----------miseras -----------misera

ABL. miser is ----------miser is ----------miser is

Like miser are declined asper, gibber, lacer, liber, prosper (also pros perus), satur (-ura, -urum), tener, with compounds of - fer and -ger: as, saetiger, - era, - erum, bristle-bearing; also, usually, dexter. In these the e belongs to the stem; but in dextra it is often omitted: as, dextra manus, the right hand.

NOTE.--Stems in ero- (as procerus), with morigerus, prope rus, have the regular nominative masculine in -us.

The following lack a nominative singular masculine in classic use: cetera, infera, postera, supera. They are rarely found in the singular except in certain phrases: as, postero die, the next day.

NOTE.--An ablative feminine in - o is found in a few Greek adjectives: as, lectica; octophoro (Verr. 5.27) .

SECTION:#112. Stems in ro- preceded by a consonant form the Nominative Masculine like ager (Sect: 47) and are declined as follows:

niger, nigra, nigrum, black



NOM. niger -----------nigra -----------nigrum

GEN. nigri -----------nigrae -----------nigri

DAT. nigro -----------nigrae -----------nigro

ACC. nigrum -----------nigram -----------nigrum

ABL. nigr acute; -----------nigra -----------nigro


NOM. nigri ------------nigrae -----------nigra

GEN. nigrorum ---------nigr arum -------nigrorum

DAT. nigris -----------nigr is ----------nigris

ACC. nigros -----------nigras -----------nigra

ABL. nigris -----------nigris ----------nigris

Like niger are declined aeger, ater, creber, faber, glaber, integer, ludicer, macer, piger, pulcher, ruber, sacer, scaber, sinister, taeter, vafer; also the possessives noster, vester (Sect: 145).

SECTION:#113. The following nine adjectives with their compounds have the Genitive Singular in - ius and the Dative in - i in all genders:

alius (N. aliud), other. totus, whole. alter, -terius, the other.

nullus, no, none. ullus, any. neuter, -trius, neither.

solus, alone. unus, one. uter, -trius, which (of two).

Of these the singular is thus declined:

NOM. unus ------------una ------------unum

GEN. un ius ----------unius ----------un ius

DAT. un i------------ uni------------ un i

ACC. unum --------- -unam -------------unum

ABL. un o ------------un a ------------un o

NOM. uter --------- utr a --------- utrum

GEN. utrius -------- utrius --------- utr ius

DAT. utri --------- utri --------- utri

ACC. utrum --------- utram --------- utrum

ABL. ut o --------- utra--------- utro

NOM. alius --------- ali a --------- aliud

GEN. al ius--------- al ius --------- al ius

DAT. ali i ------- -- ali i --------- ali i

ACC. alium -------- - aliam --------- aliud

ABL. alio ------- -- alio --------- alia o

NOM. alter ------- --alter a ------- --alterum

GEN. alter ius ------- alter ius ------- -alter ius

DAT. alter i ------- --alter i ------- --alter i

ACC. alterum------- -- alteram ------- --alterum

ABL. alter o ------- --alter a ------- --alter o

The plural of these words is regular, like that of bonus (Sect: 110).

The genitive in - ius, dative in - i, and neuter in -d are pronominal in origin (cf. illius, illi, illud, and Sect: 146).

The i of the genitive ending - ius, though originally long, may be made short in verse; so often in alterius and regularly in utriusque.

Instead of alius, alterius is commonly used, or in the possessive sense the adjective alienus, belonging to another, another's.

In compounds--as alteruter--sometimes both parts are declined, sometimes only the latter. Thus, alteri utri or alterutri, to one of the two.

NOTE.--The regular genitive and dative forms (as in bonus) are sometimes found in some of these words: as, genitive and dative feminine, aliae; dative masculine, alio. Rare forms are alis and alid (for alius, aliud).


SECTION:#114. Adjectives of the Third Declension are thus classified:

1. Adjectives of Three Terminations in the nominative singular,--one for each gender: as, acer, acris, acre.

2. Adjectives of Two Terminations,--masculine and feminine the same: as, levis (M., F.), leve (N.).

3. Adjectives of One Termination,--the same for all three genders: as, atrox.

Adjectives of two and three terminations are true i-stems and hence retain in the ablative singular - i, in the neuter plural -ia, in the genitive plural -ium, and in the accusative plural regularly - is (see Sect: 73 and 74).

Adjectives of Three and of Two Terminations

SECTION:#115. Adjectives of Three Terminations are thus declined:

acer, acris, acre, keen, STEM acri-


NOM. acer -------------acr is ----------acr e

GEN. acr is ----------acr is ------------acr is

DAT. acr i -----------acr i ---------- acr i

ACC. acr em ----------acr em -----------acr e

ABL. acr i ----------- acr i ---------- acr i


NOM. acr es ----------acr es -----------acria

GEN. acrium -----------acrium ------------acrium

DAT. acribus ----------acribus ----------acribus

ACC. acr is (-es) -----acr is (- es)-----acria

ABL. acribus ----------acribus ----------acribus

Like acer are declined the following stems in ri-:


alacer, campester, celeber, equester, paluster, pedester, puter, saluber, silvester, terrester, volucer. So

ACC.also names of months in - ber: as, October (cf. Sect: 66).


NOTE 1.--This formation is comparatively late, and hence, in the poets and in early Latin, either the masculine or the feminine form of these adjectives was sometimes used for both genders: as, coetus alacris (Enn.). In others, as faenebris, funebris, illustris, lugubris, mediocris, muliebris, there is no separate masculine form at all, and these are declined like levis (Sect: 116).

NOTE 2.-- Celer, celeris, celere, swift, has the genitive plural celerum, used only as a noun, denoting a military rank. The proper name Celer has the ablative in - e.

SECTION:#116. Adjectives of Two Terminations are thus declined:

There will be a masculine and a Neuter form, only. But the forms of some are doubtful.

Like acer are declined the following stems in ri-:

alacer, campester, celeber, equester, paluster, pedester, puter, saluber, silvester, terrester, volucer. So also names of months in - ber: as, October (cf. Sect: 66).

NOTE 1.--This formation is comparatively late, and hence, in the poets and in early Latin, either the masculine or the feminine form of these adjectives was sometimes used for both genders: as, coetus alacris (Enn.). In others, as faenebris, funebris, illustris, lugubris, mediocris, muliebris, there is no separate masculine form at all, and these are declined like levis (Sect: 116).

NOTE 2.-- Celer, celeris, celere, swift, has the genitive plural celerum, used only as a noun, denoting a military rank. The proper name Celer has the ablative in - e.

levis, leve, light, STEM levi-

MASC./FEM ----------------------NEUTER


NOM. levis ----------------leve

GEN. levis ---------------levis

DAT. levi ----------------levi

ACC. levem ---------------leve

ABL. levi ----------------levi


NOM. leves ---------------levia

GEN. levium ---------------levium

DAT. levibus ---------------levibus

ACC. levis (- es) ----------levia

ABL. levibus ----------------levibus

NOTE.--Adjectives of two and three terminations sometimes have an ablative in - e in poetry, rarely in prose.

Adjectives of One Termination

SECTION:#117. The remaining adjectives of the third declension are Consonant stems; but most of them, except Comparatives, have the following forms of i-stems:

- i in the ablative singular (but often - e)

-ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter

ium in the genitive plural

- is (as well as - es) in the accusative plural masculine and feminine.

In the other cases they follow the rule for Consonant stems.

These adjectives, except stems in l- or r-, form the nominative singular from the stem by adding s: as, atrox (stem atroc- + s), egens (stem egent- + s).

Here belong the present participles in -ns (stem nt-): as, amans, monens. They are declined like egens (but cf. Sect: 121).

SECTION:#118. Adjectives of one termination are declined as follows:

atrox, fierce, STEM atroc- egens, needy, STEM egent-


M. N. M. N.

NOM. atrox atrox ---------------egens egens

GEN. atroc is atroc is ------------egent is egent is

DAT. atroc i atroc i -------------egent i egent i

ACC. atroc em atrox ---------------egent em egens

ABL. atroc i(-e) atroc i (- e)--------egent i (-e) egent i(- )


NOM. atroc es atrocia ------------egent es egentia

GEN. atrocium atrocium ------------gentium egentium

DAT. atrocibus atrocibus ----------egentibus egentibus

ACC. atrocis(-es) atrocia ------------egent is(-es) egentia

ABL. atrocibus atrocibus ----------egentibus egentibus

SECTION:#119. Other examples are the following:

concors, harmonious STEM concord- praeceps, headlong STEM praecipit-


M., F. N. M., F. N.

NOM. concors concors ----------praeceps praeceps

GEN. concord is concord is -------praecipit is praecipit is

DAT. concord i concord i --------praecipit i praecipit i

ACC. concord em concors ----------praecipit em praeceps

ABL. concord i concord i ---------praecipit i praecipit i


NOM. concord es concordia -------praecipit es praecipitia

GEN. concordium concordium ------[ praecipitium]

DAT. concordibus concordibus -----praecipitibus praecipitibus

ACC. concord is/-es concordia -------0raecipit is/ es praecipitia

ABL. concordibus concordibus -----praecipitibus praecipitibus

iens, going STEM eunt- par, equal STEM par- dives, rich STEM divit-


M., F. N. M., F. N. M., F. N.

NOM. iens iens -------------par par ------------dives dives

GEN. eunt is eunt is -------par is par is -------divit is divit is

DAT. eunt i eunt i ---------par i par i-------- divit i divit i

ACC. eunt em iens ---------par em par----------divit em dives

ABL. eunt e/-i eunt e/-i-- -par i par i --------divit e divit e


NOM. eunt es euntia ---------par es paria -----------divit es [ditia]

GEN. euntium euntium ---------parium parium ---------divitum d ivitum

DAT. euntibus euntibus -------paribus paribus -------divitibus divitibus

ACC. eunt is/-es euntia ------par is/-es paria ------divit is /-es [divites]

ABL. euntibus euntibus -------paribus paribus-------- divitibus divitibus

uber, fertile STEM uber- vetus, old STEM veter-


NOM. uber uber -------------------vetus vetus

GEN. uber is uber is -------------veter is veter is

DAT. uber i uber i ----------------veter i veter i

ACC. uber em uber -----------------veter em vetus

ABL. uber iuber i -----------------veter e (- i) veter e (- i)


NOM. uber es uber a --------------veter es veter a

GEN. uberum uberum ---------------veterum veterum

DAT. uberibus uberibus -----------veteribus veteribus

ACC. uber es uber a-------------- veter es veter a

ABL. uberibus uberibus-- ---------veteribus veteribus

NOTE.--Of these vetus is originally an s-stem. In most s-stems the r has intruded self into the nominative also, as bi-corpor (for *bi-corpos), degener (for de-genes).

.Comparatives: Declension

SECTION:#120. Comparatives are declined as follows:

melior, better STEM melior- for melios------ plus, more STEM plur- for plus- There is a Masc./Fem. and a separate Neuter for melius. But plus has just one form


NOM. melior melius --------------plus

GEN. melior is melior is -----------plur is

DAT. melior i melior i ------------pluri

ACC. melior em melius --------------plus

ABL. melior e (- i) melior e (- i) ------plur e


NOM. melior es melior a plur es --------------plur a

GEN. meliorum meliorum ----------------------plurium plurum

DAT. melioribus melioribus pluribus ----------pluribus

ACC. melior es(-is) melior a plur es (- is) ------plur a

ABL. melioribus melioribus pluribus ----------pluribus

All comparatives except plus are declined like melior.

The stem of comparatives properly ended in long/short-s-; but this became or in the nominative masculine and feminine, and or- in all other cases except the nominative and accusative singular neuter, where s is retained and short -o- is changed to u (cf. honor, - oris; corpus, -oris). Thus comparatives appear to have two terminations.

The neuter sing ular plus is used only as a noun. The genitive (rarely the ablative) is used only as an expression of value (cf. Sect: 417). The dative is not found in classic use. The compound complures, several, has sometimes neuter plural compluria.

Case-Forms of Consonant Stems

SECTION:#121. In adjectives of Consonant stems:

The Ablative Singular commonly ends in - i, but sometimes - e.

1. Adjectives used as nouns (as superstes, survivor) have - e.

2. Participles in -ns used as such (especially in the ablative absolute, Sect: 419), or as nouns, regularly have - e; but participles used as adjectives have regularly - i:

domino imperante, at the master's command; ab amante, by a lover; ab amanti muliere, by a loving woman.

3. The following have regularly - i: amens, anceps, concors (and other compounds of cor), consors (but as a substantive, - e), degener, hebes, ingens, inops, memor (and compounds), par (in prose), perpes, praeceps, praepes, teres.

4. The following have regularly - e: caeles, compos, [*deses], dives, hospes, particeps, pauper, princeps, sospes, superstes. So also patrials (see Sect: 71. 5) and stems in at-, it-, nt-, rt-, when used as nouns, and sometimes when used as adjectives.

The Genitive Plural ends commonly in -ium, but has -um in the following:

1. Always in compos, dives, inops, particeps, praepes, princeps, supplex, and compounds of nouns which have -um: as, quadru-pes, bi-color.

2. Sometimes, in poetry, in participles in -ns: as, silentum concilium, a council of the silent shades (Aen. 6.432).

The Accusative Plural regularly ends in - is, but comparatives commonly have - es.

Vetus (gen. -eris) and pubes (gen. -eris) regularly have - e in the ablative singular, - a in the nominative and accusative plural, and -um in the genitive plural. For uber, see Sect: 119.

A few adjectives of one termination, used as nouns, have a feminine form in - a: as, clienta, hospita, with the appellative Iuno Sospita.

Irregularities and Special Uses of Adjectives

SECTION:#122. The following special points require notice:

Several adjectives vary in declension: as, gracilis (-us), hilaris (-us), inermis (-us), bicolor (-orus).

A few adjectives are indeclinable: as, damnas, frugi (really a dative of service, see Sect: 382. 1. N. 2), nequam (originally an adverb), necesse, and the pronominal forms tot, quot, aliquot, totidem. Potis is often used as an indeclinable adjective, but sometimes has pote in the neuter.

Several adjectives are defective: as, exspes (only nom.), exlex ( exlegem) (only nom. and acc. sing.), pernox ( pernocte) (only nom. and abl. sing.); and primoris, semineci, etc., which lack the nominative singular.

Many adjectives, from their signification, can be used only in the masculine and feminine. These may be called adjectives of common gender.

Such are adulescens, youthful; [ deses], -idis, slothful; inops, - opis, poor; sospes, - itis, safe. Similarly, senex, old man, and iuvenis, young man, are sometimes called masculine adjectives.

For Adjectives used as Nouns, see Sect: 288, 289; for Nouns used as Adjectives, see Sect: 321. c; for Adjectives used as Adverbs, see Sect: 214; for Adverbs used as Adjectives, see Sect: 321. d.


SECTION:#123. In Latin, as in English, there are three degrees of comparison: the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.

SECTION:#124. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (neuter - ius),the Superlative by adding -issimus (- a, -um), to the stem of the Positive, which loses its final vowel:

carus, dear (stem ca ro-); carior, dearer; carissimus, dearest.

levis, light (stem levi-); levior, lighter; levissimus, lightest.

felix, happy (stem felic-); felecior, happier; felecissimus, happiest.

hebes, dull (stem hebet-); hebetior, duller; hebetissimus, dullest.

NOTE.--A form of diminutive is made upon the stem of some comparatives: as, grandius- culus, a little larger (see Sect: 243).

Participles when used as adjectives are regularly compared:

patiens, patient; patientior, patientissimus.

apertus, open; apertior, apertissimus.

SECTION:#125. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by adding -rimus to the nominative. The comparative is regular:

acer, keen; acrior, acerrimus.

miser, wretched; miserior, miserrimus.

So vetus (gen. veteris) has superlative veterrimus, from the old form veter; and maturus, besides its regular superlative ( maturissimus), has a rare form maturrimus.

For the comparative of vetus, vetustior (from vetustus) is used.

SECTION:#126. Six adjectives in - lis form the Superlative by adding - limus to the stem clipped of its final i-. These are facilis, difficilis, similis, dissimilis, gracilis, humilis.

facilis (stem facili-), easy; facilior, facil limus.

SECTION:#127. Compounds in -dicus (saying) and -volus (willing) take in their comparison the forms of the corresponding participles dicens and volens, which were anciently used as adjectives:

maledicus, slanderous; maledicentior, maledicentissimus.

malevolus, spiteful; malevolentior, malevolentissimus.

So, by analogy, compounds in -ficus:

magni ficus, grand; magnificentior, magnificentissimus.

SECTION:#128. Some adjectives are compared by means of the adverbs magis, more, and maxime, most.

So especially adjectives in -us preceded by e or i:

idoneus, fit; magis idoneus, maxime idoneus.

NOTE.--But pius has piissimus in the superlative,--a form condemned by Cicero, but common in inscriptions; equally common, however, is the irregular pientissimus.

.Irregular Comparison

SECTION:#129. Several adjectives have in their comparison irregular forms:

bonus, good----- melior, better----- optimus, best.

malus, bad----- peiior, worse----- pes simus, worst.

magnus, great----- maior, greater----- maximus, greatest.

parvus, small----- minor, less----- min imus, least.

multus, much----- plus (Sect:120), more----- plurimus, most.

multi, many----- plures, more----- pluri mi, most.

nequam (indecl.Sect:122b), worthless----- nequior----- nequissimus.

frugi (indecl., Sect:122b), useful, worthy----- frugalior----- fruga lissimus.

dexter, on the right, handy----- dexterior----- dextimus.

NOTE.--These irregularities arise from the use of different stems (cf. Sect: 127). Thus frugalior and frugalissimus are formed from the stem frugali-, but are used as the comparative and superlative of the indeclinable frugi.

Defective Comparison

SECTION:#130. Some Comparatives and Superlatives appear without a Positive:

ocior, swifter----- ocissimus, swiftest.

potior, preferable-----potissimus, most important.

The following are formed from stems not used as adjectives:--

cis, citra (adv., on this side): citerior, hither----- citimus, hithermost.

de (prep., down): deterior, worse----- deterrimus, worst.

in, intra (prep., in, within): interior, inner----- intimus, inmost.

prae, pro (prep., before): prior, former----- primus, first.

prope (adv., near): propior, nearer----- proximus, next.

ultra (adv., beyond): ulterior, farther----- ultimus, farthest.

Of the following the positive forms are rare, except when used as nouns (generally in the plural):

exterus, outward----- exterior, outer----- extremus ( extimus), outmost

inforus, below (see Sect: 111. b)----- inferior, lower----- infimus ( imus), lowest.

posterus, following----- posterior, latter----- postremus (postumus), last.

superus, above----- superior, higher----- supremus or summus, highest

But the plurals, exteri, foreigners----- inferi, the gods below----- posteri, posterity, superi, the heavenly gods, are common.

NOTE.--The superlative postumus has the special sense of last-born, and was a well known surname.

SECTION:#131. Several adjectives lack the Comparative or the Superlative:

The Comparative is rare or wanting in the following:

bellus, inclutus (or inclitus), novus,

caesius, invictus, pius,

falsus, invitus, sacer,

fidus (with its compounds), meritus, vafer.

The Superlative is wanting in many adjectives in -ilis or - bilis (as, agilis, probabilis), and in the following:

actuosus exilis proclivis surdus

agrestis ingens propinquus taciturnus

alacer ieiunus satur tempestivus

arcanus longinquus segnis teres

caecus obliquus serus vicinus

diuturnus opimus supinus

From iuvenis, youth, senex, old man (cf. Sect: 122. d), are formed the comparatives iunior, younger, senior, older. For these, however, minor natu and maior natu are sometimes used ( natu being often omitted).

The superlative is regularly expressed by minimus and maximus, with or without natu.

NOTE.--In these phrases natu is ablative of specification (see Sect: 418).

Many adjectives (as aureus, golden) are from their meaning incapable of comparison.

NOTE.--But each language has its own usage in this respect. Thus, niger, glossy black. and candidus, shining white, are compared; but not ater or albus, meaning absolute dead black or white (except that Plautus once has atrior).

1 For details see Sect: 121.

Stems in nt- omit t before the nominative -s

Stems in nt- omit t before the nominative -s

An ablative in - e is very rare.

6 Forms in -um sometimes occur in a few others.

7 The comparative suffix (earlier -ios) is akin to the Greek - i?n, or the Sanskrit -iyans. That of the superlative (-issimus) is a double form of uncertain origin. It appears to contain the is- of the old suffix -is-to-s (seen in h

8 The old positive potis occurs in the sense of able, possible.

9 The forms in -tra and -terus were originally comparative (cf. alter), so that the comparatives in -terior are double comparatives. Inferus and superus are comparatives of a still more primitive form (cf. the English comparative in -er). The superlatives in -timus (-tumus) are relics of old forms of comparison; those in -mus like imus, summus, primus, are still more primitive. Forms like extremus are superlatives of a comparative. In fact, comparison has always been treated with an accumulation of endings, as children say furtherer and furtherest.


SECTION:#132. The Latin Numerals may be classified as follows:


1. Cardinal Numbers, answering the question how many? as, unus, one; duo, two, etc.

2. Ordinal Numbers,adjectives derived (in most cases) from the Cardinals, and answering the question which in order? as, primus, first; secundus, second, etc.

3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time? as, singuli, one at a time; bini, two by two, etc.

II. NUMERAL ADVERBS, answering the question how often? as, semel, once; bis, twice, etc.

Cardinals and Ordinals

SECTION:#133. These two series are as follows:


1. unus, una, unum, one ---primus, -a, -um, first I

2. duo, duae, duo, two ----secundus ( alter), second II

3. tres, tria, three -----tertius, third III

4. quattuor ----quartus IIII or IV

5. quinque ----quintus V

6. sex -----sextus VI

7. septem ----septimus VII

8. octo -----octavus VIII

9. novem -----nonus VIIII or IX

10. decem ----decimus X

11. undecim ----undecimus XI

12. duodecim --duodecimus XII

13. tredecim ( decem ( et) tres) -----tertius decimus ( decimus ( et) tertius) XIII

14. quattuordecim -----quartus decimus XIIII or XIV

15. quindecim ----quintus decimus XV

16. sedecim sextus ----decimus XVI

17. septendecim septimus -----decimus XVII

18. duodeviginti (octodecim)------ duodevicensimus ( octavus decimus) XVIII

19. undeviginti (novendecim) undevicensimus(nonus decimus) XVIIII or XIX

20. viginti vicensimus (vigensimus) XX

21. viginti unus (or unus et viginti, etc.) vicensimus primus ( unus et vicensimus, etc.) XXI

30. triginta tricensimus XXX

40. quadraginta quadrag ensimus XXXX or XL

50. quinquaginta quinquagensimus " or L

60. sexaginta sexagensimus LX

70. septuaginta septuag ensimus LXX

80. octoginta octogensimus LXXX

90. nonaginta nonagensimus LXXXX or XC

100. centum centensimus C

101. centum ( et) unus, etc. centensimus primus, etc. CI

200. ducenti, -ae, -a ducentensimus CC

300. trecenti trecentensimus CCC

400. quadringenti quadringentensimus CCCC

500. quingenti quingentensimus D

600. sescenti sescentensimus DC

700. septingenti septingentensimus DCC

800. octingenti octingentensimus DCCC

900. nongenti nongentensimus DCCCC

1000. mille millensimus [oolig] (CIa ) or M

5000. quinque milia (millia) quinquiens millensimus Ia a

10,000. decem milia (millia) deciens millensimus CCIa a

100,000. centum milia (millia) centiens millensimus CCCIa a a

NOTE 1.--The forms in -ensimus are often written without the n: as, vicesimus, etc.

NOTE 2.--The forms octodecim, novendecim are rare, duodeviginti (two from twenty), undeviginti (one from twenty), being used instead. So 28, 29; 38, 39; etc. may be expressed either by the subtraction of two and one or by the addition of eight and nine respectively.

.Declension of Cardinals and Ordinals

SECTION:#134. Of the Cardinals only unus, duo, tres, the hundreds above one hundred, and mille when used as a noun, are declinable.

For the declension of unus, see Sect: 113. It often has the meaning of same or only. The plural is used in this sense; but also, as a simple numeral, to agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning: as, una castra, one camp (cf. Sect: 137. b). The plural occurs also in the phrase uni et alteri, one party and the other (the ones and the others).

Duo,two, and tres, three, are thus declined:

M. F. N. M., F. N.

NOM. du o duae duo -------tr es tria

GEN. du orum du arum du orum -------trium trium

DAT. duobus duabus duobus -----tribus tribus

ACC. du os (du o) duas du o -----tr es (tr is) tria

ABL. duobus duabus duobus -----tribus tribus

NOTE.-- Ambo, both, is declined like duo.

The hundreds, up to 1000, are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are regularly declined like the plural of bonus.

Mille, a thousand, is in the singular an indeclinable adjective:

mille modis, in a thousand ways.

cum mille hominibus, with a thousand men.

mille trahens varios colores (Aen. 4.701) , drawing out a thousand various colors.

In the plural it is used as a neuter noun, and is declined like the plural of sedile (Sect: 69): milia, milium, milibus, etc.

NOTE.--The singular mille is sometimes found as a noun in the nominative and accusative: as, mille hominum misit, he sent a thousand (of) men; in the other cases rarely, except in connection with the same case of milia: as, cum octo milibus peditum, mille equitum, with eight thousand foot and a thousand horse.

The ordinals are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are regularly declined like bonus.

SECTION:#135 . Cardinals and Ordinals have the following uses:

In numbers below 100, if units precede tens, et is generally inserted: duo et viginti; otherwise et is omitted: viginti duo.

In numbers above 100 the highest denomination generally stands first, the next second, etc., as in English. Et is either omitted entirely, or stands between the two highest denominations: mille ( et) septingenti sexaginta quattuor, 1764.

NOTE.--Observe the following combinations of numerals with substantives:

unus et viginti milites, or viginti milites ( et) unus, 21 soldiers.

duo milia quingenti milites, or duo milia militum et quingenti, 2500 soldiers.

milites mille ducenti triginta unus, 1231 soldiers.

After milia the name of the objects enumerated is in the genitive:

duo milia hominum, two thousand men.

cum tribus milibus militum, with three thousand soldiers.

milia passuum tria, three thousand paces (three miles).

For million, billion, trillion, etc., the Romans had no special words, out these numbers were expressed by multiplication (cf. Sect: 138. a).

Fractions are expressed, as in English, by cardinals in the numerator and ordinals in the denominator. The feminine gender is used to agree with pars expressed or understood: two-sevenths, duae septimae (sc. partes); three-eighths, tres octavae (sc. partes).

One-half is dimidia pars or dimidium.

NOTE 1.--When the numerator is one, it is omitted and pars is expressed: onethird, tertia pars; one-fourth, quarta pars.

NOTE 2.--When the denominator is but one greater than the numerator, the numerator only is given: two-thirds, duae partes; three-fourths, tres partes, etc.

NOTE 3.--Fractions are also expressed by special words derived from as, a pound: as, triens, a third; bes, two-thirds. See Sect: 637.


SECTION:#136. Distributive Numerals are declined like the plural of bonus.

NOTE.--These answer to the interrogative quoteni, how many of each? or how many at a time?

1. singuli, one by one 18. octoni deni or duodeviceni 100. centeni

2. bini, two by two 200. duceni

3. terni, trini 19. noveni deni or undeviceni 300. treceni

4. quaterni 400. quadringeni

5. quini 20. viceni 500. quingeni

6. seni 21. viceni singuli, etc. 600. sesceni

7. septeni 30. triceni 700. septingeni

8. octoni 40. quadrageni 800. octingeni

9. noveni 50. quinquageni 900. nongeni

10. deni 60. sexageni 1000. milleni

11. undeni 70. septuageni 2000. bina milia

12. duodeni 80. octogeni 10,000. dena milia

13. terni deni, etc. 90. nonageni 100,000. centena milia

SECTION:#137. Distributives are used as follows:

In the sense of so many apiece or on each side: as, singula singulis, one apiece (one each to each one); agri septena iugera plebi divisa sunt, i.e. seven jugera to each citizen (seven jugera each), etc.

Instead of cardinals, to express simple number, when a noun plural in form but usually singular in meaning is used in a plural sense: as, bina castra, two camps ( duo castra would mean two forts). With such nouns trini, not terni, is used for three: as, trina (not terna) castra, three camps; terna castra means camps in threes.

In multiplication: as, bis bina, twice two; ter septenis diebus, in thrice seven days.

By the poets instead of cardinal numbers, particularly where pairs or sets are spoken of: as, bina hastilia, two shafts (two in a set).

Numeral Adverbs

SECTION:#138. The Numeral Adverbs answer the question quotiens ( quoties), how many times? how often?

1. semel, once

2. bis, twice

3. ter, thrice

4. quater

5. quinquiens (-es)

6. sexiens

7. septiens

8. octiens

9. noviens

10. deciens

11. undeciens

12. duodeciens

13. terdeciens

14. quaterdeciens

15. quindeciens

16. sedeciens

17. septiesdeciens

18. duodeviciens

19. undeviciens

20. viciens

21. semel viciens,etc.

30. triciens

40. quadragie ns

50. quinquagiens

60. sexagiens

70. septuagi ens

80. octogiens

90. nonagiens

100. centiens

200. ducentiens

300. trecentiens

1000. miliens

10,000. deciens miliens

Numeral Adverbs are used with mille to express the higher numbers:

ter et triciens ( centena milia) sestertium, 3,300,000 sesterces (three and thirty times a hundred thousand sesterces).

vicies ac septies milies ( centena milia) sestertium, 2,700,000,000 sesterces (twenty-seven thousand times a hundred thousand).

NOTE.--These large numbers are used almost exclusively in reckoning money, and centena milia is regularly omitted (see Sect: 634).

Other Numerals

SECTION:#139. The following adjectives are called Multiplicatives:

simplex, single; duplex, double, twofold; triplex, triple, threefold; quadruplex, quinquiplex, septemplex, decemplex, centuplex, sesquiplex (1 1/2), multiplex (manifold).

Proportionals are: duplus, triplus, quadruplus, octuplus, etc., twice as great, thrice as great, etc.

Temporals: bimus, trimus, of two or three years' age; biennis, triennis, lasting two or three years; bimestris, trimestris, of two or three months; biduum, a period of two days; biennium, a period of two years.

Partitives: binarius, ternarius, of two or three parts.

Other derivatives are: unio, unity; binio, the two (of dice); primanus of the first legion; primarius, of the first rank; denarius, a sum of 10 asses binus (distributive), double, etc.

1 The Ordinals (except secundus, tertius, octavus, nonus) are formed by means of suffixes related to those used in the superlative and in part identical with them. Thus, decimus (compare the form infimus) may be regarded as the last of a series of ten; primus is a superlative of a stem akin to pro; the forms in -tus ( quartus, quintus, sextus) may be compared with the corresponding Greek forms in -tos, and with superlatives in -is-to-s, while the others have the superlative ending -timus (changed to - simus). Of the exceptions, secundus is a participle of sequor; alter is a comparative form (compare -teros in Greek), and nonus is contracted from novenos. The cardinal multiples of ten are compounds of -gint- ten۪ (a fragment of a derivative from decem).

2 The form in - o is a remnant of the dual number, which was lost in Latin, but is found in cognate languages. So in ambo, both, which preserves - o (cf. du? and Sect: 629. b).

3 Or, in poetry, bis mille homines, twice a thousand men.

4 Forms in -ns are often written without the n.

5 Also written viciens et semel or viciens semel, etc.


SECTION:#140. Pronouns are used as Nouns or as Adjectives. They are divided into the following seven classes:

1. Personal Pronouns: as, ego, I.

2. Reflexive Pronouns: as, se, himself.

3. Possessive Pronouns: as, meus, my.

4. Demonstrative Pronouns: as, hic, this; ille, that.

5. Relative Pronouns: as, qui, who.

6. Interrogative Pronouns: as, quis, who?

7. Indefinite Pronouns: as, aliquis, some one.

SECTION:#141. Pronouns have special forms of declension.

NOTE.--These special forms are, in general, survivals of a very ancient form of declension differing from that of nouns.

.Personal Pronouns

SECTION:#142. The Personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I, nos, we; of the second person, tu, thou or you, vos, ye or you. The personal pronouns of the third person--he, she, it, they--are wanting in Latin, a demonstrative being sometimes used instead.

SECTION:#143. Ego and tu are declined as follows:


Singular ------------------------Plural

NOM. ego, I --------------------nos, we

GEN. mei, of me --------------------nostrum, nostri, of us

DAT. mihi ( mi), to me --------------------nobis, to us

ACC. me, me --------------------nos, us

ABL. me, by me --------------------nobis, by us


NOM tu, thou or you --------------------vos, ye or you

GEN. tui, of thee or you --------------------vestrum, vestri; vostrum (-tri)

DAT. tibi --------------------vobis

ACC. te --------------------vos

ABL. te --------------------vobis

The plural nos is often used for the singular ego; the plural vos is never so used for the singular tu.

NOTE.--Old forms are genitive mis, tis; accusative and ablative med, ted (cf. Sect: 43. N. 1).

The forms nostrum, vestrum, etc., are used partitively:

unusquisque nostrum, each one of us.

vestrum omnium, of all of you.

NOTE.--The forms of the genitive of the personal pronouns are really the genitives of the possessives: mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, genitive singular neuter: nostrum, vestrum, genitive plural masculine or neuter. So in early and later Latin we find una vestrarum, one of you (women).

The genitives mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, are chiefly used objectively (Sect: 347):

memor sis nostri, be mindful of us (me).

me tui pudet, I am ashamed of you.

Emphatic forms of tu are tute and tutemet (tutimet). The other cases of the personal pronouns, excepting the genitive plural, are made emphatic by adding - met: as, egomet, vosmet.

NOTE.--Early emphatic forms are mepte and tepte.

Reduplicated forms are found in the accusative and ablative singular: as, meme, tete.

The preposition cum, with, is joined enclitically with the ablative: as, tecum loquitur, he talks with you.

.Reflexive Pronouns

SECTION:#144. Reflexive Pronouns are used in the Oblique Cases to refer to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they stand (see Sect: 299): as, se amat, he loves himself.

In the first and second persons the oblique cases of the Personal pronouns are used as Reflexives: as, me video, I see myself; te laudas, you praise yourself; nobis persuademus, we persuade ourselves.

The Reflexive pronoun of the third person has a special form used only in this sense, the same for both singular and plural. It is thus declined:

GEN. sui, of himself, herself, itself, themselves

DAT. sibi, to himself, herself, itself, themselves

ACC. se ( sese), himself, herself, itself, themselves

ABL. se ( sese), [by] himself, herself, itself, themselves

NOTE 1.--Emphatic and reduplicated forms of se are made as in the personals (see Sect: 143. d, e). The preposition cum is added enclitically: as, secum, with himself. etc.

NOTE 2.--An old form sed occurs in the accusative and ablative.

Possessive Pronouns

SECTION:#145. The Possessive pronouns are:

FIRST PERSON. meus, my --------------------noster, our

SECOND PERSON. tuus, thy, --------------------your vester, your

THIRD PERSON. suus, his, her, its --------------------suus, their

These are really adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are so declined (see Sect: 110-112). But meus has regularly mi (rarely meus) in the vocative singular masculine.

NOTE.-- Suus is used only as a reflexive, referring to the subject. For a possessive pronoun of the third person not referring to the subject, the genitive of a demonstrative must be used. Thus, patrem suum occidit, he killed his (own) father; but patrem eiius occidit, he killed his (somebody else's) father.

Emphatic forms in -pte are found in the ablative singular: suopte.

A rare possessive cuius ( quuius), - a, -um, whose, is formed from the genitive singular of the relative or interrogative pronoun ( qui, quis). It may be either interrogative or relative in force according to its derivation, but is usually the former.

The reciprocals one another and each other are expressed by inter se or alter ... alterum:

alter alterius ova frangit, they break each other's eggs (one ... of the other).

inter se amant, they love one another (they love among themselves).

.Demonstrative Pronouns

SECTION:#146. The Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out or designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns as Adjectives or alone as Pronouns. They are: hic, this; is, ille, iste, that; with the Intensive ipse, self, and idem, same;and are thus declined:

hic, this

SINGULAR --------------------------------PLURAL

M. F. N. --------------------------------M. F. N.

NOM. hic haec hoc -------hi hae haec

GEN. huius huius huius -------horum harum horum

DAT. huic huic huic -------his his his

ACC. hunc hanc hoc -------hos has haec

ABL. hoc hac hoc -------his his his

NOTE 1.-- Hic is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ce. In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. But in these latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis: as, huius- ce, his- ce. In early Latin -c alone is retained in some of these (horunc). The vowel in hic, hoc, was originally short, and perhaps this quantity was always retained. Ille and iste are sometimes found with the same enclitic: illic, illaec, illuc; also illoc. See a, p. 67.

NOTE 2.--For the dative and ablative plural of hic the old form hibus is sometimes found; haec occurs (rarely) for hae.

1 These demonstratives are combinations of o- and i- stems, which are not clearly distinguishable.

NOTE 1.-- Hic is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ce. In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. But in these latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis: as, huius- ce, his- ce. In early Latin -c alone is retained in some of these (horunc). The vowel in hic, hoc, was originally short, and perhaps this quantity was always retained. Ille and iste are sometimes found with the same enclitic: illic, illaec, illuc; also illoc. See a, p. 67.

NOTE 2.--For the dative and ablative plural of hic the old form hibus is sometimes found; haec occurs (rarely) for hae.

is = that


M. F. N. M. F. N.

NOM. is ea id ---------ei, ii ( i) eae ea

GEN. eiius eiius eiius ---------eorum earum eorum

DAT. ei ei ei eis,--------- iis ( is) eis, iis ( is) eis, iis ( is)

ACC. eum eam id ---------eos eas ea

ABL. eo ea eo eis, ---------iis ( is) eis, iis ( is) eis, iis ( is)

NOTE 3.--Obsolete forms are eae ( dat. fem.), and eabus or ibus ( dat. plur.). For dative ei are found also eii and ei (monosyllabic); ei, eos, etc., also occur in the plural.

ille, that

SINGULAR ---------------------------PLURAL

M. F. N. M. F. N.

NOM. ille illa illud ---------illi illae illa

GEN. illius illius illius ---------illorum illarum illorum

DAT. illi illi illi ---------illis illis illis

ACC. illum illam illud ---------illos illas illa

ABL. illo illa illo ---------illis illis illi

Iste, ista, istud = that (yonder), is declined like ille.

NOTE 4.-- Ille replaces an earlier ollus ( olle), of which several forms occur.

NOTE 5.-- Iste is sometimes found in early writers in the form ste etc. The first syllable of ille and ipse is very often used as short in early poetry.

NOTE 6.--The forms illi, isti (gen.), and illae, istae ( dat.), are sometimes found; also the nominative plural istaece, illaece (for istae, illae). See a, p. 67.

ipse, self

SINGULAR ---------------------------PLURAL

---------M. F. N.--------- M. F. N.

NOM. ipse ipsa ipsum ---------ipsi ipsae ipsa

GEN. ipsius ipsius ipsius ---------ipsorum ipsarum ipsorum

DAT. ipsi ipsi ipsi ipsis ---------ipsis ipsis

ACC. ipsum ipsam ipsum ---------ipsos ipsas ipsa

ABL. ipso ipsa ipso ipsis ---------ipsis ipsis

NOTE 7.-- Ipse is compounded of is and -pse (a pronominal particle of uncertain origin: cf. Sect: 145. a), meaning self. The former part was originally declined, as in reapse (for re eapse), in fact. An old form ipsus occurs, with superlative ipsissimus, own self, used for comic effect.

NOTE 8.--The intensive -pse is found in the forms eapse (nominative), eumpse, eampse, eopse, eapse (ablative).

idem = the same

SINGULAR ---------------------------PLURAL

M. F. N. ---------------------------M. F. N.

NOM. idem eadem e idem ------idem (ee) eaedem eadem

GEN. eiusdem eiusdem eiusdem ---------eorundem earundem eorundem

DAT. eidem eidem eidem--------- eisdem or isdem

ACC. eundem eandem idem ---------eosdem easdem eadem

ABL. eodem eadem eodem ---------eisdem or &1acute;sdem

NOTE 9.--I dem is the demonstrative is with the indeclinable suffix - dem. The mas<

>uline idem is for isdem; the neuter idem, however, is not for *iddem, but is a relic of an older formation. A final m of is is changed to n before d: as, eundem for eumdem, etc. The plural forms idem, isdem, are often written iidem, iisdem.

Ille and iste appear in combination with the demonstrative particle -c, shortened from - ce, in the following forms:


M. F. N.--------------------------- M. F. N.

NOM. illic illaec illuc ( illoc) ---------istic istaec istuc ( istoc)

ACC. illunc illanc illuc ( illoc) ---------istunc istanc istuc ( istoc)

ABL. illoc illac illoc ---------istoc istac istoc


N., ACC. illaec --------------- istaec

NOTE 1.--The appended - ce is also found with pronouns in numerous combinations: as, huiusce, hunce, horunce, harunce, hosce, hisce (cf. Sect: 146. N. 1), illiusce, isce; also with the interrogative - ne, in hocine, hoscine, istucine, illicine, etc.

NOTE 2.--By composition with ecce or em, behold! are formed eccum (for ecce eum), eccam, eccos, eccas; eccillum (for ecce illum); ellum (for em illum), ellam, ellos, ellas; eccistam. These forms are dramatic and colloquial.

The combinations huiusmodi (huiuscemodi), eiiusmodi, etc., are used as indeclinable adjectives, equivalent to talis, such: as, res eiiusmodi, such a thing (a thing of that sort: cf. Sect: 345. a).

For uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns, see Sect: 296 ff.

.Relative Pronouns

SECTION:#147. The Relative Pronoun qui, who, which, is thus declined:

SINGULAR ---------------------------PLURAL

M. F. N. ---------------------------M. F. N.

NOM. qui quae quod ---------qui quae quae

GEN. cuius cuius cuius ---------quorum quarum quorum

DAT. cui cui cui ---------quibus quibus quibus

ACC. quem quam quod ---------quos quas quae

ABL. quo qua quo quibus ---------quibus quibus

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns

SECTION:#148. The Substantive Interrogative Pronoun quis, who? quid, what? is declined in the Singular as follows:

M., F.

.Interrogative Pronouns

M.F ---------------------N.

NOM. quis --------quid

GEN. cuius --------cuius

DAT. cui-------- cui

ACC. quem --------quid

ABL. quo --------quo

The Plural is the same as that of the Relative, qui, quae, quae.

The singular quis is either masculine or of indeterminate gender, but in old writers it is sometimes distinctly feminine.

The Adjective Interrogative Pronoun, qui, quae, quod, what kind of? what? which? is declined throughout like the Relative:


quis vocat, who calls? qui homo vocat, what man calls?

quid vides, what do you see? quod templum vides, what temple do you see?

NOTE.--But qui is often used without any apparent adjective force; and quis is very common as an adjective, especially with words denoting a person: as, qui nominat me? who calls my name? quis dies fuit? what day was it? quis homo? what man? but often qui homo? what kind of man? nescio qui sis, I know not who you are.

Quisnam, pray, who? is an emphatic interrogative. It has both substantive and adjective forms like quis, qui.

SECTION:#149. The Indefinite Pronouns quis, any one, and qui, any, are declined like the corresponding Interrogatives, but qua is commonly used for quae except in the nominative plural feminine:

SUBSTANTIVE: quis, any one; quid, anything.

ADJECTIVE: qui, qua ( quae), quod, any.

The feminine forms qua and quae are sometimes used substantively.

The indefinites quis and qui are rare except after si, nisi, ne, and num, and in compounds (see Sect: 310. a, b).

NOTE.--After these particles qui is often used as a substantive and quis as an adjective (cf. Sect: 148. b. N.).

Case-Forms of qui and quis

SECTION:#150. The Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns are originally of the same stem, and most of the forms are the same (compare Sect: 147 with Sect: 148). The stem has two forms in the masculine and neuter, quo-, qui-, and one for the feminine, qua-. The interrogative sense is doubtless the original one.

Old forms for the genitive and dative singular are quoius, quoi.

The form qui is used for the ablative of both numbers and all genders; but especially as an adverb (how, by which way, in any way), and in the combination quicum, with whom, as an interrogative or an indefinite relative.

A nominative plural ques (stem qui-) occurs in early Latin. A dative and ablative plural quis (stem quo-) is found even in classic Latin.

The preposition cum is joined enclitically to all forms of the ablative, as with the personal pronouns (Sect: 143. f): as, quo cum, quicum, quibuscum.

NOTE.--But occasionally cum precedes: as, cum quo (Iuv. 4.9) .

Compounds of quis and qui

SECTION:#151. The pronouns quis and qui appear in various combinations.

The adverb - cumque (-cunque) (cf. quisque) added to the relative makes an indefinite relative, which is declined like the simple word: as, quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, whoever, whatever; cuiuscumque, etc.

NOTE.--This suffix, with the same meaning, may be used with any relative: as, qualiscumque, of whatever sort; quandocumque (also rarely quandoque), whenever; ubicumque, wherever.

In quisquis, whoever, both parts are declined, but the only forms in common use are quisquis, quidquid ( quicquid) and quoquo.

NOTE 1.--Rare forms are quemquem and quibusquibus; an ablative quiqui is sometimes found in early Latin; the ablative feminine quaqua is both late and rare. Cuicui occurs as a genitive in the phrase cuicui modi, of whatever kind. Other cases are cited, but have no authority. In early Latin quisquis is occasionally feminine.

NOTE 2.-- Quisquis is usually substantive, except in the ablative quoquo, which is more commonly an adjective.

The indefinite pronouns quidam, a certain (one); quivis, quilibet, any you please, are used both as substantives and as adjectives. The first part is declined like the relative qui, but the neuter has both quid- (substantive) and quod- (adjective):

quidam quaedam quiddam ( quoddam)

quivis quaevis quidvis ( quodvi s)

Quidam changes m to n before d in the accusative singular ( quendam, M.; quandam, F.) and the genitive plural (quorundam, M., N.; quarundam, F.).

The indefinite pronouns quispiam, some, any, and quisquam, any at all, are used both as substantives and as adjectives. Quispiam has feminine quaepiam (adjective), neuter quidpiam (substantive) and quodpiam (adjective); the plural is very rare. Quisquam is both masculine and feminine; the neuter is quidquam ( quicquam), substantive only; there is no plural. ?llus, - a, -um, is commonly used as the adjective corresponding to quisquam.

The Indefinite pronoun aliquis (substantive), some one, aliqui (adjective), some, is declined like quis and qui, but aliqua is used instead of aliquae except in the nominative plural feminine:


M. F. ------------------------N.

NOM. aliquis ( aliqui) --------aliqua --------aliquid ( aliquod)

GEN. alicuius-------- alicuius --------alicuius

DAT. alicui --------alicui-------- alicui

ACC. aliquem --------aliquam --------aliquid ( aliquod)

ABL. aliquo --------aliqua --------aliquo


NOM. aliqui --------aliquae --------aliqua

GEN. aliquorum --------aliquarum --------aliquorum

DAT. aliquibus --------aliquibus --------aliquibus

ACC. aliquos --------aliquas --------aliqua

ABL. aliquibus --------aliquibus --------aliquibus

NOTE.: Aliqui is sometimes used substantively and aliquis as an adjective.

The indefinite pronoun ecquis (substantive), whether any one, ecqui (adjective), whether any, is declined like aliquis, but has either ecquae or ecqua in the nominative singular feminine of the adjective form.

NOTE.-- Ecquis ( ecqui) has no genitive singular, and in the plural occurs in the nominative and accusative only.

The enclitic particle - que added to the interrogative gives a universal: as, quisque, every one; uterque, each of two, or both. Quisque is declined

like the interrogative quis, qui: substantive, quisque, quidque; adjective, quique, quaeque, quodque.

In the compound unusquisque, every single one, both parts are declined (genitive uniuscuiusque), and they are sometimes written separately and even separated by other words:

ne in uno quidem quoque (Lael. 92) , not even in a single one.

The relative and interrogative have rarely a possessive adjective cuius (- a, -um), older quoius, whose; and a patrial cuias (cuiat-), of what country.

Quantus, how great, qualis, of what sort, are derivative adjectives from the interrogative. They are either interrogative or relative, corresponding respectively to the demonstratives tantus, talis (Sect: 152). Indefinite compounds are quantuscumque and qualiscumque (see Sect: 151. a).


SECTION:#152. Many Pronouns, Pronominal Adjectives, and Adverbs have corresponding demonstrative, relative, interrogative, and indefinite forms. Such parallel forms are called Correlatives. They are shown in the following table:


is qui quis?-------- quisquis --------aliquis

that who who? whoever some one

tantus quantus quantus? quantuscumque aliquantus

so great how (as) great how great? however great some

talis qualis qualis? qualiscumque

such as of what sort? of whatever kind

ibi ubi ubi? ubiubi alicubi

there where where? wherever somewhere

eo quo quo? quoquo aliquo

thither whither whither? whithersoever (to) somewhere

ea qua qua? quaqua aliqua

that way which way which way? whithersoever somewhere

inde unde unde? undecumque alicunde

thence whence whence? whencesoever from somewhere

tum cum quando? quandocumque aliquando

then when when? whenever at some time

tot quot quot? quotquot aliquot

so many as how many? however many some, several

totiens quotiens quotiens? quotienscumque aliquotiens

so often as how often? however often at several times


SECTION:#153. The inflection of the Verb is called its Conjugation.

Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, Number

SECTION:#154. Through its conjugation the Verb expresses Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, and Number.

The Voices are two: Active and Passive.

The Moods are four: Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive.

NOTE.--The Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative are called Finite Moods in distinction from the Infinitive.

The Tenses are six, viz.:

1. For continued action, Present, Imperfect, Future.

2. For completed action, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect.

The Indicative Mood has all six tenses, but the Subjunctive has no future or future perfect, and the Imperative has only the present and the future. The Infinitive has the present, perfect, and future.

The Persons are three: First, Second, and Third.

The Numbers are two: Singular and Plural.

.PARTICIPLES as Noun and Adjective Forms

SECTION:#155. The following Noun and Adjective forms are also included in the inflection of the Latin Verb:

Four Participles,viz.:

Active: the Present and Future Participles.

Passive: the Perfect Participle and the Gerundive.

The Gerund: this is in form a neuter noun of the second declension, used only in the oblique cases of the singular.

The Supine: this is in form a verbal noun of the fourth declension in the accusative (-um) and dative or ablative (-u)singular.

1 The Infinitive is strictly the locative case of an abstract noun, expressing the action of the verb (Sect: 451).

2 The Participles are adjectives in inflection and meaning, but have the power of verbs in construction and in distinguishing time.

3 The Gerundive is also used as an adjective of necessity, duty, etc. (Sect: 158. d). In late use it became a Future Passive Participle.



SECTION:#156. The Active and Passive Voices in Latin generally correspond to the active and passive in English; but:

The passive voice often has a reflexive meaning:

ferro accingor, I gird myself with my sword.

Turnus vertitur, Turnus turns (himself).

induitur vestem, he puts on his (own) clothes.

NOTE.--This use corresponds very nearly to the Greek Middle voice, and is doubtless a survival of the original meaning of the passive (p. 76, footnote 2).

Many verbs are passive in form, but active or reflexive in meaning. These are called Deponents (Sect: 190):as, hortor, I exhort; sequor, I follow.

Some verbs with active meaning have the passive form in the perfect tenses; these are called Semi-Deponents: as, audeo, audere, ausus sum, dare.


SECTION:#157. The Moods are used as follows:

The Indicative Mood is used for most direct assertions and interrogations: as,-- valesne? valeo, are you well? I am well.

The Subjunctive Mood has many idiomatic uses, as in commands, conditions, and various dependent clauses. It is often translated by the English Indicative; frequently by means of the auxiliaries may, might, would, should;sometimes by the (rare) Subjunctive; sometimes by the Infinitive; and often by the Imperative, especially in prohibitions. A few characteristic examples of its use are the following:

eamus, let us go; ne abeat, let him not depart.

adsum ut videam, I am here to see (that I may see).

tu ne quaesieris, do not thou inquire.

beatus sis, may you be blessed.

quid morer, why should I delay?

nescio quid scribam, I know not what to write.

si moneam, audiat, if I should warn, he would hear.

The Imperative is used for exhortation, entreaty, or command; but the Subjunctive is often used instead (Sect: 439, 450):

liber esto, he shall be free.

ne ossa legito, do not gather the bones.

The Infinitive is used chiefly as an indeclinable noun, as the subject or complement of another verb (Sect: 452, 456. N.). In special constructions it takes the place of the Indicative, and may be translated by that mood in English (see Indirect Discourse, Sect. 580 ff.).

NOTE.--For the Syntax of the Moods, see Sect: 436 ff.


SECTION:#158. The Participles are used as follows:

The Present Participle (ending in -ns) has commonly the same meaning and use as the English participle in -ing; as, vocans, calling; legentes, reading. (For its inflection, see egens, Sect: 118.)

The Future Participle (ending in -urus) is oftenest used to express what is likely or about to happen: as, recturus, about to rule; auditurus, about to hear.

NOTE.--With the tenses of esse, to be, it forms the First Periphrastic Conjugation (see Sect: 195): as, urbs est casura, the city is about to fall; mansurus eram, I was going to stay.

The Perfect Participle (ending in -tus, - sus) has two uses:

1. It is sometimes equivalent to the English perfect passive participle: as, tectus, sheltered; acceptus, accepted; ictus, having been struck; and often has simply an adjective meaning: as, acceptus, acceptable.

2. It is used with the verb to be ( esse) to form certain tenses of the passive: as, vocatus est, he was (has been) called.

NOTE.--There is no Perfect Active or Present Passive Participle in Latin. For substitutes see Sect: 492, 493.

The Gerundive (ending in -ndus), has two uses:

1. It is often used as an adjective implying obligation, necessity, or propriety (ought or must): as, audiendus est, he must be heard.

NOTE.--When thus used with the tenses of the verb to be ( esse) it forms the Second Periphrastic Conjugation: deligendus erat, he ought to have been chosen (Sect: 196).

2. In the oblique cases the Gerundive commonly has the same meaning as the Gerund (cf. Sect: 159. a), though its construction is different. (For examples, see Sect: 503 ff.)

.Gerund and Supine

SECTION:#159. The Gerund and Supine are used as follows:

The Gerund is a verbal noun, corresponding in meaning to the English verbal noun in -ing (Sect: 502): as, loquendi causa, for the sake of speaking.

NOTE.--The Gerund is found only in the oblique cases. A corresponding nominative is supplied by the Infinitive: thus, scribere est utile, writing (to write) is useful; but, ars scribendi, the art of writing.

The Supine is in form a noun of the fourth declension (Sect: 94. b), found only in the accusative ending in - tum, - sum, and the dative or ablative ending in - tu, -su.

The Supine in -um is used after verbs and the Supine in -u after adjectives (Sect: 509, 510):

venit spectatum, he came to see; mirabile dictu, wonderful to tell.

.Tenses of the Finite Verb

SECTION:#160. The Tenses of the Indicative have, in general, the same meaning as the corresponding tenses in English:

Of continued action,

1. PRESENT: scribo, I write, I am writing, I do write.

2. IMPERFECT: scribebam, I wrote, I was writing, I did write.

3. FUTURE: scribam, I shall write.

Of completed action,

4. PERFECT: scripsi, I have written, I wrote.

5. PLUPERFECT: scripseram, I had written.

6. FUTURE PERFECT: scripsero, I shall have written.

SECTION:#161. The Perfect Indicative has two separate uses,--the Perfect Definite and the Perfect Historical (or Indefinite).

1. The Perfect Definite represents the action of the verb as completed in present time, and corresponds to the English perfect with have: as, scripsi, I have written.

2. The Perfect Historical narrates a simple act or state in past time without representing it as in progress or continuing. It corresponds to the English past or preterite and the Greek aorist: as, scripsit, he wrote.

SECTION:#162. The Tenses of the Subjunctive are chiefly used in dependent clauses, following the rule for the Sequence of Tenses; but have also special idiomatic uses (see Syntax).

For the use of Tenses in the Imperative, see Sect: 448, 449.

1 That is, verbs which have laid aside ( deponere) the passive meaning.

2 The Latin uses the subjunctive in many cases where we use the indicative; and we use a colorless auxiliary in many cases where the Latin employs a separate verb with more definite meaning. Thus, I may write is often not scribam (subjunctive), but licet mihi scribere; I can write is possum scribere; I would write is scribam, scriberem, or scribere velim ( vellem); I should write, (if, etc.), scriberem ( si) ..., or (implying duty) oportet me scribere.



SECTION:#163. Verbs have regular terminationsfor each of the three Persons, both singular and plural, active and passive.These are:

(cont'd) ./AG/

Singular ----- PRESENT PASSIVE--------- Plural

2. - re: ama- re, be thou loved. ------- mini: ama- mini, be ye loved.

Singular------FUTURE PASSIVE-----Plural

2. -tor: ama-tor, thou shalt be loved.

3. -tor: ama-tor, he shall be loved.-------- -ntor: ama-ntor, they shall be loved.


The Three Stems

SECTION:#164. The forms of the verb may be referred to three stems, called (1) the Present, (2) the Perfect, and (3) the Supine stem.

1. On the Present stem are formed:

The Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative, Active and Passive.

The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, Active and Passive.

The Imperative, Active and Passive.

The Present Infinitive, Active and Passive.

The Present Participle, the Gerundive, and the Gerund.

2. On the Perfect stem are formed:

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Active.

The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Active.

The Perfect Infinitive Active.

3. On the Supine stem are formed:

The Perfect Passive Participle, which combines with the forms of the verb sum, be, to make:

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Passive.

The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive.

The Perfect Infinitive Passive.

The Future Active Participle, which combines with esse to make the Future Active Infinitive.

The Supine in -um and -u. The Supine in -um combines with iri to make the Future Passive Infinitive (Sect: 203. a).

NOTE.--The Perfect Participle with fore also makes a Future Passive Infinitive (as, amatus fore). For fore ( futurum esse) ut with the subjunctive, see Sect: 569. 3. a.


SECTION:#165. Every form of the finite verb is made up of two parts:

1. The STEM (see Sect. 24). This is either the root or a modification or development of it.

2. The ENDING, consisting of--

1. the Signs of Mood and Tense (see Sect: 168, 169).

2. the Personal Ending (see Sect: 163).

Thus in the verb voca-ba- s, you were calling, the root is VOC, modified into the verb-stem voca-, which by the addition of the ending - bas becomes the imperfect tense vocabas; and this ending consists of the tense-sign ba- and the personal ending (- s) of the second person singular.

SECTION:#166. The Verb-endings, as they are formed by the signs for mood and tense combined with personal endings, are:

Verb Endings

SECTION:#167. A long vowel is shortened before the personal endings -m (-r), -t, -nt (-ntur): as, ame- t (for older ame- t), habe- t (for habe- t), mone- nt, mone- ntur.

SECTION:#168. The tenses of the Present System are made from the Present Stem as follows:

In the Present Indicative the personal endings are added directly to the present stem. Thus,--present stem ara-: ara-s, ara-mus, ara-tis.

In the Imperfect Indicative the suffix -bam, - bas, etc. (originally a complete verb) is added to the present stem: as, ara-bam, ara-bas, ara-bamus.

NOTE.--The form bam was apparently an aorist of the Indo-European root BHU (cf. fui, futurus, phu?, English be, been), and meant I was. This was added to a complete word, originally a case of a verbal noun, as in I was a-seeing; hence vide- bam. The form probably began in the Second or Third Conjugation and was extended to the others. The a was at first long, but was shortened in certain forms (Sect: 167).

In the Future Indicative of the First and Second Conjugations a similar suffix, - bo, - bis, etc., is added to the present stem: as, ara-bo, ara-bis, mone- bo.

NOTE.--The form -bo was probably a present tense of the root BHU, with a future meaning, and was affixed to a noun-form as described in b. N.

In the Future Indicative of the Third and Fourth Conjugations the terminations -am, - es, etc. (as, teg- am, teg- es, audi- am, audi- es) are really subjunctive endings used in a future sense (see e). The vowel was originally long throughout. For shortening, see Sect: 167.

In the Present Subjunctive the personal endings were added to a form of the present stem ending in e- or a-, which was shortened in certain forms (Sect: 167). Thus, ame-m, ame- s, tega- mus, tega- nt.

NOTE 1.--The vowel e (seen in the First Conjugation: as, am-es) is an inherited subjunctive mood-sign. It appears to be the thematic vowel e (Sect: 174. 1) lengthened. The a of the other conjugations (mone-a- s, reg-a- s, audi-a- s) is of uncertain origin.

NOTE 2.--In a few irregular verbs a Present Subjunctive in -im, - is, etc. occurs: as, sim, sis, simus, velim, velis, etc. This is an old optative, i being a form of the IndoEuropean optative mood-sign ye- (cf. siem, sies, siet, Sect: 170. b. N.). The vowel has been shortened in the first and third persons singular and the third person plural.

In the Imperfect Subjunctive the suffix -rem, - res, etc. is added to the present stem: as, ama- rem, ama- res, mone- rem, tege- rem, audi- rem.

NOTE.--The stem element - re- is of uncertain origin and is not found outside of Italic. The r is doubtless the aorist sign s (cf. es-se- m, es-se- s) changed to r between two vowels (Sect: 15. 4). The e is probably the subjunctive mood-sign (see e).

SECTION:#169. The tenses of the Perfect System in the active voice are made from the Perfect Stem as follows:

In the Perfect Indicative the endings - i, - isti, etc. are added directly to the perfect stem: as, amav- isti, tex- istis.

In the Pluperfect Indicative the suffix - eram, - eras, etc. is added to the perfect stem: as, amav- eram, monu- eras, tex- erat.

NOTE.--This seems to represent an older -is-am etc. formed on the analogy of the Future Perfect in - ero (older -is-o: see c below) and influenced by eram (imperfect of sum) in comparison with ero (future of sum).

In the Future Perfect the suffix - ero, - eris, etc. is added to the perfect stem: as, amav- ero, monu- eris, tex- erit.

NOTE.--This formation was originally a subjunctive of the s-aorist, ending probably in -is-o. The - is- is doubtless the same as that seen in the second person singular of the perfect indicative (vid-is- ti), in the perfect infinitive (vid-is- se), and in the pluperfect subjunctive (vid-is-sem), s being the aorist sign and i probably an old stem vowel.

In the Perfect Subjunctive the suffix -erim, - eris, etc. is added to the perfect stem: as, amav- erim, monu- eris, tex- erit.

NOTE.--This formation was originally an optative of the s-aorist (-er- for older - is-, as in the future perfect, see c above). The i after r is the optative mood-sign i shortened (see Sect: 168. e. N.2). Forms in - is, - it, - imus, - itis, are sometimes found. The shortening in -is, -imus, -itis, is due to confusion with the future perfect.

In the Pluperfect Subjunctive the suffix - issem, - isses, etc. is added to the perfect stem: as, amav- issem, monu- isses, tex- isset.

NOTE.--Apparently this tense was formed on the analogy of the pluperfect indicative in -is-am (later -er-am, see b), and influenced by essem (earlier -essem) in its relation to eram (earlier -esam).

.SUM: to be. The Verb Sum Esse

SECTION:#170. The verb sum, be, is both irregular and defective, having no gerund or supine, and no participle but the future.

Its conjugation is given at the outset, on account of its importance for the inflection of other verbs.

The verb SUM

For essem, esses, etc., forem, fores, foret, forent, are often used; so fore for futurus esse.

The Present Participle, which would regularly be sons,appears in the adjective in-sons, innocent, and in a modified form in ab-sens, prae- sens. The simple form e ns is sometimes found in late or philosophical Latin as a participle or abstract noun, in the forms ens, being; entia, things which are.

NOTE.--Old forms are: Indicative: Future, escit, escunt (strictly an inchoative present, see Sect: 263. 1).

Subjunctive: Present, siem, sies, siet, sient; fuam, fuas, fuat, fuant; Perfect, fuvimus; Pluperfect, fuvisset.

The root of the verb sum is ES, which in the imperfect is changed to ER (see Sect: 15. 4), and in many forms is shortened to S. Some of its modifications, as found in several languages more or less closely related to Latin, may be seen in the following table,-- the Sanskrit syam corresponding to the Latin sim (siem):



as-mi syam (optative) ---- emmi (old form) ---- s- um sim (siem) ---- es-mi

as- i---- sy as essi (old form) ----es sis (sies) ----es-i

as-ti syat---- esti ----es- t sit (siet) ----es-ti

s-mas ----syama esmen---- s- umus simus es-me

s-tha ----syata este---- es- tis sitis---- es- te

s-anti---- syus ----enti (old form) ----s- unt sint (sient) ----es-ti

The Perfect and Supine stems, fu-, fut-, are kindred with the Greek ephu, and with Nhe English be.

1 Most of these seem to be fragments of old pronouns, whose signification is thus added to that of the verb-stem (cf. Sect: 36). But the ending - mini in the second person plural of the passive is perhaps a remnant of the participial form found in the Greek -menos, and has supplanted the proper form, which does not appear in Latin. The personal ending -nt is probably connected with the participial nt- (nominative -ns).

2 The Passive is an old Middle Voice, peculiar to the Italic and Celtic languages, and of uncertain origin.

3 Of these terminations - i is not a personal ending, but appears to represent an Indo-European tense-sign - ai of the Perfect Middle. In -is-ti and -is-tis, -ti and -tis are personal endings; for - is-, see Sect: 169. c. N. In -i-t and -i-mus, -t and -mus are personal endings, and i is of uncertain origin. Both - erunt and - ere are also of doubtful origin, but the former contains the personal ending -nt.

4 The Perfect Passive and Future Active Participles and the Supine, though strictly noun-forms, each with its own suffix, agree in having the first letter of the suffix (t) the same and in suffering the same phonetic change (t to s, see Sect: 15. 5). Hence these forms, along with several sets of derivatives (in -tor, -tura, etc., see Sect: 238. b. N.1), were felt by the Romans as belonging to one system, and are conveniently associated with the Supine Stem. Thus, from pingo, we have pictum, pictus, picturus, pictor, pictura; from rideo, risum (for red-tum), risus (part.), risus (noun), risurus, risio, risor, risibilis.

5 These numerals refer to the four conjugations given later (see Sect: 171).

6 The conjugation of a verb consists of separate formations from a root, gradually grouped together, systematized, and supplemented by new formations made on old lines to supply deficiencies. Some of the forms were inherited from the parent speech; others were developed in the course of the history of the Italic dialects or of the Latin language itself.

7 The signs of mood and tense are often said to be inserted between the root (or verb-stem) and the personal ending. No such insertion is possible in a language developed like the Latin. All true verb-forms are the result, as shown above, of composition; that is, of adding to the root or the stem either personal endings or fully developed auxiliaries (themselves containing the personal terminations), or of imitation of such processes. Thus videbamus is made by adding to vide-, originally a significant word or a form conceived as such, a full verbal form bamus, not by inserting -ba- between vide- and - mus (Sect: 168. b).

8 All translations of the Subjunctive are misleading, and hence none is given; see Sect: 157. b.

9 Compare Sankrit sant, Greek -on.

SECTION:#171. Verbs are classed in Four Regular Conjugations, distinguished by the stem-vowel which appears before - re in the Present Infinitive Active:


First ------------- are (am are) a

Second -------------- ere (mon ere) e

Third --------------ere (regere) e

Fourth -------------- ire (aud ire) i

The Principal Parts

SECTION:#172. The Principal Parts of a verb, showing the three stems which determine its conjugation throughout, are:

1. The Present Indicative (as, amo) 2. The Present Infinitive (as, ama- re) showing the Present Stem.

3. The Perfect Indicative (as, amav- i), showing the Perfect Stem.

4. The neuter of the Perfect Participle (as, amat- um), or, if that form is not in use, the Future Active Participle (amat- urus), showing the Supine Stem.

SECTION:#173. The regular forms of the Four Conjugations are seen in the following:

First Conjugation:

Active, amo, amare, amavi, amatum, love.

Passive, amor, amari, amatus.

Present Stem ama-, Perfect Stem amav-, Supine Stem amat-.

Second Conjugation:

Active, deleo, delere, delevi, deletum, blot out.

Passive, deleor, deleri, deletus.

Present Stem dele-, Perfect Stem delev-, Supine Stem delet-.

In the Second conjugation, however, the characteristic e- rarely appears in the perfect and perfect participle. The common type is, therefore:

Active, moneo, monere, monui, monitum, warn.

Passive, moneor, moneri, monitus.

Present Stem mone-, Perfect Stem monu-, Supine Stem monit-.

Third Conjugation:

Active, tego, tegere, texi, tectum, cover.

Passive, tegor, tegi, tectus.

Present Stem tege-, Perfect Stem tex-, Supine Stem tect-.

Fourth Conjugation:

Active, audio, audire, audivi, auditum, hear.

Passive, audior, audiri, auditus.

Present Stem audi-, Perfect Stem audiv-, Supine Stem audit-.

In many verbs the principal parts take forms belonging to two or more different conjugations (cf. Sect: 189):

1, 2, domo, domare, domui, domitum, subdue.

2, 3, maneo, manere, mansi, mansum, remain.

3, 4, peto, pete re, petivi, petitum, seek.

4, 3, vincio, vincire, vinxi, vinctum, bind.

Such verbs are referred to the conjugation to which the Present sten conforms.

.Present Stem

SECTION:#174. The parent (Indo-European) speech from which Latin comes had two main classes of verbs:

1. Thematic Verbs, in which a so-called thematic vowel ( e/ o, in Latin i/u) appeared between the root and the personal ending: as, leg-i-tis (for *leg-e-tes), leg-u- nt (for *leg-o-nti).

2. Athematic Verbs, in which the personal endings were added directly to the root: as, es- t, es- tis (root ES), dea -mus (do, root DA), fer- t ( fero, root FER).

Of the Athematic Verbs few survive in Latin, and these are counted as irregular, except such as have been forced into one of the four "regular"conjugations. Even the irregular verbs have admitted many forms of the thematic type.

Of the Thematic Verbs a large number remain. These may be divided into two classes:

1. Verbs which preserve the thematic vowel e or o (in Latin i or u) before the personal endings.--These make up the Third Conjugation. The present stem is formed in various ways (Sect: 176), but always ends in a short vowel e/o (Latin i/u). Examples are tego (stem ( tege/o-), sternimus (stem ( sterne/o-) for *ster-no-mos, plectunt (stem ( plecte/o-) for *plec-to-nti. So nosco (stem (gnosce/o-) for gno-sc-o. Verbs like nosco became the type for a large number of verbs in -sco, called inceptives (Sect: 263. 1).

2. Verbs which form the present stem by means of the suffix ye/o-, which already contained the thematic vowel e/o.--Verbs of this class in which any vowel (except u) came in contact with the suffix ye/o- suffered contraction so as to present a long vowel a-, e-, i-, at the end of the stem. In this contraction the thematic e/o disappeared. These became the types of the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations respectively. In imitation of these long vowel-stems numerous verbs were formed by the Romans themselves (after the mode of formation had been entirely forgotten) from noun- and

adjective-stems. This came to be the regular way of forming new verbs, just as in English the borrowed suffix -ize can be added to nouns and adjectives to make verbs: as, macadamize, modernize.

Thematic verbs of the second class in which a consonant or u came into contact with the suffix ye/o- suffered various phonetic changes. Such verbs fall partly into the Third Conjugation, giving rise to an irregular form of it, and partly into the Fourth, and some have forms of both. Examples are: (con) spicio (-spicere) for *spekyo; venio ( venire) for -(g) vem-yo; cupio, cupe re, but cupivi; orior, oritur, but oriri. Note, however, pluo ( pluere) for plu-yo; and hence, by analogy, acuo ( acuere) for acu-yo.

In all these cases many cross-analogies and errors as well as phonetic changes have been at work to produce irregularities. Hence has arisen the traditional system which is practically represented in Sect: 175, 176.

SECTION:#175. The Present Stem may be found by dropping - re in the Present Infinitive:

ama- re, stem ama-; mone-re, stem mone-; tege -re, stem tege-; audi-re, stem audi-.

SECTION:#176. The Present Stem is formed from the Root in all regular verbs in one of the following ways:

In the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations, by adding a long vowel (a-, e-, i-) to the root, whose vowel is sometimes changed: as, voca-re (VOC), mone- re (MEN, cf. memini), sopi-re (SOP).

NOTE.--Verb-stems of these conjugations are almost all really formed from nounstems on the pattern of older formations (see Sect: 174).

In the Third Conjugation, by adding a short vowel e/oto the root. In Latin this e/o usually appears as i/u, but e is preserved in some forms. Thus, tegi- s (root TEG), ali-tis (AL), regu-nt (REG); but tege-ris (tege-re), ale-ris.

1. The stem-vowel e/o ( i/u) may be preceded by n, t, or sc:as, tem-ni-tis, tem-nu-nt, tem-ne-ris (TEM); plec-ti-s (PLEC); cre-sci-tis (CRE).

2. Verbs in -io of the Third Conjugation (as, capio, capere) show in some forms an i before the final vowel of the stem: as, cap-i- unt (CAP), fug-i-unt (FUG).

The root may be changed:

1. By the repetition of a part of it (reduplication): as, gi-gn-e-re (GEN).

2. By the insertion of a nasal (m or n): as, find-e-re (FID), tang-e- re (TAG).

In some verbs the present stem is formed from a noun-stem in u-, as, statu-e-re (statu-s), aestu-a-re (aestu- s); cf. acuo, acuere.

NOTE 1.--A few isolated forms use the simple root as a present stem: as, fer- re, fer- t; es- se; vel- le, vul- t. These are counted as irregular.

NOTE 2.--In some verbs the final consonant of the root is doubled before the stemvowel: as, pell-i-tis (PEL), mitt-i-tis (MIT).

Some verbs have roots ending in a vowel. In these the present stem is generally identical with the root: as, da- mus (DA), fle-mus (stem fle-, root form unknown).But others, as rui-mus (RU), are formed with an additional vowel according to the analogy of the verbs described in d.

NOTE.--Some verbs of this class reduplicate the root: as, si-st-e-re (STA, cf. stare).

1 Cf. leg-e- te, leg-o- men; Doric leg-o- nti.

2 Cf. es- ti, es- te (see p. 83, note).

3 Most verbs of the First, Second, and Fourth Conjugations form the present stem by adding the suffix -ye/o- to a noun-stem. The a of the First Conjugation is the stem-ending of the noun (as, planta- re, from planta-, stem of planta). The e of the Second and the i of the Fourth Conjugation are due to contraction of the short vowel of the noun-stem with the ending -ye/o-. Thus albere is from albo/e-, stem of albus; finire is from fini-, stem of finis. Some verbs of these classes, however, come from roots ending in a vowel.

4 This is the so-called "thematic vowel.?

5 In these verbs the stem-ending added to the root is respectively -ne/o-, -te/o<


6 These are either old formations in -ye/o-in which the y has disappeared after the u (as, statuo for statu-yo) or later imitations of such forms.

7 In some of the verbs of this class the present stem was originally identical with the root; in others the ending -ye/o- was added, but has been absorbed by contraction.

.Perfect Stem

SECTION:#177. The Perfect Stem is formed as follows:

The suffix v (u) is added to the verb-stem: as, voca-v-i, audi-v- i; or to the root: as, son-u- i (sona-re, root SON), mon-u- i (mone- re, MON treated as a root).

NOTE.--In a few verbs the vowel of the root is transposed and lengthened: as, stra-v- i ( sterno, STAR), spre -v- i ( sperno, SPAR).

The suffix s is added to the root: as, carp-s- i (CARP), tex- i (for teg-s-i, TEG).

NOTE.--The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the perfect: as, finx- i (FIG, present stem finge-), sanx-i (SAC, present stem sanci-).

The root is reduplicated by prefixing the first consonant--generally with e , sometimes with the root-vowel: as, ce-cid-i ( cado, CAD), to-tond- i ( tondeo, TOND).

NOTE.--In fid- i (for fe-fid-i , find- o), scid-e (for sci-scid-i, scindo), the reduplication has been lost, leaving merely the root.

The root vowel is lengthened, sometimes with vowel change: as, leg- i (leg-o), em- i (em- o), vid- i (vid-e-o), fug- i (fug-i-o), eg- i (ea g-o).

Sometimes the perfect stem has the same formation that appears in the present tense: as, vert- i (vert- o), solv- i (solv- o).

Sometimes the perfect is formed from a lost or imaginary stem: as, pet i-v- i (as if from peti-o, peti-re, PET).

1 The v-perfect is a form of uncertain origin peculiar to the Latin.

2 The s-perfect is in origin an aorist. Thus, dix-i (for dics-i) corresponds to the Greek aorist e-deix- a (for e-deiks-a).

.Supine Stem

SECTION:#178. The Supine Stem may be found by dropping -um from the Supine. It is formed by adding t (or, by a phonetic change, s):

To the present stem: as, ama-t- um, dele-t- um, audi-t- um.

To the root, with or without i: as, cap-t- um ( capio, CAP), moni-t- um ( moneo, MON used as root), cas- um (for cad-t-um, CAD), lec-t-um (LEG).

NOTE 1.--By phonetic change dt and tt become s ( defensum, versum for de-fendt-um, vert-t-um); bt becomes pt (scrip-t- um for scrib-t-um); gt becomes ct (rec-t-um for reg-t-um).

NOTE 2.--The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the supine: as, tinc-t-um ( tingo, TIG), ten-s-um for tend-t-um (ten-d- o, TEN).

NOTE 3.--The supine is sometimes from a lost or imaginary verb-stem: as, peti-t- um (as if from peti-o, peti-re, PET).

NOTE 4.--A few verbs form the supine stem in s after the analogy of verbs in d and t: as, fal-s- um ( fallo), pul-s- um ( pello).

.Forms of Conjugation

SECTION:#179. The forms of the several conjugations from which, by adding the verb-endings in Sect: 166, all the moods and tenses can be made are as follows:

The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add a- to the root to form the present stem:as, ama-re; with a few whose root ends in a (for, fa- ri; flo, fla- re; no, na- re; sto, sta- re).

1. The stem-vowel a- is lost before -o: as, amo = ama-(y)o; and in the present subjunctive it is changed to e: as, ame- s, ame- mus.

2. The perfect stem regularly adds v, the supine stem t, to the present stem: as, ama-v- i, ama-t- um. For exceptions, see Sect: 209. a.

The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add e- to the root to form the present stem: as, mone- re; with a few whose root ends in e; as, fle- o, fle- re; ne- o, ne- re; re- or, re- ri (cf. Sect: 176. e).

1. In the present subjunctive a is added to the verb-stem: as, mone-a- s, mone-a- mus (cf. Sect: 168. e).

2. A few verbs form the perfect stem by adding v (u), and the supine stem by adding t, to the present stem: as, dele-v- i, dele-t- um. But most form the perfect stem by adding v (u) to the root, and the supine stem by adding t to a weaker form of the present stem, ending in e -: as, mon-u- i, moni-t-um. For lists, see Sect: 210.

The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregular, see Sect: 197) which add e- to the root to form the present stem: as, tegere, cape-re; with a few whose root ends in e: as, se-re-re for se-se-re (reduplicated from SE, cf. sea tum).

1. The stem-vowel eis regularly lost before - o, and becomes ubefore -nt and e - before the other endings of the indicative and imperative: as, teg- o, tegi- t, tegu- nt; in the imperfect indicative it becomes e: as, tegebam, tege- bas, etc.; in the future, e: as, tege- s (except in the first person singular, tega- m, tega- r); in the present subjunctive, a: as, tega- s.

Verbs in -io lose the i before a consonant and also before i, i , and e(except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). Thus,--capi- at, capi- unt, capi-ebat, capi- es, capi- et, capi-ent; but, cap- it (not *capi-it), cap- eret.

2. All varieties of perfect and supine stems are found in this conjugation. See lists, Sect: 211. The perfect is not formed from the present stem, but from the root.

The Fourth Conjugation includes all verbs which add i- to the root to form the present stem: as, aude -re.In these the perfect and supine stems regularly add v, t, to the verb-stem: as, audi-v- i, audit- um.Endings like those of the third conjugation are added in the third person plural of the present (indicative and imperative), in the imperfect and future indicative, and in the present subjunctive: as, audi- unt, audi- ebat, audi- etis, audi- at, the i being regularly short before a vowel.

The Present Imperative Active (second person singular) is the same as the present stem: as, ama, mone, tege , audi. But verbs in -io of the third conjugation omit i: as, cape(not capie).

The tenses of completed action in the Active voice are all regularly formed by adding the tense-endings (given in Sect: 166) to the perfect stem: as, amav- i, amav- eram, amav- ero, amav- erim, amav- issem, amav- isse.

The tenses of completed action in the Passive voice are formed by adding to the perfect participle the corresponding tenses of continued action of the verb esse: as, perfect amatus sum; pluperfect amatus eram, etc.


.Synopsis of the Verb

Synopsis of the Verb

.Peculiarities of Conjugation

SECTION:#181. In tenses formed upon the Perfect Stem, v between two vowels is often lost and contraction takes place.

Perfects in - avi, - evi, - ovi, often contract the two vowels into a, e, o, respectively: as, amasse for amavisse; amarim for amaverim; amassem for amavissem; consuerat for consueverat; flestis for flevistis; nosse for novisse. So in perfects in - vi, where the v is a part of the present stem: as, commorat for commoverat.

NOTE.--The first person of the perfect indicative (as, amavi) is never contracted, the third very rarely.

Perfects in - ivi regularly omit v, but rarely contract the vowels except before st and ss, and very rarely in the third person perfect:

audieram for audiveram; audisse for audivisse; audisti for audivisti; abiit for abivit; abierunt for abiverunt.

NOTE 1.--The forms siris, sirit, sire tis, sirint, for siveris etc. (from sivero or siverim), are archaic.

NOTE 2.--In many forms from the perfect stem is, iss, sis, are lost in like manner, when s would be repeated if they were retained: as, dixti for dixisti (x = cs); traxe for traxisse; evasti for evasisti; vixet for vixisset; erepsemus for erepsissemus; decesse for decessisse. These forms belong to archaic and colloquial usage.

SECTION:#182. Four verbs,-- dico, duco, facio, fero,--with their compounds, drop the vowel-termination of the Imperative, making dic, duc, fe a c, fer; but compounds in -ficio retain it, as, confice.

NOTE.--The imperative forms dice, duce, face (never fere), occur in early Latin.

For the imperative of scio, the future form scito is always used in the singular, and scitote usually in the plural.

SECTION:#183. The following ancient forms are found chiefly in poetry:

1. In the fourth conjugation, - ibam, - ibo, for -iebam, - iam (future). These forms are regular in eo, go (Sect: 203).

2. In the present subjunctive, -im: as in duim, perduim, retained in religious formulas and often in comedy. This form is regular in sum and volo and their compounds (Sect: 170, 199).

3. In the perfect subjunctive and future perfect indicative, - sim, -so: as, faxim, faxo, iusso, recepso (= fecerim etc.); ausim (= ausus sim).

4. In the passive infinitive, -ier: as, vocarier for vocari; agier for agi.

5. A form in - asso, - assere is found used as a future perfect: as, amassis. from amo; levasso, from levo; impetrassere, from impetro; iudicassit, from iudico (cf. Sect: 263. 2. b. N.).


SECTION:#184. The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add a- to the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends in a-. The verb amo, love, is conjugated as follows:

PRINCIPAL PARTS: Present Indicative amo, Present Infinitive amare, Perfect Indicative amavi, Supine amatum.

First Conjugation Active

First Conjugation Pasiive


SECTION:#185. The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add e- to the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends in e-. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, moneo, monere, monui, monitum; Passive, moneor, moneri, monitus sum.

Second Conjugation Active


SECTION:#186. The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregular, see Sect: 197) which add e- to the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends in e-. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, tego, tege re, texi, tectum; Passive, tegor, tegi, tectus sum.

Third Conjugation


SECTION:#187. The Fourth Conjugation includes all verbs which add i- to the root to form the present stem. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, audio, audire, audivi, auditum; Passive, audior, audiri, auditus sum.

Fourth Conjugation


SECTION:#188. Verbs of the Third Conjugation in -io have certain forms of the present stem like the fourth conjugation. They lose the i of the stem before a consonant and also before i, i, and e(except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). 21 Verbs of this class are conjugated as follows: PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, capio, cape re, cepi, captum; Passive, capior, capi, captus sum.


Third Conjugation in -io (capio)

Parallel Forms

SECTION:#189. Many verbs have more than one set of forms, of which only one is generally found in classic use:

lavo, lavare or lave re, wash (see Sect: 211. e).

scateo, scatere or scate re, gush forth.

ludifico, - are, or ludificor, - ari, mock.

fulgo, fulgere, or fulgeo, fulgere, shine.


SECTION:#190. Deponent Verbs have the forms of the Passive Voice, with an active or reflexive signification:

PRINCIPAL PARTS First conjugation: miror, mirari, miratus, ------admire.

PRINCIPAL PARTS Second conjugation: vereor, vereri, veritus, -----fear.

PRINCIPAL PARTS Third conjugation: sequor, sequi, secutus, -----follow.

PRINCIPAL PARTS Fourth conjugation: partior, partiri, partitus, -----share.


Deponents have the participles of both voices:

sequens, following. secuturus, about to follow.

secutus, having followed. sequendus, to be followed.

The perfect participle generally has an active sense, but in verbs otherwise deponent it is often passive: as, mercatus, bought; adeptus, gained (or having gained).

The future infinitive is always in the active form: thus, sequor has secuturus (- a, -um) esse (not secutum iri).

The gerundive, being passive in meaning, is found only in transitive verbs, or intransitive verbs used impersonally:

hoc confitendum est, this must be acknowledged.

moriendum est omnibus, all must die.

Most deponents are intransitive or reflexive in meaning, corresponding to what in Greek is called the Middle Voice (Sect: 156. a. N.).

Some deponents are occasionally used in a passive sense: as, criminor, I accuse, or I am accused.

About twenty verbs have an active meaning in both active and passive forms: as, mereo or mereor, I deserve.

SECTION:#191. More than half of all deponents are of the First Conjugation, and all of these are regular. The following deponents are irregular:

adsentior, - iri, adsensus, assent.

apiscor, (-ip-), - i, aptus (-eptus), get.

defetiscor, - i, - fessus, faint.

expergiscor, - i, - perrectus, rouse.

experior, - iri, expertus, try.

fateor, - eri, fassus, confess.

fruor, - i, fructus (fruitus), enjoy.

fungor, - i, functus, fulfil.

gradior (-gredior), - i, gressus, step.

irascor, - i, iratus, be angry.

labor, - i, lapsus, fall.

loquor, - i, locutus, speak.

metior, - iri, mensus, measure.

-miniscor, - i, -mentus, think.

morior, - i (- iri), mortuus ( moriturus), die.

nanciscor, - i, nactus ( nanctus), find.

nascor, - i, natus, be born.

nitor, - i, nisus ( nixus), strive.

obliviscor, - i, oblitus, forget.

opperior, - iri, oppertus, await.

ordior, - iri, orsus, begin.

orior, - iri, ortus (oritu rus), rise (3d conjugation in most forms).

paciscor, - i, pactus, bargain.

patior (-petior), - i, passus (- pessus), suffer.

- plector, - i, - plexus, clasp.

proficiscor, - i, profectus, set out.

queror, - i, questus, complain.

reor, reri, ratus, think.

revertor, - i, reversus, return.

ringor, - i, rictus, snarl.

sequor, - i, secutus, follow.

tueor, - eri, tuitus ( tutus), defend.

ulciscor, - i, ultus, avenge.

utor, - i, usus, use, employ.

NOTE.--The deponent comperior, - iri, compertus, is rarely found for comperio, - ire. Revertor, until the time of Augustus, had regularly the active forms in the perfect system, reverti. reverteram, etc.

The following deponents have no supine stem:

devertor, -ti, turn aside (to lodge). medeor, - eri, heal.

diffiteor, - eri, deny. reminiscor, - i, call to mind.

fatiscor, - i, gape. vescor, - i, feed upon.

liquor, - i, melt ( intrans.).

NOTE.--Deponents are really passive (or middle) verbs whose active voice has disappeared. There is hardly one that does not show signs of having been used in the active at some period of the language.

SECTION:#192. A few verbs having no perfect stem are regular in the present, but appear in the tenses of completed action as deponents. These are called Semi-deponents. They are:

audeo, audere, ausus, dare. gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus, rejoice.

fido, fide re, fisus, trust. soleo, solere, solitus, be wont.

From audeo there is an old perfect subjunctive ausim. The form sodes (for si audes), an thou wilt, is frequent in the dramatists and rare elsewhere.

The active forms vapulo, vapulare, be flogged, and veneo, venire, be sold (contracted from venum ire, go to sale), have a passive meaning, and are sometimes called neutral passives. To these may be added fieri, to be made (Sect: 204), and exsulare, to be banished (live in exile); cf. accedere, to be added.

NOTE.--The following verbs are sometimes found as semi-deponents: iuro, iurare. iuratus, swear; nubo, nubere, nupta, marry; placeo, placere, placitus, please.


SECTION:#193. A Periphrastic form, as the name indicates, is a "roundabout way of speaking."In the widest sense, all verb-phrases consisting of participles and sum are Periphrastic Forms. The Present Participle is, however, rarely so used, and the Perfect Participle with sum is included in the regular conjugation ( amatus sum, eram, etc.). Hence the term Periphrastic Conjugation is usually restricted to verb-phrases consisting of the Future Active Participle or the Gerundive with sum.

NOTE.--The Future Passive Infinitive, as amatum iri, formed from the infinitive passive of eo, go, used impersonally with the supine in -um, may also be classed as a periphrastic form (Sect: 203. a).

SECTION:#194. There are two Periphrastic Conjugations, known respectively as the First (or Active) and the Second (or Passive).

The First Periphrastic Conjugation combines the Future Active Participle with the forms of sum, and denotes a future or intended action.

The Second Periphrastic Conjugation combines the Gerundive with the forms of sum, and denotes obligation, necessity, or propriety.

The periphrastic forms are inflected regularly throughout the Indicative and Subjunctive and in the Present and Perfect Infinitive.

.The First Periphrastic Conjugation:



PRESENT amaturus sum, I am about to love

IMPERFECT amaturus eram, I was about to love

FUTURE amaturus ero, I shall be about to love

PERFECT amaturus fui, I have been, was, about to love

PLUPERFECT amaturus fueram, I had been about to love

FUTURE PERFECT amaturus fuero, I shall have been about to love


PRESENT amaturus sim

IMPERFECT amaturus essem

PERFECT amaturus fuerim

PLUPERFECT amaturus fuissem


PRESENT amaturus esse, to be about to love

PERFECT amaturus fuisse, to have been about to love

So in the other conjugations:

Second: moniturus sum, I am about to advise.

Third: tecturus sum, I am about to cover.

Fourth: auditurus sum, I am about to hear.

Third (in -io): capturus sum, I am about to take.

.The Second Periphrastic Conjugation

SECTION:#196. :


PRESENT amandus sum, I am to be, must be, loved

IMPERFECT amandus eram, I was to be, had to be, loved

FUTURE amandus ero, I shall have to be loved

PERFECT amandus fui, I was to be, had to be, loved

PLUPERFECT amandus fueram, I had had to be loved

FUTURE PERFECT amandus fuero, I shall have had to be loved


PRESENT amandus sim

IMPERFECT amandus essem

PERFECT amandus fuerim

PLUPERFECT amandus fuissem


PRESENT amandus esse, to have to be loved

PERFECT amandus fuisse, to have had to be loved

So in the other conjugations:

Second: monendus sum, I am to be, must be, advised.

Third: tegendus sum, I am to be, must be, covered.

Fourth: audiendus sum, I am to be, must be, heard.

Third (in -io): capiendus sum, I am to be, must be, taken.


SECTION:#197. Several verbs add some of the personal endings of the present system directly to the root, 21 or combine two verbs in their inflection. These are called Irregular Verbs. They are sum, volo, fero, edo, do, eo, queo, fio, and their compounds.

Sum has already been inflected in Sect: 170.

SECTION:#198. Sum is compounded without any change of inflection with the prepositions ab, ad, de, in, inter, ob, prae, pro (earlier form prod), sub, super.

In the compound prosum (help), pro retains its original d before e: PRINCIPAL PARTS: prosum, prodesse, profui, profuturus

SECTION:#199. volo, nolo, malo

PRINCIPAL PARTS: volo, velle, volui,--, be willing, will, wish nolo, nolle, nolui,--, be unwilling, will not malo, malle, malui,--, be more willing, prefer

SECTION:#200. Fero, bear, carry, endure 26 PRINCIPAL PARTS: fero, ferre, 27 tuli, latum


cont'd ...VOLO FERO


NOTE.--Nolo and malo are compounds of volo. Nolo is for ne-volo, and malo for mavolo from mage-volo.

NOTE.--The forms sis for si vis, sultis for si vultis, and the forms nevis (ne-vis), nevolt, mavolo, ma volunt, mavelim, mavellem, etc., occur in early writers.

The compounds of fero, conjugated like the simple verb, are the following:

ad- adfero adferre attuli allatum

au-, ab- aufero auferre abstuli ablatum

con- c onfero conferre contuli collatum

dis-, di- differo differre distuli dilatum

ex-, e- effero efferre extuli elatum

in- i nfero inferre intuli illatum

ob- offero offerre obtuli oblatum

re- refero referre rettuli relatum

sub- suffero sufferre sustuli2 sublatum /p>

NOTE.--In these compounds the phonetic changes in the preposition are especially to be noted. ab- and au- are two distinct prepositions with the same meaning.

SECTION:#201. Edo, edere, edi, esum, eat, is regular of the third conjugation, but has also an archaic present subjunctive and some alternative forms directly from the root (ED), without the thematic vowel. These are in full-faced type.

Irregular verb EDO


In the Passive the following irregular forms occur in the third person singular: Present Indicative estur, Imperfect Subjunctive essetur.

.DO DARE: Irregular Verbal forms

SECTION:#202. The irregular verb do, give, is conjugated as follows:

PRINCIPAL PARTS: do, dea re, dedi, datum

Irregular verb DO


For compounds of do, see Sect: 209. a. N.

.EO IRE Irregular forms

SECTION:#203. Eo, go. PRINCIPAL PARTS: eo, ire, ii ( ivi), itum

Irregular verb EO

Thus inflected, the forms of eo are used impersonally in the third person singular of the passive: as, itum est (Sect: 208. d). The infinitive iri is used with the supine in -um to make the future infinitive passive (Sect: 193. N.). The verb veneo, be sold (i.e. venum eo, go to sale), has also several forms in the passive.

In the perfect system of eo the forms with v are very rare in the simple verb and unusual in the compounds.

ii before s is regularly contracted to i: as, isse.

The compound ambio is inflected regularly like a verb of the fourth conjugation. But it has also ambibat in the imperfect indicative.

Pro with eo retains its original d: as, prodeo, prodis, prodit.


SECTION:#204. Facio, facere, feci, factum, make, is regular. But it has imperative fac in the active, and, besides the regular forms, the future perfect faxo, perfect subjunctive faxim. The passive of facio is--

fio, fieri, factus sum, be made or become.

The present system of fio is regular of the fourth conjugation, but the subjunctive imperfect is fierem, and the infinitive fieri.

NOTE.--The forms in brackets are not used in good prose.

INDICATIVE ----------------------------------SUBJUNCTIVE

Pres. Sg.----fio, fis, fit ----------------------fiam, fias, fiat

Pres. Pl.[ fimus], [ fitis], fiunt -------------fiamus, fiatis, fiant

IMPERFECT fiebam, fiebas, etc.----------------- fierem, fieres, etc.

FUTURE fiam, fies, etc.

PERFECT factus sum ----------------------factus sim

PLUPERFECT factus eram -------------------------factus essem


IMPERATIVE [ fi, fite, fito, --]

INFINITIVE PRESENT fieri ------PERFECT factus esse --------FUTURE factum iri

PARTICIPLES: PERFECT factus -------GERUNDIVE faciendus

Most compounds of facio with prepositions weaken ea to i in the present stem and to ein the supine stem, and are inflected regularly like verbs in -io:

conficio, confice re, confeci, confectum, finish.

conficior, confici, confectus.

Other compounds retain a, and have - fio in the passive: as, benefacio, - facere, - feci, - factum; passive benefio, - fieri, - factus, benefit. These retain the accent of the simple verb: as, bene-fea 'cis (Sect: 12. a, Exc.).

A few isolated forms of fio occur in other compounds:

confit, it happens, confiunt; confiat; confieret, confierent; confieri.

defit, it lacks, defiunt; defiet; defiat; defieri.

effieri, to be effected.

infio, begin (to speak), infit.

interfiat, let him perish; interfieri, to perish.

superfit, it remains over; superfiat, superfieri.


SECTION:#205. Some verbs have lost the Present System, and use only tenses of the Perfect, in which they are inflected regularly. These are:

coepi, began ----odi, hate ----memini, remember


PERFECT coepi odi memini

PLUPERFECT coeperam oderam memineram

FUTURE PERFECT coepero odero meminero


PERFECT coeperim oderim meminerim

PLUPERFECT coepissem odissem meminissem





PERFECT coepisse odisse meminisse

FUTURE coepturus esse osurus esse


PERFECT coeptus, begun ----osus, hating or hated

FUTURE coepturus .about to begin-------osurus, likely to hate

The passive of coepi is often used with the passive infinitive: as, coeptus sum vocari, I began to be called, but coepi vocare, I began to call. For the present system incipio is used.

NOTE.--Early and rare forms are coepio, coepiam, coeperet, coepere.

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of odi and memini have the meanings of a Present, Imperfect, and Future respectively:

odi, I hate; oderam, I hated (was hating); odero, I shall hate.

NOTE 1.--A present participle meminens is early and late.

NOTE 2.-- Novi and consuevi (usually referred to nosco and consuesco) are often used in the sense of I know (have learned) and I am accustomed (have become accustomed) as preteritive verbs. Many other verbs are occasionally used in the same way (see 476. N.).

SECTION:#206. Many verbs are found only in the Present System. Such are maereo, - ere, be sorrowful (cf. maestus, sad); ferio, - ire, strike.

In many the simple verb is incomplete, but the missing parts occur in its compounds: as, vado, vadere, in-vasi, in-vasum.

Some verbs occur very commonly, but only in a few forms:

aio, I say:

INDIC. PRES. aio, ais, ait; ........ aiunt

IMPF. aiebam, aiebas, etc.

SUBJV. PRES. , aias, aiat ......... aiant

IMPER. ai (rare)

PART. aiens

The vowels a and i are pronounced separately (a- is, a- it) except sometimes in old or colloquial Latin. Before a vowel, one i stands for two (see Sect: 6. c): thus aio was pronounced ai-yo and was sometimes written aiio.

Inquam, I say, except in poetry, is used only in direct quotations (cf. the English quoth).

INDIC. PRES. inquam, inquis, inquit; inquimus, inquitis (late), inquiunt

IMPF. inquiebat;

FUT. , inquies, inquiet;

PERF. inquii, inquisti,

IMPER. PRES. inque

FUT. inquito

The only common forms are inquam, inquis, inquit, inquiunt, and the future inquies, inquiet.

The deponent fari, to speak, has the following forms:

INDIC. PRES. fatur; fantur

FUT. fabor fabitur;

PERF. fatus est; fati sunt

PLUP. fatus eram fatus erat;



PART. PRES. fans, fantis, etc. (in singular)

PERF. fatus (having spoken)

GER. fandus (to be spoken of)

GERUND, gen. fandi, abl. fando SUPINE fatu

Several forms compounded with the prepositions ex, prae, pro, inter, occur: as, praefatur, praefamur, affari, profatus, interfatur, etc. The compound infans is regularly used as a noun (child). infandus, nefandus, are used as adjectives, unspeakable, abominable.

Queo, I can, nequeo, I cannot, are conjugated like eo. They are rarely used except in the present. Queo is regularly accompanied by a negative. The forms given below occur, those in full-faced type in classic prose. The Imperative, Gerund, and Supine are wanting.



queo queam / nequeo ( non queo) --------------------nequeam

quis queas nequis -----------------------------nequeas

quit queat nequit---------------------------- nequeat

quimus queamus nequimus ------------------------nequeamus

nequitis -------------------------------------nequeratis

queunt queant nequeunt ------------------------nequeant


que bam ------------------------------------- nequirem

quibat qui ret nequibat -----------------------nequiret

quirent nequibant ----------------------------nequirent


quibo nequibit

quibunt nequibunt


quivi nequivi --------------------------nequeverim


quivit quiverit (-ierit) nequivit ( nequiit) nequiverit

quiverunt (- ere) quierint nequiverunt (-quiere) nequiverint


nequiverat (-ierat) -----------------------nequivisset (- quisset)

quivissent nequiverant -----------------------(-ierant) nequissent


quire quisse nequire nequivisse (-quisse)


quiens nequiens, nequeuntes

NOTE.--A few passive forms are used with passive infinitives: as, quitur, queuntur, quitus sum, queatur, queantur, nequitur, nequitum; but none of these occurs in classic prose.

Quaeso, I ask, beg (original form of quaero), has:

INDIC. PRES. quaeso, quaes? -mus

NOTE.--Other forms of quaeso are found occasionally in early Latin. For the perfect system ( quaesivi, etc.), see quaero (Sect: 211. d).

Ovare, to triumph, has the following:

INDIC. PRES. ovas, ovat


IMPF. ovaret

PART. ovans, ovaturus, ovatus

GER. ovandi

A few verbs are found chiefly in the Imperative:

PRES. singular salve, plural salvete, FUT. salveto, hail! (from salvus, safe and sound). An infinitive salvere and the indicative forms salveo, salvetis, salvebis, are rare.

PRES. singular ave (or have), plural avete, FUT. aveto, hail or farewell. An infinitive avere also occurs.

PRES. singular cedo, plural cedite ( cette), give, tell.

PRES. singular apage, begone (properly a Greek word).


SECTION:#207. Many verbs, from their meaning, appear only in the third person singular, the infinitive, and the gerund. These are called Impersonal Verbs, as having no personal subject. 40 The passive of many intransitive verbs is used in the same way.

act. I----II ---III-----IV --------- pass

(it is plain; it is allowed; it chances; it results ; it is fought)

PR:constat licet accidit evenit pugnatur

IMPF: constabat licebat accidebat eveniebat pugnabatur

FUT: constabit licebit accidet eveniet pugnabitur

PERF:constitit licuit, -itum est accidit evenit pugnatum est

PLUP: constiterat licuerat acciderat evenerat pugnatum erat

FUT PF:constiterit licuerit acciderit evenerit pugnatum erit

PR SUB;constet liceat accidat eveniat pugnetur

IMPF SUBJ:constaret liceret accideret eveniret pugnaretur

FUT PF SUBJ:constiterit licuerit acciderit evenerit pugnatum sit

PLUP SUBJ:constitisset licuisset accidisset evenisset pugnatum esset

PR INF:constare licere accidere evenire pugnari

PF INF: constitisse licuisse accidisse evenisse pugnatum esse

FUT INF:-staturum esse -iturum esse -turum esse pugnatum iri

SECTION:#208. Impersonal Verbs may be classified as follows:

Verbs expressing the operations of nature and the time of day:

vesperascit (inceptive, Sect: 263. 1), it grows late.------ ningit, it snows.

luciscit hoc, it is getting light. -------fulgurat, it lightens.

grandinat, it hails. ------tonat, it thunders.

pluit, it rains. ------rorat, the dew falls.

NOTE.--In these no subject is distinctly thought of. Sometimes, however, the verb is used personally with the name of a divinity as the subject: as, Iuppiter tonat, Jupiter thunders. In poetry other subjects are occasionally used: as, fundae saxa pluunt, the slings rain stones.

Verbs of feeling, where the person who is the proper subject becomes the object, as being himself affected by the feeling expressed in the verb (Sect: 354. b):

miseret, it grieves. -----paenitet (poenitet), it repents.

piget, it disgusts. -----pudet, it shames.

taedet, it wearies. ----miseret me, I pity (it distresses me); -----pudet me, I am ashamed.

NOTE.--Such verbs often have also a passive form: as, misereor, I pity (am moved to pity); and occasionally other parts: as, paeniturus (as from paenio), paenitendus, pudendus, pertaesum est, pigitum est.

Verbs which have a phrase or clause as their subject (cf. Sect: 454, 569.2):

accidit, contingit, evenit, obtingit, obvenit, fit, -----it happens.

libet, it pleases. -----delectat, iuvat, it delights.

licet, it is permitted. -----oportet, it is fitting, ought.

certum est, it is resolved.----- necesse est, it is needful.

constat, it is clear.----- praestat, it is better.

placet, it seems good (pleases). -----interest, refert, it concerns.

videtur, it seems, seems good.----- vacat, there is leisure.

decet, it is becoming. -----restat, superest, it remains.

NOTE.--Many of these verbs may be used personally; as, vaco, I have leisure. Libet and licet have also the passive forms libitum ( licitum) est etc. The participles libens and licens are used as adjectives.

The passive of intransitive verbs is very often used impersonally (see synopsis in Sect: 207):

ventum est, they came (there was coming).

pugnatur, there is fighting (it is fought).

itur, some one goes (it is gone).

parcitur mihi, I am spared (it is spared to me, see Sect: 372).

NOTE.--The impersonal use of the passive proceeds from its original reflexive (or middle) meaning, the action being regarded as accomplishing itself (compare the French cela se fait).


First Conjugation

SECTION:#209. There are about 360 simple verbs of the First Conjugation, most of them formed directly on a noun-or adjective-stem:

armo, arm ( arma, arms); caeco, to blind ( caecus, blind); exsulo, be an exile (exsul, an exile) (Sect: 259).

Their conjugation is usually regular, like amo; though of many only a few forms are found in use.

The following verbs form their Perfect and Supine stems irregularly. Those marked have also regular forms.

crepo, crepui (- crepavi), -crepit-, resound.

plico, -plicit-, fold.

cubo, cubui, - cubit-, lie down.

poto, potavi,pot-, drink.

do, dea re, dedi, dea t-, give (DA).

seco, secui, sect-, cut.

domo, domui, domit-, subdue.

sono, sonui, sonit-,1 sound.

frico, fricui,frict-, rub.

sto , steti, - stat- (-stit-), stand.

iuvo (ad- iuvo), iuvi, iut-,help.

tono, tonui,-tonit-, thunder.

mico, micui glitter.

veto, vetui, vetit-, forbid.

neco, necui, necat- (-nect-), kill.

NOTE.--Compounds of these verbs have the following forms: crepo: con- crepui, dis- crepui or - crepavi; in- crepui or - crepavi. do: circum-, inter-, pessum-, satis-, super-, venum-do, - dedi, - dat-, of the first conjugation. Other compounds belong to the root DHA, put, and are of the third conjugation: as, condo, condere, condidi, conditum. mico: di- micavi, -micat-; e-micui, -micat-. plico: re-, sub- (sup-), multi- plico, -plicavi, -plicat-; ex-plico (unfold), - ui, -it-; (explain), -avi, -at-; im-plico, - avi (- ui), -atum (- itum). sto: con- sto, - stiti, (- staturus); ad, re- sto, - stiti, ; ante- (anti-), inter-, supersto, - steti, ; circum-sto, - steti (- stiti), ; prae- sto, - stiti, - stit- (- stat-); di- sto, ex-sto, no perfect or supine (future participle ex-staturus).

1 Future Participle also in -aturus (either in the simple verb or in composition).

2 Neco has regularly neca vi, necatum, except in composition.

Second Conjugation

SECTION:#210. There are nearly 120 simple verbs of the Second Conjugation, most of them denominative verbs of condition, having a corresponding noun and adjective from the same root, and an inceptive in -sco (Sect: 263. 1):

caleo, be warm; calor, warmth; calidus, warm; calesco, grow warm.

timeo, fear; timor, fear; timidus, timid; per- timesco, to take fright.

Most verbs of the second conjugation are inflected like moneo, but many lack the supine (as, arceo, ward off; careo, lack; egeo, need; timeo, fear), and a number have neither perfect nor supine (as, maereo, be sad).

The following keep e in all the systems:

deleo, destroy delere delevi deletum

fleo, weep flere flevi fletum

neo, sew nere nevi [ netum]

vieo, plait viere [vievi] vietum

com- pleo, fill up- plere -plevi -pletum

The following show special irregularities:

algeo, alsi, be cold.

mulceo, mulsi, muls-, soothe.

ardeo, arsi, arsurus, burn.

mulgeo, mulsi, muls-, milk.

audeo, ausus sum, dare.

(co) niveo, - nivi (- nixi) wink.

augeo, auxi, auct-, increase.

(ab)ole o, -olevi, -olit-, destroy.

caveo, cavi, caut-, care.

pendeo, pependi, -pens-, hang.

censeo, censui, cens-, value.

prandeo, prandi, prans-, dine.

cieo, civi, cit-, excite.

rideo, risi, - ris-, laugh.

doceo, docui, doct-, teach.

sedeo, sedi, sess-, sit.

faveo, favi, faut-, favor.

soleo, solitus sum, be wont.

ferveo, fervi (ferbui) glow.

sorbeo, sorbui (sorpsi) suck.

foveo, fovi, fot-, cherish.

spondeo, spopondi, spons-, pledge.

fulgeo, fulsi shine.

strideo, stridi whiz.

gaudeo, gavisus sum, rejoice.

suadeo, suasi, suas-, urge.

haereo, haesi, haes-, cling.

teneo (-tineo), tenui, -tent-, hold.

indulgeo, indulsi, indult-, indulge. vtergeo , tersi, ters-, wipe.

iubeo, iussi, iuss-, order.

tondeo, - totondi (-tondi), tons-, shear.

liqueo, licui ( liqui) melt.

torqueo, torsi, tort-, twist.

luceo, luxi shine.

torreo, torrui, tost-, roast.

lugeo, luxi mourn.

turgeo, tursi swell.

maneo, mansi, mans-, wait.

urgeo, ursi urge.

misceo, - cui, mixt- (mist-), mix.

video, vidi, vis-, see.

mordeo, momordi, mors-, bite.

voveo, vovi, vot-, vow.

moveo , movi, mot-, move.

Third Conjugation

SECTION:#211. The following lists include most simple verbs of the Third Conjugation, classed according to the formation of the Perfect Stem:

Forming the perfect stem in s (x) (Sect: 177. b and note):

ango, anxi choke.

claudo, clausi, claus-, shut.

carpo, carpsi, carpt-, pluck.

como, compsi, compt-, comb, deck.

cedo, cessi, cess-, yield.

coquo, coxi, coct-, cook.

cingo, cinxi, cinct-, bind.

-cutio, -cussi , -cuss-, shake.

demo, dempsi, dempt-, take away.

quatio , (-cussi), quass-, shake.

dico, dixi, dict-, say.

rado, rasi, ras-, scrape.

divido, divisi, divis-,

divide. rego, rexi, rect-, rule.

duco, duxi, duct-, guide.

repo, repsi creep.

emungo, -munxi, -munct-, clean out.

rodo, rosi, ros-, gnaw.

figo, fixi, fix-, fix.

scalpo, scalpsi, scalpt-, scrape.

fingo [FIG], finxi, fict-, fashion.

scribo, scripsi, script-, write.

flecto, flexi, flex-, bend.

sculpo, sculpsi, sculpt-, carve.

-fligo, -flixi, -flict- smite.

serpo, serpsi crawl.

fluo, fluxi, flux-, flow.

spargo, sparsi, spars-, scatter.

frendo fres- (fress-), gnash.

-spicio, - spexi, -spect-, view.

frigo, frixi, frict-, fry.

-stinguo, -stinxi, -stinct-, quench.

gero, gessi, gest-, carry.

stringo, strinxi, strict-, bind.

iungo, iunxi, iunct-, join.

struo, struxi, struct-, build.

laedo, laesi, laes-, hurt.

sugo, suxi, suct-, suck.

-licio, - lexi, -lect-, entice ( elicui, -licit-).

sumo, sumpsi, sumpt-, take.

lu do, lusi, lus-, play.

surgo, surrexi, surrect-, rise.

merg o, mersi, mers-, plunge.

tego, texi, tect-, shelter.

mitto, misi, miss-, send.

temno, -tempsi, -tempt-, despise.

necto [NEC], nexi ( nexui), nex-, weave.

tergo, tersi, ters-, wipe.

nubo, nupsi, nupt-, marry. vtingo, tinxi, tinct-, stain.

pecto, pexi, pex-, comb.

traho, traxi, tract-, drag.

pergo, perrexi, perrect-, go on.

trudo, trusi, trus-, thrust.

pingo [PIG], pinxi, pict-, paint.

unguo ( ungo), unxi, unct-, anoint.

plango [PLAG], planxi, planct-, beat.

uro, ussi, ust-, burn.

plaudo, plausi, plaus-, applaud.

vado, - vasi, - vas-, go.

plecto, plexi, plex-, braid.

veho, vexi, vect-, draw.

premo, pressi, press-, press.

vivo, vixi, vict-, live.

promo, -mpsi, -mpt-, bring out.

Reduplicated in the perfect (Sect: 177. c):

cado, cecidi, cas-, fall. pario, peperi, part- (pariturus), bring forth.

caedo, cecidi, caes-, cut.

cano, cecini sing.

pello, pepuli, puls-, drive.

curro, cucurri, curs-, run.

pendo , pependi, pens-, weigh.

disco [DIC], didici learn. posco, poposci demand.

- do [DHA], -didi, -dit- (as in ab- do, etc., with credo, vendo), put. pungo [PUG], pupugi (-punxi), punct-, prick.

fallo, fefelli, fals-, deceive.

sisto [STA], stiti, stat-, stop.

pango [PAG], pepigi (-pegi), pact-, fasten, fix, bargain.

tango [TAG], tetigi, tact-, touch.

tendo[TEN], tetendi (- tendi), tent-, stretch.

parco, peperci (parsi), (parsurus), spare.

tundo [TUD], tutudi, tuns- (-tus-), beat.

Adding u (v) to the verb-root (Sect: 177. a):

alo, alui, alt- (alit-), nourish. compesco, compescui restrain.

cerno, crevi, - cret-, decree.

consulo, - lui, consult-, consult.

colo, colui, cult-, dwell, till.

cresco, crevi, cret-, increase.

-cumbo [CUB], - cubui, - cubit-, lie down.

rapio, rapui, rapt-, seize.

depso, depsui, depst-, knead.

scisco, scivi, scit-, decree.

fremo, fremui, roar.

sero, sevi, sat-, sow.

gemo, gemui groan.

sero, serui, sert-, entwine.

gigno [GEN], genui, genit-, beget.

sino, sivi, sit-, permit.

meto, messui, -mess-, reap.

sperno, sprevi, spret-, scorn.

molo, molui, molit-, grind.

sterno, stravi, strat-, strew.

occulo, occului, occult-, hide.

sterto, - stertui snore.

( ad)olesco, - evi, -ult-, grow up.

strepo, strepui sound.

pasco, pavi, past-, feed.

suesco, suevi, suet-, be wont.

percello, - culi, -culs-, upset.

texo, texui, text-, weave.

pono [POS], posui, posit-, put.

tremo, tremui tremble.

quiesco, quievi, quiet-, rest.

vomo, vomui vomit.

Adding iv to the verb-root (Sect: 177. f):

arcesso,- ivi, arcessit-, summon.

peto, petivi, petit-, seek.

capesso, capessivi undertake.

quaero, quaesivi, quaesit-, seek.

cupio, cupivi, cupit-, desire.

rudo, rudivi bray.

incesso, incessivi attack.

sapio, sapivi be wise.

lacesso, lacessivi, lacessi t-, provoke.

tero, trivi, trit-, rub.

Lengthening the vowel of the root (cf. Sect: 177. d):

ago, egi, act-, drive.

lavo, lavi, lot- (laut-), wash (also regular of first conjugation).

capio, cepi, capt-, take.

edo, edi, esum, eat (see Sect: 201).

lego,legi, lect-, gather.

emo, emi, empt-, buy.

lino , levi (livi), lit-, smear.

facio, feci, fact-, make (see Sect: 204).

linquo [LIC], - liqui, -lict-, leave.

fodio, fodi, foss-, dig.

nosco [GNO], novi, not- ((co-gnit-, a-gnit-, ad-gnit-), know.

frango [FRAG], fregi, fract-, break.

fugio, fugi, ( fugiturus), flee.

rumpo [RUP], rupi, rupt-, burst.

fundo [FUD], fudi, fus-, pour.

scabo, scabi scratch.

facio, ieci, iact-, throw (-icio, -iect-).

vinco [VIC], vici, vict-, conquer.

Retaining the present stem or verb-root (cf. Sect: 177. e):

acuo, - ui, - ut-, sharpen.

imbuo, - ui, - ut-, give a taste of.

arguo, - ui, - ut-, accuse.

luo, lui, -lut-, wash.

bibo, bibi, ( potus), drink.

mando, mandi, mans-, chew.

-cendo, -cendi, -cens-, kindle.

metuo, - ui, - ut, fear.

(con) gruo, - ui agree.

minuo, - ui, - ut-, lessen.

cudo, - cudi, - cus-, forge.

-nuo, -nui nod.

facesso, - ii ( facessi), facessit-, execute

pando, pandi, pans- (pass-), open.

-fendo, - fendi, -fens-, ward off.

pinso, - si, pins- (pinst-, pist-), bruise.

findo [FID], fidi,fiss-, split.

prehendo, -hendi, -hens-, seize.

ico, ici, ict-, hit.

ruo, rui, rut- (ruiturus), fall.

scando, -scendi, -scensus, climb.

suo, sui, sut-, sew.

scindo [SCID], scidi,sciss-, tear.

(ex) uo, - ui, - ut-, put off.

sido, sidi (- sedi), -sess-, settle.

tribuo, - ui, - ut-, assign.

solvo, solvi, solut-, loose, pay.

vello, velli (- vulsi), vuls-, pluck.

spuo, - ui spit.

verro, - verri, vers-, sweep.

statuo, - ui, - ut-, establish.

verto, verti, vers-, turn.

sternuo, - ui sneeze.

viso [VID], visi, vis-, visit.

strido, stridi whiz.

volvo, volvi, volut-, turn.

NOTE.--Several have no perfect or supine: as, claudo, limp; fatisco, gape; hisco, yawn; tollo ( sustuli, sublatum, supplied from suffero), raise; vergo, incline.

2 The following compounds of lego have - lexi: diligo, intellego, neglego.

Fourth Conjugation

SECTION:#212. There are--besides a few deponents and some regular derivatives in -?-rio, as, esurio, be hungry (cf. Sect: 263. 4)--about 60 verbs of this conjugation, a large proportion of them being descriptive verbs: like--

crocio, croak; mugio, bellow; tinnio, tinkle.

Most verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are conjugated regularly, like audio, though a number lack the supine.

The following verbs show special peculiarities:

amicio, amixi (- cui), amict-, clothe. saepio, saepsi, saept-, hedge in.

aperio, aperui, apert-, open. salio (-silio), salui ( salii), [salt- (-sult-)], leap.

comperio, - peri, compert-, find.

farcio, farsi, fartum, stuff. sancio [SAC], sanxi, sanct-, sanction.

ferio , strike. sarcio, sarsi, sart-, patch.

fulcio, fulsi, fult-, prop. sentio, sensi, sens-, feel.

naurio, hausi, haust- (hausurus), drain. sepelio, sepelivi, sepult-, bury.

operio, operui, opert-, cover. venio, veni, vent-, come.

reperio, repperi, repert-, find. vincio, vinxi, vinct-, bind.

For Index of Verbs, see pp. 436 ff.


SECTION:#213. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are called Particles.

In their origin Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions are either (1) case-forms, actual or extinct, or (2) compounds and phrases.

Particles cannot always be distinctly classified, for many adverbs are used also as prepositions and many as conjunctions (Sect: 219 and 222).


SECTION:#214. Adverbs are regularly formed from Adjectives as follows:

From adjectives of the first and second declensions by changing the characteristic vowel of the stem to - e: as, care, dearly, from carus, dear (stem caro-); amice, like a friend, from amicus, friendly (stem amico-).

NOTE.--The ending -e is a relic of an old ablative in -ed (cf. Sect: 43. N. 1).

From adjectives of the third declension by adding - ter to the stem. Stems in nt- (nom. -ns) lose the t-. All others are treated as i-stems:

fortiter, bravely, from fortis (stem forti-), brave.

acriter, eagerly, from acer (stem acri-), eager.

vigilanter, watchfully, from vigilans (stem vigilant-).

prudenter, prudently, from prudens (stem prudent-).

aliter, otherwise, from alius (old stem ali-).

NOTE.--This suffix is perhaps the same as - ter in the Greek -teros and in uter, alter. If so, these adverbs are in origin either neuter accusatives (cf.d) or masculine nominatives.

Some adjectives of the first and second declensions have adverbs of both forms (- e and - ter). Thus durus, hard, has both dure and duriter; miser, wretched, has both misere and miseriter.

The neuter accusative of adjectives and pronouns is often used as an adverb: as, multum, much; facile, easily; quid, why.

This is the origin of the ending - ius in the comparative degree of adverbs (Sect: 218): as, acrius, more keenly (positive acriter); facilius, more easily (positive facile).

NOTE.--These adverbs are strictly cognate accusatives (Sect: 390).

The ablative singular neuter or (less commonly) feminine of adjectives, pronouns, and nouns may be used adverbially: as, falso, falsely; cito,

quickly (with shortened o); recta ( via), straight (straightway); crebro, frequently; volgo, commonly; fort e, by chance; sponte, of one's own accord.

NOTE.--Some adverbs are derived from adjectives not in use: as, abunde, plentifully (as if from abundus; cf. abundo, abound); saepe, often (as if from saepis, dense, close-packed; cf. saepes, hedge, and saepio, hedge in).

SECTION:#215. Further examples of Adverbs and other Particles which are in origin case-forms of nouns or pronouns are given below. In some the case is not obvious, and in some it is doubtful.

1. Neuter Accusative forms: non (for ne-oinom, later unum), not; iterum (comparative of i-, stem of is), a second time; demum (superlative of de, down), at last.

2. Feminine Accusatives: partim, partly. So statim, on the spot; saltim, at least (generally saltem), from lost nouns in -tis (genitive -tis). Thus -tim became a regular adverbial termination; and by means of it adverbs were made from many noun- and verb-stems immediately, without the intervention of any form which could have an accusative in -tim: as, separatim, separately, from separatus, separate. Some adverbs that appear to be feminine accusative are possibly instrumental: as, palam, openly; perperam, wrongly; tam, so; quam, as.

3. Plural Accusatives: as, alias, elsewhere; foras, out of doors (as end of motion). So perhaps quia, because.

4. Ablative or Instrumental forms: qua, where; intra, within; extra, outside; qui, how; aliqui, somehow; foris, out of doors; quo, whither; adeo, to that degree; ultro, beyond; citro, this side (as end of motion); retro, back; illoc (for illo-ce), weakened to illuc, thither. Those in -tro are from comparative stems (cf. uls, cis, re-).

5. Locative forms: ibi, there; ubi, where; illi, illi- c, there; peregri (peregre), abroad; hic (for hi-ce), here. Also the compounds hodie (probably for hodie), to-day; perendie, day after to-morrow.

6. Of uncertain formation: (1) those in -tus (usually preceded by i), with an ablative meaning: as, funditus, from the bottom, utterly; divinitus, from above, providentially; intus, within; penitus, within; (2) those in - dem, - dam, - do: as, quidem, indeed; quondam, once; quando (cf. donec), when; (3) dum (probably accusative of time), while; iam, now.

SECTION:#216. A phrase or short sentence has sometimes grown together into an adverb (cf. notwithstanding, nevertheless, besides):

postmodo, presently (a short time after).

denuo (for de novo), anew.

videlicet (for vide licet), to wit (see, you may).

nihilominus, nevertheless (by nothing the less).

NOTE.--Other examples are: antea, old antidea, before ( ante ea, probably ablative or instrumental); ilico ( in loco), on the spot, immediately; prorsus, absolutely ( pro vorsus, straight ahead); rursus (re- vorsus), again; quotannis, yearly ( quot annis, as many years as there are); quam-ob- rem, wherefore; cominus, hand to hand (con manus); eminus, at long range ( ex manus); nimirum, without doubt ( ni mirum); ob- viam (as in ire obviam, to go to meet); pridem (cf. prae and - dem in i- dem), for some time; forsan ( fors an), perhaps (it's a chance whether); forsitan ( fors sit an), perhaps (it would be a chance whether); scilicet (sci, licet), that is to say (know, you may; cf. i- licet, you may go); actutum ( actu, on the act, and tum, then).


SECTION:#217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows:

a. Adverbs of Place

hic, here. huc, hither. hinc, hence. hac, by this way.

ibi, there. eo, thither. inde, thence. ea, by that way.

istic, there. istuc, thither. istinc, thence. ista, by that way.

illic, there. illuc, thither. illinc, thence. illa ( illac), by that way.

ubi, where. quo, whither. unde, whence. qua, by what way.

alicubi, somewhere. aliquo, somewhither, alicunde, from some- aliqua, by some way.

(to) somewhere. where.

ibidem, in the same eodem, to the same indidem, from the eadem, by the same

place. place. same place. way.

alibi, elsewhere, in alio, elsewhere, to aliunde, from an- alia, in another

another place. another place. other place. way.

abiubi, wherever. quoquo, whitherso- undecunque, whence- quaqua, in whatever

ever. soever. way.

ubivis, anywhere, quovis, anywhere, undique, from every quavis, by whatever

where you will. whither you will. quarter. way.

sicubi, if anywhere. siquo, if anywhere sicunde, if from any- siqua, if anywhere.

(anywhither). where.

where. whither. anywhere. where.

NOTE.--The demonstrative adverbs hic, ibi, istic, illic, and their correlatives, correspond in signification with the pronouns hic, is, iste, ille (see Sect: 146), and are often equivalent to these pronouns with a preposition: as, inde = ab eo, etc. So the relative or mterrogative ubi corresponds with qui ( quis), ali- cubi with aliquis, ubiubi with quisquis, si-cubi with siquis (see Sect: 147-151, with the table of correlatives in Sect: 152).

usque, all the way to; usquam, anywhere; nusquam, nowhere; citro, to this side; intro, inwardly; ultro, beyond (or freely, i.e. beyond what is required); porro, further on.

quorsum (for quo vorsum, whither turned?), to what end? horsum, this way; prorsum, forward ( prorsus, utterly); introrsum, inwardly; retrorsum, backward; sursum, upward; deorsum, downward; seorsum, apart; aliorsum, another way.

b. Adverbs of Time

quando, when? (interrogative); cum ( quom), when (relative); ut, when, as; nunc, now; tunc ( tum), then; mox, presently; iam, already; dum, while; iam diu, iam dudum, iam pridem, long ago, long since.

primum ( primo), first; deinde ( postea), next after; postremum ( postremo), finally; posteaquam, postquam, when (after that, as soon as).

umquam (unquam), ever; numquam ( nunquam), never; semper, always.

aliquando, at some time, at length; quandoque ( quandocumque), whenever; denique, at last.

quotiens ( quoties), how often; totiens, so often; aliquotiens, a number of times.

cotidie, every day; hodie, to-day; heri, yesterday; cras, to-morrow; pridie, the day before; postridie, the day after; in dies, from day to day.

nondum, not yet; necdum, nor yet; vixdum, scarce yet; quam primum, as soon as possible; saepe, often; crebro, frequently; iam non, no longer.

c. Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause

quam, how, as; tam, so; quamvis, however much, although; paene, almost; magis, more; valde, greatly; vix, hardly.

cur, quare, why; ideo, idcirco, propterea, on this account, because; eo, therefore; ergo, itaque, igitur, therefore.

ita, sic, so; ut ( uti), as, how; utut, utcumque, however.

d. Interrogative Particles

an, - ne, anne, utrum, utrumne, num, whether.

nonne, annon, whether not; numquid, ecquid, whether at all.

On the use of the Interrogative Particles, see Sect: 332, 335.

Negative Particles

non, not (in simple denial); haud, minime, not (in contradiction); ne, not (in prohibition); neve, neu, nor; nedum, much less.

ne, lest; neque, nec, nor; ne ... quidem, not even.

non modo ... verum ( sed) etiam, not only ... but also.

non modo ... sed ne ... quidem, not only NOT ... but not even.

si minus, if not; quo minus (quominus), so as not.

quin (relative), but that; (interrogative), why not?

ne, nec (in composition), not; so in nescio, I know not; nego, I say no ( aio, I say yes); negotium, business (*nec-otium); nemo (ne- and hemo, old form of homo), no one; ne quis, lest any one; neque enim, for ... not.

For the use of Negative Particles, see Sect: 325 ff.

For the Syntax and Peculiar uses of Adverbs, see Sect: 320 ff.


SECTION:#218. The Comparative of Adverbs is the neuter accusative of the comparative of the corresponding adjective; the Superlative is the Adverb in - e formed regularly from the superlative of the Adjective:

car e, dearly (from carus, dear); car ius, carissime.

miser e (miser iter), wretchedly (from miser, wretched); miser ius, miserrime.

levi ter (from levis, light); lev ius, levissime.

audacter (audac iter) (from audax, bold); audac ius, audacissime.

bene, well (from bonus, good); mel ius, op time.

male , ill (from malus, bad); pei ius, pes sime.

he following are irregular or defective:

diu, long (in time); diut ius, diutissime.

potius, rather; potissimum, first of all, in preference to all.

saepe, often; saep ius, oftener, again; saepissime.

satis, enough; sat ius, preferable.

secus, otherwise; set ius, worse.

multum ( multo), mag is, maxime, much, more, most.

parum, not enough; minus, less; min ime, least.

nuper, newly; nuperrime.

tempere, seasonably; temperius.

NOTE.--In poetry the comparative mage is sometimes used instead of magis.


SECTION:#219. Prepositions were not originally distinguished from Adverbs in form or meaning, but have become specialized in use. They developed comparatively late in the history of language. In the early stages of language development the cases alone were sufficient to indicate the sense, but, as the force of the case-endings weakened, adverbs were used for greater precision (cf. Sect: 338). These adverbs, from their habitual association with particular cases, became Prepositions; but many retained also their independent function as adverbs.

Most prepositions are true case-forms: as, the comparative ablatives extra, infra, supra (for extera, infera, supera), and the accusatives circum, coram, cum (cf. Sect: 215). Circiter is an adverbial formation from circum (cf. Sect: 214. b. N.); praeter is the comparative of prae, propter of prope.Of the remainder, versus is a petrified nominative (participle of verto); adversus is a compound of versus; trans is probably an old present participle (cf. in-tra- re); while the origin of the brief forms ab, ad, de, ex, ob, is obscure and doubtful.

SECTION:#220. Prepositions are regularly used either with the Accusative or with the Ablative.

The following prepositions are used with the Accusative:

ad, to. circiter, about. intra, inside.

adversus, against. cis, citra, this side. iuxta, near.

adversum, towards. contra, against. ob, on account of.

ante, before. erga, towards. penes, in the power of.

apud, at, near. extra, outside. per, through.

circa, around. infra, below. pone, behind.

circum, around. inter, among. post, after.

praeter, beyond. secundum, next to. ultra, on the further side.

prope, near. supra, above. versus, towards.

propter, on account of. trans, across.

The following prepositions are used with the Ablative:

a, ea b, abs, away from, by. e, ex, out of.

absque, without, but for. prae, in comparison with.

coram, in presence of. pro, in front of, for.

cum, with. sine, without.

de, from. tenus, up to, as far as.

The following may be used with either the Accusative or the Ablative, but with a difference in meaning:

in, into, in. sub, under.

subter, beneath. super, above.

In and sub, when followed by the accusative, indicate motion to, when by the ablative, rest in, a place:

venit in aedis, he came into the house; erat in aedibus, he was in the house.

disciplina in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata esse existimatur, the system is thought to have been discovered in Great Britain and thence brought over to Gaul.

sub ilice consederat, he had seated himself under an ilex.

sub leges mittere orbem, to subject the world to laws (to send the world under laws).

SECTION:#221. The uses of the Prepositions are as follows:

1. a, ab, away from,from, off from, with the ablative.

a. Of place: as,-- ab urbe profectus est, he set out from the city.

b. Of time: (1) from: as,-- ab hora tertia ad vesperam, from the third hour till evening; (2) just after: as,-- ab eo magistratu, after [holding] that office.

c. Idiomatic uses: a reliquis differunt, they differ from the others; a parvulis, from early childhood; prope ab urbe, near (not far from) the city; liberare ab, to set free from; occisus ab hoste ( periit ab hoste), slain by an enemy; ab hac parte, on this side; ab re eiius, to his advantage; a re publica, for the interest of the state.

2. Ad, to, towards, at, near, with the accusative (cf. in, into).

a. Of place: as,-- ad urbem venit, he came to the city; ad meridiem, towards the south; ad exercitum, to the army; ad hostem, toward the enemy; ad urbem, near the city.

b. Of time: as,-- ad nonam horam, till the ninth hour.

c. With persons: as,-- ad eum venit, he came to him.

d. Idiomatic uses: ad supplicia descendunt, they resort to punishment; ad haec respondit, to this he answered; ad tempus, at the [fit] time; adire ad rem publicam, to go into public life; ad petendam pacem, to seek peace; ad latera, on the flank; ad arma, to arms; ad hunc modum, in this way; quem ad modum, how, as; ad centum, nearly a hundred; ad hoc, besides; omnes ad unum, all to a man; ad diem, on the day.

3. Ante, in front of, before, with the accusative (cf. post, after).

a. Of place: as,-- ante portam, in front of the gate; ante exercitum, in advance of the army.

b. Of time: as,-- ante bellum, before the war.

c. Idiomatic uses: ante urbem captam, before the city was taken; ante diem quintum (a.d.v.) Kal., the fifth day before the Calends; ante quadriennium, four years before or ago; ante tempus, too soon (before the time).

4. Apud, at, by, among, with the accusative.

a. Of place (rare and archaic): as,-- apud forum, at the forum (in the marketplace).

b. With reference to persons or communities: as,-- apud Helvetios, among the Helvetians; apud populum, before the people; apud aliquem, at one's house; apud se, at home or in his senses; apud Ciceronem, in [the works of] Cicero.

5. Circa, about, around, with the accusative (cf. circum, circiter).

a. Of place: templa circa forum, the temples about the forum; circa se habet, he has with him (of persons).

b. Of time or number (in poetry and later writers): circa eandem horam, about the same hour; circa idus Octobris, about the fifteenth of October; circa decem milia, about ten thousand.

c. Figuratively (in later writers), about, in regard to (cf. de): circa quem pugna est, with regard to whom, etc.; circa deos neglegentior, rather neglectful of (i.e. in worshipping) the gods.

6. Circiter, about, with the accusative.

a. Of time or number: circiter idus Novembris, about the thirteenth of November; circiter meridiem, about noon.

7. Circum, about, around, with the accusative.

a. Of place: circum haec loca, hereabout; circum Capuam, round Capua; circum illum, with him; legatio circum insulas missa, an embassy sent to the islands round about; circum amicos, to his friends round about.

8. Contra, opposite, against, with the accusative.

contra Italiam, over against Italy; contra haec, in answer to this.

a. Often as adverb: as,-- haec contra, this in reply; contra autem, but on the other hand; quod contra, whereas, on the other hand.

9. Cum, with, together with, with the ablative.

a. Of place: as,--vade mecum, go with me; cum omnibus impedimentis, with all [their] baggage.

b. Of time: as,--prima cum luce, at early dawn (with first light).

c. Idiomatic uses: magno cum dolore, with great sorrow; communicare aliquid cum aliquo, share something with some one; cum malo suo, to his own hurt; confligere cum hoste, to fight with the enemy; esse cum telo, to go armed; cum silentio, in silence.

10. De, down from, from, with the ablative (cf. ab, away from; ex, out of).

a. Of place: as,-- de caelo demissus, sent down from heaven; de navibus desilire, to jump down from the ships.

b. Figuratively, concerning, about, of:as,-- cognoscit de Clodi caede, he learns of the murder of Clodius; consilia de bello, plans of war.

c. In a partitive sense (compare ex), out of, of: as,-- unus de plebe, one of the people.

d. Idiomatic uses: multis de causis, for many reasons; qua de causa, for which reason; de improviso, of a sudden; de industria, on purpose; de integro, anew; de tertia vigilia, just at midnight (starting at the third watch); de mense Decembri navigare, to sail as early as December.

11. Ex, e, from (the midst, opposed to in), out of, with the ablative (cf. ab and de).

a. Of place: as,-- ex omnibus partibus silvae evolaverunt, they flew out from all parts of the forest; ex Hispania, [a man] from Spain.

b. Of time: as,-- ex eo die quintus, the fifth day from that (four days after); ex hoc die, from this day forth.

c. Idiomatically or less exactly: ex consulatu, right after his consulship: ex eiius sententia, according to his opinion; ex aequo, justly; ex improviso, unexpectedly; ex tua re, to your advantage; magna ex parte, in a great degree; ex equo pugnare, to fight on horseback; ex usu, expedient; e regione, opposite; quaerere ex aliquo, to ask of some one; ex senatus consulto, according to the decree of the senate; ex fuga, in [their] flight (proceeding immediately from it); unus e filiis, one of the sons.

12. In, with the accusative or the ablative.

1. With the accusative, into (opposed to ex).

a. Of place: as,--in Italiam contendit, he hastens into Italy.

b. Of time, till, until: as,--in lucem, till daylight.

c. Idiomatically or less exactly: in meridiem, towards the south; amor in ( erga, adversus) patrem, love for his father; in aram confugit, he fled to the altar (on the steps, or merely to); in dies, from day to day; in longitudinem, lengthwise; in latitudinem patebat, extended in width; in haec verba iurare, to swear to these words; hunc in modum, in this way; oratio in Catilinam, a speech against

Catiline; in perpetuum, forever; in peiius, for the worse; in diem vivere, to live from hand to mouth (for the day).

2. With the ablative, in, on, among.

In very various connections: as,--in castris, in the camp (cf. ad castra, to, at, or near the camp); in mari, on the sea; in urbe esse, to be in town; in tempore, in season; in scribendo, while writing; est mihi in animo, I have it in mind, I intend; in ancoris, at anchor; in hoc homine, in the case of this man; in dubio esse, to be in doubt.

13. Infra, below, with the accusative.

a. Of place: as,-- ad mare infra oppidum, by the sea below the town; infra caelum, under the sky.

b. Figuratively or less exactly: as,--infra Homerum, later than Homer; infra tres pedes, less than three feet; infra elephantos, smaller than elephants; i nfra infimos omnis, the lowest of the low.

14. Inter, between, among, with the accusative.

inter me et Scipionem, between myself and Scipio; inter os et offam, between the cup and the lip (the mouth and the morsel); inter hostium tela, amid the weapons of the enemy; inter omnis primus, first of all; inter bibendum, while drinking; inter se loquuntur, they talk together.

15. Ob, towards, on account of, with the accusative.

a. Literally: (1) of motion (archaic): as,-- ob Romam, towards Rome ( Ennius); ob viam, to the road (preserved as adverb, in the way of). (2) Of place in which, before, in a few phrases: as,-- ob oculos, before the eyes.

b. Figuratively, in return for (mostly archaic, probably a word of account, balancing one thing against another): as,-- ob mulierem, in pay for the woman; ob rem, for gain. Hence applied to reason, cause, and the like, on account of (a similar mercantile idea), for: as,-- ob eam causam, for that reason; quam ob rem ( quamobrem), wherefore, why.

16. Per, through, over, with the accusative.

a. Of motion: as,--per urbem ire, to go through the city; per muros, over the walls.

b. Of time: as,--per hiemem, throughout the winter.

c. Figuratively, of persons as means or instruments: as,--per homines idoneos, through the instrumentality of suitable persons; licet per me, you (etc.) may for all me. Hence, stat per me, it is through my instrumentality; so, per se, in and of itself.

d. Weakened, in many adverbial expressions: as,--per iocum, in jest; per speciem, in show, ostentatiously.

17. Prae, in front of, with the ablative.

a. Literally, of place (in a few connections): as,-- prae se portare, to carry in one's arms; prae se ferre, to carry before one, (hence figuratively) exhibit, proclaim ostentatiously, make known.

b. Figuratively, of hindrance, as by an obstacle in front (compare English for): as,-- prae gaudio conticuit, he was silent for joy.

c. Of comparison: as,-- prae magnitudine corporum suorum, in comparison with their own great size.

18. Praeter, along by, by, with the accusative.

a. Literally: as,-- praeter castra, by the camp (along by, in front of); praeter oculos, before the eyes.

b. Figuratively, beyond, besides, more than, in addition to, except: as,-- praeter spem, beyond hope; praeter alios, more than others; praeter paucos, with the exception of a few.

19. Pro, in front of, with the ablative.

sedens pro aede Castoris, sitting in front of the temple of Castor; pro populo, in presence of the people. So pro rostris, on [the front of] the rostra; pro contione, before the assembly (in a speech).

a. In various idiomatic uses: pro lege, in defence of the law; pro vitula, instead of a heifer; pro centum milibus, as good as a hundred thousand; pro rata parte, in due proportion; pro hac vice, for this once; pro consule, in place of consul; pro viribus, considering his strength; pro virili parte, to the best of one's ability; pro tua prudentia, in accordance with your wisdom.

20. Propter, near, by, with the accusative.

propter te sedet, he sits next you. Hence, on account of (cf. all along of): as,-- propter metum, through fear.

21. Secundum,just behind, following, with the accusative.

a. Literally: as,-- ite secundum me (Plaut.), go behind me; secundum litus, near the shore; secundum flumen, along the stream (cf. secundo flumine, down stream).

b. Figuratively, according to: as,-- secundum naturam, according to nature.

22. Sub, under, up to, with the accusative or the ablative.

1. Of motion, with the accusative: as,-- sub montem succedere, to come close to the hill.

a. Idiomatically: sub noctem, towards night; sub lucem, near daylight; sub haec dicta, at (following) these words.

2. Of rest, with the ablative: as,-- sub Iove, in the open air (under the heaven, personified as Jove); sub monte, at the foot of the hill.

a. Idiomatically: sub eodem tempore, about the same time (just after it).

23. Subter, under, below, with the accusative (sometimes, in poetry, the ablative).

subter togam (Liv.), under his mantle; but,-- subter litore (Catull.), below the shore.

24. Super,with the accusative or the ablative.

1. With the accusative, above, over, on, beyond, upon.

a. Of place: super vallum praecipitari (Iug. 58) , to be hurled over the rampart; super lateres coria inducuntur (B.C. 2.10) , hides are drawn over the bricks; super terrae tumulum statui (Legg. 2.65) , to be placed on the mound of earth; super Numidiam (Iug. 19) , beyond Numidia.

b. Idiomatically or less exactly: vulnus super vulnus, wound upon wound; super vinum (Q. C. 8.4) , over his wine.

2. With the ablative, concerning, about (the only use with this case in prose).

hac super re, concerning this thing; super tali re, about such an affair; litteras super tanta re exspectare, to wait for a letter in a matter of such importance.

a. Poetically, in other senses: ligna super foco large reponens (Hor. Od. 1.9.5) , piling logs generously on the fire; nocte super media ( Aen. 9.61), after midnight.

25. Supra, on top of, above, with the accusative.

supra terram, on the surface of the earth. So also figuratively: as,--supra hanc memoriam, before our remembrance; supra morem, more than usual; supra quod, besides.

26. Tenus (postpositive), as far as, up to, regularly with the ablative, sometimes with the genitive (cf. Sect: 359. b).

1. With the ablative: Tauro tenus, as far as Taurus; capulo tenus, up to the hilt.

2. With the genitive: Cumarum tenus ( Fam. 8.1.2), as far as Cumae.

NOTE 1.--Tenus is frequently connected with the feminine of an adjective pronoun, making an adverbial phrase: as, hactenus, hitherto; quatenus, so far as; de hac re hactenus, so much for that (about this matter so far).

NOTE 2.--Tenus was originally a neuter noun, meaning line or extent. In its use with the genitive (mostly poetical) it may be regarded as an adverbial accusative (Sect: 397. a).

27. Trans, across, over, through, by, with the accusative.

a. Of motion: as,-- trans mare currunt, they run across the sea; trans flumen ferre, to carry over a river; trans aethera, through the sky; trans caput iace, throw over your head.

b. Of rest: as,-- trans Rhenum incolunt, they live across the Rhine.

28. Ultra beyond (on the further side), with the accusative.

cis Padum ultraque, on this side of the Po and beyond; ultra eum numerum, more than that number; ultra fidem, incredible; ultra modum, immoderate.

NOTE.--Some adverbs appear as prepositions: as, intus, insuper (see Sect: 219).

For Prepositions in Compounds, see Sect: 267.


SECTION:#222. Conjunctions, like prepositions (cf. Sect: 219), are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases: as, quod, an old accusative; dum, probably an old accusative (cf. tum, cum); vero, an old neuter ablative of verus; nihilominus, none the less; proinde, lit. forward from there. Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case-forms.

SECTION:#223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They are of two classes, Co-ordinate and Subordinate:

Coordinate, connecting coordinate or similar constructions (see Sect: 278. 2. a). These are:

1. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words: as, et, and; aut, or; neque, nor.

2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought: as, sed, but.

3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason: as, nam, for.

4. Illative, denoting an inference: as, igitur, therefore.

Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends (see Sect: 278. 2. b). These are:

1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis: as, si, if; nisi, unless.

2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition: as, ac si, as if.

3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission: as, quamquam, although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.).

4. Temporal: as, postquam, after.

5. Consecutive, expressing result: as, ut, so that.

6. Final, expressing purpose: as, ut, in order that; ne, that not.

7. Causal, expressing cause: as, quia, because.

SECTION:#224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list includes the common conjunctionsand conjunctive phrases:


1 All these adverbs were originally case-forms of pronouns. The forms in -bi and -ic are locative, those in - o and -uc, - a and - ac, ablative (see Sect: 215); those in -inc are from -im (of uncertain origin) with the particle - ce added (thus illim, illin- c).

2 The case-form of these prepositions in - ter is doubtful.

3 For palam etc., see Sect: 432.

4 Ab signifies direction from the object, but often towards the speaker; compare de, down from, and ex, out of.

5 Of originally meant from (cf. off).

6 Old participle of sequor.

7 Comparative of sub.

8 Some of these have been included in the classification of adverbs. See also list of Correlatives. Sect: 152.

SECTION:#225. Some Interjections are mere natural exclamations of feeling; others are derived from inflected parts of speech, e.g. the imperatives em, lo (probably for eme, take); age, come, etc. Names of deities occur in hercle, pol (from Pollux), etc. Many Latin interjections are borrowed from the Greek, as euge, euhoe, etc.

SECTION:#226. The following list comprises most of the Interjections in common use:

o, en, ecce, ehem, papae, vah (of astonishment).

io, evae, evoe, euhoe (of joy).

heu, eheu, vae, alas (of sorrow).

heus, eho, ehodum, ho (of calling); st, hist.

eiia, euge (of praise).

pro (of attestation): as, pro pudor, shame!


SECTION:#227. All formation of words is originally a process of composition. An element significant in itself is added to another significant element, and thus the meaning of the two is combined. No other combination is possible for the formation either of inflections or of stems. Thus, in fact, words (since roots and stems are significant elements, and so words) are first placed side by side, then brought under one accent, and finally felt as one word. The gradual process is seen in sea voyage, sea-nymph, seaside. But as all derivation, properly so called, appears as a combination of uninflected stems, every type of formation in use must antedate inflection. Hence words were not in strictness derived either from nouns or from verbs, but from stems which were neither, because they were in fact both; for the distinction between noun-stems and verb-stems had not yet been made.

After the development of Inflection, however, that one of several kindred words which seemed the simplest was regarded as the primitive form, and from this the other words of the group were thought to be derived. Such supposed processes of formation were then imitated, often erroneously, and in this way new modes of derivation arose. Thus new adjectives were formed from nouns, new nouns from adjectives, new adjectives from verbs, and new verbs from adjectives and nouns.

In course of time the real or apparent relations of many words became confused, so that nouns and adjectives once supposed to come from nouns were often assigned to verbs, and others once supposed to come from verbs were assigned to nouns.

Further, since the language was constantly changing, many words went out of use, and do not occur in the literature as we have it. Thus many Derivatives survive of which the Primitive is lost.

Finally, since all conscious word-formation is imitative, intermediate steps in derivation were sometimes omitted, and occasionally apparent Derivatives occur for which no proper Primitive ever existed.


SECTION:#228. Rootsare of two kinds:

1. Verbal, expressing ideas of action or condition (sensible phenomena).

2. Pronominal, expressing ideas of position and direction.

From verbal roots come all parts of speech except pronouns and certain particles derived from pronominal roots.

SECTION:#229. Stems are either identical with roots or derived from them. They are of two classes: (1) Noun-stems (including Adjective-stems) and (2) Verb-stems.

NOTE.--Noun-stems and verb-stems were not originally different (see p. 163), and in the consciousness of the Romans were often confounded; but in general they were treated as distinct.

SECTION:#230. Words are formed by inflection: (1) from roots inflected as stems; (2) from derived stems (see Sect: 232).

SECTION:#231. A root used as a stem may appear:

With a short vowel: as, duc- is ( dux), DUC; nec-is (nex); i-s, i- d. So in verbs: as, es- t, fer- t (cf. Sect: 174. 2).

With a long vowel: as, luc-is ( lux), LUC; pac- is ( pax). So in verbs: duc- o, i-s for *eis, from eo, ire; fatur from fari.

With reduplication: as, fur-fur, mar- mor, mur-mur. So in verbs: as, gi- gno (root GEN), si- sto (root STA).


SECTION:#232. Derived Stems are formed from roots or from other stems by means of suffixes. These are:

1. Primary: added to the root, or (in later times by analogy) to verbstems.

2. Secondary: added to a noun-stem or an adjective-stem.

Both primary and secondary suffixes are for the most part pronominal roots (Sect: 228. 2), but a few are of doubtful origin.

NOTE 1.--The distinction between primary and secondary suffixes, not being original (see Sect: 227), is continually lost sight of in the development of a language. Suffixes once primary are used as secondary, and those once secondary are used as primary. Thus in hosticus ( hosti + cus) the suffix - cus, originally ko- (see Sect: 234. 2.12) primary, as in paucus, has become secondary, and is thus regularly used to form derivatives; but in pudicus, apricus, it is treated as primary again, because these words were really or apparently connected with verbs. So in English -able was borrowed as a primary suffix (tolerable, eatable), but also makes forms like clubbable, salable; -some is properly a secondary suffix, as in toilsome, lonesome, but makes also such words as meddlesome, venturesome.

NOTE 2.--It is the stem of the word, not the nominative, that is formed by the derivative suffix. For convenience, however, the nominative will usually be given.

1 For the distinction between Roots and Stems. see Sect: 24. 25.

2 The difference in vowel-quantity in the same root (as D?C) depends on inherited variations (see Sect: 17. a).

SECTION:#233. The words in Latin formed immediately from the root by means of Primary Suffixes, are few. For:

1. Inherited words so formed were mostly further developed by the addition of other suffixes, as we might make an adjective lone-ly-some-ish. meaning nothing more than lone, lonely, or lonesome.

2. By such accumulation of suffixes, new compound suffixes were formed which crowded out even the old types of derivation. Thus,--

A word like mens, mentis, by the suffix o n- (nom. - o), gave mentio, and this, being divided into men + tio, gave rise to a new type of abstract nouns in -tio: as, lega- tio, embassy.

A word like auditor, by the suffix io- (nom. - ius), gave rise to adjectives like auditor-ius, of which the neuter ( auditorium) is used to denote the place where the action of the verb is performed. Hence torio- (nom. -torium), N., becomes a regular noun-suffix (Sect: 250. a).

So in English such a word as suffocation gives a suffix -ation, and with this is made starvation, though there is no such word as starvate.


SECTION:#234. Examples of primary stem-suffixes are:

I. Vowel suffixes:

1. o- (M., N.), a - (F.), found in nouns and adjectives of the first two declensions: as, sonus, ludus, vagus, toga (root TEG).

2. i-, as in ovis, avis; in Latin frequently changed, as in r upes, or lost, as in scobs ( scobis, root SCAB).

3. u-, disguised in most adjectives by an additional i, as in sua-vis (for suadvis, instead of sua-dus, cf. h

II. Suffixes with a consonant:

1. to- (M., N.), ta- (F.), in the regular perfect passive participle, as tectus, tectum; sometimes with an active sense, as in potus, pransus; and found in a few words not recognized as participles, as putus (cf. purus), altus ( alo).

2. ti- in abstracts and rarely in nouns of agency, as messis, vestis, pars, mens. But in many the i is lost.

3. tu- in abstracts (including supines), sometimes becoming concretes, as actus, luctus.

4. no- (M., N.), na- (F.), forming perfect participles in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives of like participial meaning, which often become nouns, as magnus, plenus, regnum.

5. ni-, in nouns of agency and adjectives, as ignis, segnis.

6. nu-, rare, as in manus, pinus, cornu.

7. mo- (ma-), with various meanings, as in animus, almus, firmus, forma.

8. vo- (va-) (commonly uo-, ua-), with an active or passive meaning, as in equus ( equos), arvum, conspicuus, exiguus, vacivus ( vacuus).

9. ro- (ra-), as in ager (stem (ag-ro-), integer (cf. intactus), sacer, pleri- que (cf. plenus, pletus).

10. lo- (la-), as in caelum (for caed-lum), chisel, exemplum, sella (for *sedla).

11. yo- (ya-), forming gerundives in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives and abstracts, including many of the first and fifth declensions, as eximius, audacia, Florentia, pernicies.

12. ko- (ka-), sometimes primary, as in pauc i (cf. pauros), locus (for stlocus). In many cases the vowel of this termination is lost, leaving a consonant stem: as, apex, cortex, loquax.

13. en- (on-, en-, on-), in nouns of agency and abstracts: as, aspergo, compage (-i nis), gero (-onis).

14. men-, expressing means, often passing into the action itself: as, agmen flumen, fulmen.

15. ter- (tor-, ter-, tor-, tr-), forming nouns of agency: as, pater (i.e. protector), frater (i.e. supporter), orator.

16. tro-, forming nouns of means: as, claustrum ( CLAUD), mulctrum (MULG).

17. es- (os-), forming names of actions, passing into concretes: as, genus (generis), tempus (see Sect: 15. 4). The infinitive in - ere (as in reg- ere) is a locative of this stem ((--er- e for -es- i).

18. nt- (ont-, ent-), forming present active participles: as, legens, with some adjectives from roots unknown: as, frequens, recens.

The above, with some suffixes given below, belong to the Indo-European parent speech, and most of them were not felt as living formations in the Latin.

1 For the distinction between Roots and Stems. see Sect: 24. 25.

2 The difference in vowel-quantity in the same root (as D?C) depends on inherited variations (see Sect: 17. a).

.Primary Suffixes

SECTION:#235. Both primary and secondary suffixes, especially in the form of compound suffixes, were used in Latin with more or less consciousness of their meaning. They may therefore be called Significant Endings.

They form: (1) Nouns of Agency; (2) Abstract Nouns (including Names of Actions); (3) Adjectives (active or passive).

NOTE.--There is really no difference in etymology between an adjective and a noun, except that some formations are habitually used as adjectives and others as nouns (Sect: 20. b. N. 2).


.Nouns of .Agent

SECTION:#236. Nouns of Agency properly denote the agent or doer of an action. But they include many words in which the idea of agency has entirely faded out, and also many words used as adjectives.

Nouns denoting the agent or doer of an action are formed from roots or verb-stems by means of the suffixes:

-tor (-sor), M.; -trix, F.

can-tor, can- trix, singer; can- ere (root CAN), to sing.

vic-tor, vic- trix, conqueror (victorious); vinc- ere (VIC), to conquer.

ton- sor (for *tond-tor), tons- trix (for

tond-trix), hair-cutter; tond- ere (TOND as root), to shear.

peti- tor, candidate; pet-ere (PET; peti- as stem), to seek

By analogy - tor is sometimes added to noun-stems, but these may be stems of lost verbs: as, via- tor, traveller, from via, way (but cf. the verb invio).

NOTE 1.--The termination -tor (-sor) has the same phonetic change as the supine ending - tum (- sum), and is added to the same form of root or verb-stem as that ending. The stem-ending is tor- (Sect: 234. 2.15), which is shortened in the nominative.

NOTE 2.--The feminine form is always -trix. Masculines in -sor lack the feminine, except expulsor ( expultrix) and tonsor ( tonstrix).

-t-, M. or F., added to verb-stems makes nouns in - es (- itis, - etis; stem it-, et-) descriptive of a character:

prae-stes, -stitis, (verb-stem from root STA, stare, stand), guardian.

teges, - etis (verb-stem tege-, cf. tego, cover), a coverer, a mat.

pedes, - itis ( pes, ped- is, foot, and I, root of ire, go), foot-soldier.

- o (genitive -onis, stem on)-, M., added to verb-stemsindicates a person employed in some specific art or trade:

com- bibo (BIB as root in bibo, bibere, drink), a pot-companion.

gero, -onis (GES in gero, gerere, carry), a carrier.

NOTE.--This termination is also used to form many nouns descriptive of personal characteristics (cf. Sect: 255).

1 So conceived, but perhaps this termination was originally added to noun-stems.

.Names of Actions and Abstract Nouns

SECTION:#237. Names of Actions are confused, through their terminations, with real abstract nouns (names of qualities), and with concrete nouns denoting means and instrument.

They are also used to express the concrete result of an action (as often in English).

Thus legio is literally the act of collecting, but comes to mean legion (the body of soldiers collected); cf. levy in English.

SECTION:#238. Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from roots and verb-stems by means of the endings:

Added to roots or forms conceived as roots:

NOM. -or, M. - es, F. -us, N.

GEN. - oris - is - eris or - oris

STEM or- (earlier os-) i- er- (earlier (e/os-)

tim-or, fear; timere, to fear.

am- or, love; amare, to love.

sed- es, seat; sedere, to sit.

caed- es, slaughter; caedere, to kill.

genus, birth, race; GEN, to be born (root of gigno, bear).

NOTE.--Many nouns of this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: as facinus from a supposed root FACIN.

Apparently added to roots or verb-stems:

NOM. -io, F. -tio (-sio), F. -tura (- sura), F. -tus, M.

GEN. -ionis -tionis (-sionis) -turae (- surae) -tus (- sus)

STEM ion- tion- (sion-) tura- (sura-) tu- (su-)

leg-io, a collecting (levy), a legion; legere, to collect.

reg- io, a direction, a region; regere, to direct.

voca- tio, a calling; vocare, to call.

moli- tio, a toiling; moliri, to toil.

scrip- tura, a writing; scribere, to write.

sen- sus (for *sent-tus), feeling; sentire, to feel.

NOTE 1.---tio, -tura, -tus are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as -tor, with the same phonetic change (cf. Sect: 236. a. N. 1). Hence they are conveniently associated with the supine stem (see Sect: 178). They sometimes form nouns when there is no corresponding verb in use: as, senatus, senate (cf. senex); mentio, mention (cf. mens); fetura, offspring (cf. fetus); litteratura, literature (cf. litterae); consulatus, consulship (cf. consul).

NOTE 2.--Of these endings, -tus was originally primary (cf. Sect: 234. 2.3.); -io is a compound formed by adding on- to a stem ending in a vowel (originally i): as, dicio (cf. -dicus and dicis); -tio is a compound formed by adding on- to stems in ti-: as, gradatio (cf. gradatim); -tura is formed by adding -ra, feminine of - rus, to stems in tu-: as, natura from natus; statura from status (cf. figura, of like meaning, from a simple u-stem, *figu-s; and maturus, Matuta).

SECTION:#239. Nouns denoting acts, or means and results of acts, are formed from roots or verb-stems by the use of the suffixes:

-men, N.; -mentum, N.; -monium, N.; -monia, F.

ag- men, line of march, band; AG, root of agere, to lead.

regi- men, rule; regi- mentum, rule; regi- (rege-), stem of regere, to direct.

certa- men, contest, battle; certa-, stem of certare, to contend.

colu- men, pillar; mo- men, movement; no- men, name; flu- men, stream.

testi- monium, testimony; testari, to witness.

queri- monia, complaint; queri, to complain.

-monium and -monia are also used as secondary, forming nouns from other nouns and from adjectives: as, sancti- monia, sanctity ( sanctus, holy); matrimonium, marriage ( mater, mother.)

NOTE.--Of these endings, -men is primary (cf. Sect: 234. 2.14); - mentum is a compound of men- and to-, and appears for the most part later in the language than -men: as, momen, movement (Lucr.); momentum (later). So elementum is a development from L-M-N-a, l-m-n's (letters of the alphabet), changed to elementa along with other nouns in -men. -monium and -monia were originally compound secondary suffixes formed from mon- (a by-form of men-), which was early associated with mo-. Thus almus

(stem almo-), fostering; Almon, a river near Rome; alimonia, support. But the last was formed directly from alo when -monia had become established as a supposed primary suffix.

SECTION:#240. Nouns denoting means or instrument are formed from roots and verb-stems (rarely from noun-stems) by means of the neuter suffixes:

-bulum, - culum, -brum, - crum, -trum

pa- bulum, fodder; pascere, to feed.

sta- bulum, stall; stare, to stand.

vehi- culum, wagon; vehere, to carry.

candela- brum, candlestick; candela, candle (a secondary formation).

sepul- crum, tomb; sepelire, to bury.

claus- trum (*claud-trum), bar; claudere, to shut.

ara- trum, plough; arare, to plough.

NOTE.---trum (stem tro-) was an old formation from tor- (Sect: 234. 2.15), with the stem suffix o-, and -clum (stem clo- for tlo-) appears to be related; -culum is the same as - clum; -bulum contains lo- (Sect: 234. II. 9, 10) and -brum is closely related.

A few masculines and feminines of the same formation occur as nouns and adjectives:

fa- bula, tale; fari, to speak.

ridi- culus, laughable; ridere, to laugh.

fa- ber, smith; facere, to make.

late- bra, hiding-place; latere, to hide.

tere- bra, auger; terere, to bore.

mulc- tra, milk-pail; mulgere, to milk.

SECTION:#241. Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from noun-stems, are formed by means of the secondary feminine suffixes:

-ia (-ies), -tia (-ties), -tas, -tus, -tudo

audac- ia, boldness; audax, bold.

pauper- ies, poverty; pauper, poor.

tristi- tia, sadness; tristis, sad.

segni-ties, laziness; segnis, lazy.

boni- tas, goodness; bonus, good.

senec- tus, age; senex, old.

magni- tudo, greatness; magnus, great.

1. In stems ending in o- or a- the stem-vowel is lost before -ia (as superb- ia) and appears as i before -tas, -tus, -tia (as in boni- tas, above).

2. Consonant stems often insert i before -tas: as, loquax (stem loquac-), loquaci-tas; but hones-tas, maies-tas (as if from old adjectives in - es), uber-tas, volup- tas. o after i is changed to e: as, pius (stem pio-), pie-tas; socius, socie-tas.

In like manner - do and -go (F.) form abstract nouns, but are associated with verbs and apparently added to verb-stems:

cupi- do, desire, from cupere, to desire (as if from stem cupi-).

dulce-do, sweetness (cf. dulcis, sweet), as if from a stem dulce-, cf. dulce-sco.

lumba-go , lumbago (cf. lumbus, loin), as if from *lumbo, - are.

NOTE.--Of these, -ia is inherited as secondary (cf. Sect: 234. 2.11). -tia is formed by adding -ia to stems with a t-suffix: as, militia, from miles (stem milit-); molestia from molestus; clementia from clemens; whence by analogy, mali- tia, avari- tia. -tas is inherited, but its component parts, ta- + ti-, are found as suffixes in the same sense: as, senecta from senex; semen- tis from semen. -tus is tu- + ti-, cf. servitu-do. - do and -go appear only with long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy; but - do is do- + on-: as, cupidus, cupido; gravidus, gravedo (cf. grave- sco); albidus, albedo (cf. albesco); formidus, hot, formido (cf. formidulosus), (hot flash?) fear; -go is possibly co- + on-; cf. vorax, vorago, but cf. Cethegus. -tudo is compounded of - do with tu-stems, which acquire a long vowel from association with verb-stems in u- (cf. volumen, from volvo): as, consuet u- do, valetu- do, habitu-do; whence servitudo (cf. servitus, tutis).

Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices and groups, are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by means of the suffixes:

-ium, -tium

hospit- ium, hospitality, an inn;hospes (gen. hospit- is), a guest.

colleg- ium, colleagueship, a college; collega, a colleague.

auspic- ium, soothsaying, an omen; auspex (gen. auspic- is), a soothsayer.

gaud- ium, joy; gaudere, to rejoice.

effug- ium, escape; effugere, to escape.

benefic- ium, a kindness; benefacere, to benefit; cf. beneficus.

desider- ium, longing; desiderare, to miss, from de- sides, out of place, of missing soldiers.

adverb-um, adverb; ad verbum, [added] to a verb.

interlun-um, time of new moon; inter lunas, between moons.

regifug-ium, flight of the kings; regis fuga, flight of a king.

servi-ium, slavery, the slave class; servus, a slave.

Vowel stems lose their vowel before -ium: as, colleg-ium, from collega.

NOTE.---ium is the neuter of the adjective suffix -us. It is an inherited primary suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary. -tium is formed like -tia, by adding -ium to stems with t: as, exit-ium, equit-ium (cf. exitus, equites); so, by analogy, calvitium, servitium (from calvus, servus).

Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means of the suffixes--

-nia, F.; -nium, -lium, -cinium, N.

pecu- nia, money (chattels); pecu, cattle.

contici- nium, the hush of night; conticescere, to become still.

auxi- lium, help; augere, to increase.

latro- cinium, robbery; latro, robber (cf. latrocinor, rob, implying an adjective latrocinus).

For Diminutives and Patronymics, see Sect: 243, 244.


SECTION:#242. Derivative Adjectives, which often become nouns, are either Nominal (from nouns or adjectives) or Verbal (as from roots or verb-stems).

1 The abstract meaning is put first.

Nominal Adjectives

SECTION:#243. Diminutive Adjectives are usually confined to one gender, that of the primitive, and are used as Diminutive Nouns.

They are formed by means of the suffixes:

-ulus (- a, -um), -olus (after a vowel), - culus, -ellus, -illus

riv- ulus, a streamlet; rivus, a brook.

gladi- olus, a small sword; gladius, a sword.

fili- olus, a little son; filius, a son.

fili- ola, a little daughter; filia, a daughter.

atri- olum, a little hall; atrium, a hall.

homun- culus, a dwarf; homo, a man.

auri- cula, a little ear; auris, an ear.

munus- culum, a little gift; munus, N., a gift.

codic- illi, writing-tablets; codex, a block.

mis- ellus, rather wretched; miser, wretched.

lib- ellus, a little book; liber, a book.

aure- olus (- a, -um), golden; aureus (- a, -um), golden.

parv- olus (later parv- ulus), very small; parvus (- a, -um), little.

maius- culus, somewhat larger; maior (old maios), greater.

NOTE 1.--These diminutive endings are all formed by adding - lus to various stems. The formation is the same as that of -ulus in Sect: 251. But these words became settled as diminutives, and retained their connection with nouns. So in English the diminutives whitish, reddish, are of the same formation as bookish and snappish, - culus comes from - lus added to adjectives in - cus formed from stems in n- and s-: as, iuven-cus, Aurun-cus (cf. Aurunculeiius), pris-cus, whence the cu becomes a part of the termination, and the whole ending (- culus) is used elsewhere, but mostly with n- and s- stems, in accordance with its origin.

NOTE 2.--Diminutives are often used to express affection, pity, or contempt: as, deliciolae, little pet; muliercula, a poor (weak) woman; Graeculus, a miserable Greek.

- cio, added to stems in n-, has the same diminutive force, but is used with masculines only: as, homun-cio, a dwarf (from homo, a man).

SECTION:#244. Patronymics, indicating descent or relationship, are formed by adding to proper names the suffixes--

- ades, -ides, - ides, -eus, M.; -as, - is, - eis, F.

These words, originally Greek adjectives, have almost all become nouns in Latin:

Atlas: Atlanti- ades, Mercury; Atlant-ides (Gr. plur.), the Pleiads.

Scipio: Scipi- ades, son of Scipio.

Tyndareus: Tyndar-ides, Castor or Pollux, son of Tyndarus; Tyndar- is, Helen, daughter of Tyndarus.

Anchises: Anchisi- ades, Aeeas, son of Anchises.

th eseus: Thes- ides, son of Theseus.

Tydeus: Tyd-ides, Diomedes, son of Tydeus.

Oileus: Aiax Oil-eus, son of Oileus.

Cisseus: Cisse- is, Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus.

Thaumas: Thaumant- ias, Iris, daughter of Thaumas.

Hesperus: Hesper- ides (from Hesper-is, -idis), plur., the daughters of Hesperus, the Hesperides.

SECTION:#245. Adjectives meaning full of, prone to, are formed from nounstems with the suffixes:

-osus, -lens, -lentus

fluctu- osus, billowy; fluctus, a billow.

form- osus, beautiful; forma, beauty.

pericul- osus, dangerous; periculum, danger.

pesti-lens, pesti- lentus, pestilent; pestis, pest.

vino-lentus, vin-osus, given to drink; vinum, wine.

SECTION:#246. Adjectives meaning provided with are formed from nouns by means of the regular participial endings:

-tus, -atus, -itus, -utus

funes- tus, deadly; funus (st. funer-, older (fune/os-), death.

hones-tus, honorable; honor, honor.

faus- tus (for *faves-tus), favorable; favor, favor.

barb- atus, bearded; barba, a beard.

turr- itus, turreted; turris, a tower.

corn- utus, horned; cornu, a horn.

NOTE.---atus, - itus, -utus, imply reference to an imaginary verb-stem: -tus is added directly to nouns without any such reference.

SECTION:#247. Adjectives of various meanings, but signifying in general made of or belonging to, are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes:

-eus, -ius, -aceus, -i cius, -aneus (-neus), -ticus

aur- eus, golden; aurum, gold.

patr- ius, paternal; pater, a father.

uxor- ius, uxorious; uxor, a wife.

ros- aceus, of roses; rosa, a rose.

later- icius, of brick; later, a brick.

praesent- aneus, operating instantly; praesens, present.

extr- aneus, external; extra, without.

subterr- aneus, subterranean; sub terra, underground.

salig- neus, of willow; salix, willow.

vola- ticus, winged ( volatus, a flight); volare, to fly.

domes- ticus, of the house, domestic; domus, a house.

silva- ticus, sylvan; silva, a wood.

NOTE.--- ius is originally primitive (Sect: 234. 2.11); -eus corresponds to Greek -eios, eos, and has lost a y-sound (cf. yo-, Sect: 234. 2.11); -icius and -aceus are formed by adding - ius and -eus to stems in i-c-, a-c- (suffix ko-, Sect: 234. 2.12); -neus is no- + -eus (Sect: 234. 2.4); -aneus is formed by adding -neus to a-stems; -ticus is a formation with - cus (cf. hosti- cus with silva- ticus), and has been affected by the analogy of participial stems in to- (nominative - tus).

SECTION:#248. Adjectives denoting pertaining to are formed from nounstems with the suffixes\:

-alis, -aris, -elis, -ilis, -ulis

natur- alis, natural; natura, nature.

popul- aris, fellow-countryman; populus, a people.

patru- elis, cousin; patruus, uncle.

host- ilis, hostile; hostis, an enemy.

cur- ulis, curule; currus, a chariot.

NOTE.--The suffixes arise from adding - lis (stem li-) to various vowel stems. The long vowels are due partly to confusion between stem and suffix (cf. vita-lis, from vita-, with reg-alis), partly to confusion with verb-stems: cf. Aprilis ( aperire), edulis ( edere), with senilis ( senex). - ris is an inherited suffix, but in most of these formations - aris arises by differentiation for - alis in words containing an(as milit- aris).

SECTION:#249. Adjectives with the sense of belonging to are formed by means of the suffixes--

- anus, -enus, - inus; -as, - ensis; - cus, - acus (- acus), -icus; -eus, - eiius, -icius

1. So from common nouns:

mont- anus, of the mountains; mons (stem monti-), mountain.

veter-anus, veteran; vetus (stem veter-), old.

anteluc-anus, before daylight; ante lucem, before light.

terr- enus, earthly; terra, earth.

ser- enus, calm (of evening stillness); serus, late.

coll- inus, of a hill; collis, hill.

div- inus, aivine; divus, god.

libert- inus, of the class of freedmen; libertus, one's freedman.

cui- as, of what country? quis, who?

infim- as, of the lowest rank; infimus, lowest.

for- ensis, of a market-place, or the Forum; forum, a market-place. civi- cus, civic, of a citizen; civis, a citizen.

fullon- icus, of a fuller; fullo, a fuller.

mer- acus, pure; merum, pure wine.

femin- eus, of a woman, feminine; femina, a woman.

lact- eus, milky; lac, milk (stem lacti-).

pleb-eius, of the commons, plebeian; plebes, the commons.

patr- icius, patrician; pater, father.

2. But especially from proper nouns to denote belonging to or coming from:

Rom- anus, Roman; Roma, Rome.

Sull- ani, Sulla's veterans; Sulla.

Cyzic-eni, Cyzicenes, people of Cyzicus; Cyzicus.

Ligur- inus, of Liguria; Liguria.

Arpin- as, of Arpinum; Arpinum.

Sicili- ensis, Sicilian; Sicilia, Sicily.

Ili-acus, Trojan (a Greek form); Ilium, Troy.

Platon- icus, Platonic; Plato.

Aquil-eiius, a Roman name; Aquil-eiia, a town in Italy; Aquila.

Many derivative adjectives with these endings have by usage become nouns:

Silv-anus, M., a god of the woods; silva, a wood.

membr-ana, F., skin; membrum, limb.

Aemili- anus, M., name of Scipio Africanus; Aemilia ( gens).

lani-ena, F., a butcher's stall; lanius, butcher.

Aufidi-enus, M., a Roman name; Aufidius ( Aufidus).

inquil-inus, M., a lodger; incola, an inhabitant.

Caec- ina, used as M., a Roman name; caecus, blind.

ru-ina, F., a fall; ruo, fall (no noun existing).

doctr- ina, F., learning; doctor, teacher.

NOTE.--Of these terminations, - anus, -enus, - inus are compounded from - nus added to a stem-vowel: as, arca, arcanus; collis, collinus. The long vowels come from a confusion with verb-stems (as in ple- nus, fini- tus, tribu- tus), and from the noun-stem in a-. as, arcanus. A few nouns occur of similar formation, as if from verb-stems in o- and u-: as, colonus ( colo, cf. incola), patronus (cf. patro, - are), tribunus (cf. tribuo, tribus), Portunus (cf. portus), Vacuna (cf. vaco, vacuus).

SECTION:#250. Other adjectives meaning in a general way belonging to (especially of places and times) are formed with the suffixes--

ter (-tris), - ester (-estris), -timus, -nus, -ernus, -urnus, -ternus (-turnus)

palus-ter, of the marshes; palus, a marsh.

pedes-ter, of the foot-soldiers; pedes, a footman.

semes- tris, lasting six months; sex menses, six months.

silv- ester, silv- estris, woody; silva, a wood.

fini- timus, neighboring, on the borders; finis, an end.

mari- timus, of the sea; mare, sea.

ver-nus, vernal; ver, spring.

hodi- ernus, of to-day; hodie, to-day.

di- urnus, daily; dies, day.

hes- ternus, of yesterday; heri (old hesi ), yesterday.

diu- turnus, lasting; diu, long (in time).

NOTE.--Of these, - ester is formed by adding tri- (cf. tro-, Sect: 234. 2.16) to stems in t- or d-. Thus pedet-tri- becomes pedestri-, and others follow the analogy. -nus is an inherited suffix (Sect: 234. 2.4). -ernus and -urnus are formed by adding - nus to s-stems: as, diur-nus (for dius-nus), and hence, by analogy, hodiernus ( hodie). By an extension of the same principle were formed the suffixes -ternus and -turnus from words like paternus and nocturnus.

Adjectives meaning belonging to are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes:

-arius, -torius (-sorius)

ordin- arius, regular; ordo, rank, order.

argent- arius, of silver or money; argentum, silver.

extr- arius, stranger; extra, outside.

meri- torius, profitable; meritus, earned.

devor-sorius, of an inn (cf. Sect: 254. 5); devorsus, turned aside.

NOTE 1.--Here - ius (Sect: 234. 2.11) is added to shorter forms in - aris and -or: as, peculiarius (from peculiaris), bellatorius (from bellator).

NOTE 2.--These adjectives are often fixed as nouns (see Sect: 254).

Verbal Adjectives

SECTION:#251. Adjectives expressing the action of the verb as a quality or tendency are formed from real or apparent verb-stems with the suffixes:

-ax, -idus, - ulus, -vus (-uus, -ivus, -tivus)

-ax denotes a faulty or aggressive tendency; -tivus is oftener passive.

pugn- ax, pugnacious; pugnare, to fight.

aud- ax, bold; audere, to dare.

cup- idus, eager; cupere, to desire.

bib- ulus, thirsty (as dry earth etc.); bibere, to drink.

proter- vus, violent, wanton; proterere, to trample.

noc- uus (noc- ivus), hurtful, injurious; nocere, to do harm.

recid- ivus, restored; recidere, to fall back.

cap- tivus, captive; M., a prisoner of war; capere, to take.

NOTE.--Of these, -ax is a reduction of - acus (stem-vowel a- + - cus), become independent and used with verb-stems. Similar forms in -ex, -ox, -ix, and -ux are found or employed in derivatives: as, imbrex, M., a rain-tile (from imber); senex, old (from seni- s); ferox, fierce (from ferus); atrox, savage (from ater, black); celox, F., a yacht (cf. cello); felix, happy, originally fertile (cf. felo, suck); fiducia, F., confidence (as from fidux); cf. also victrix (from victor). So manducus, chewing (from mando).

-idus is no doubt denominative, as in herbidus, grassy (from herba, herb); tumidus, swollen (cf. tumu- lus, hill; tumul- tus, uproar); callidus, tough, cunning (cf. callum, tough flesh); mucidus, slimy (cf. mucus, slime); tabidus, wasting (cf. tabes, wasting disease). But later it was used to form adjectives directly from verb-stems.

-ulus is the same suffix as in diminutives, but attached to verb-stems. Cf. aemulus, rivalling (cf. imitor and imago); sedulus, sitting by, attentive (cf. domi- seda, homestaying, and sedo, set, settle, hence calm); pendulus, hanging (cf. pondo, ablative, in weight; perpendiculum, a plummet; appendix, an addition); stragulus, covering (cf. strages); legulus, a picker (cf. sacri- legus, a picker up of things sacred).

- vus seems originally primary (cf. Sect: 234. 2.8), but -ivus and -tivus have become secondary and are used with nouns: as, aestivus, of summer (from aestus, heat); tempestivus, timely (from tempus); cf. domes-ticus (from domus).

SECTION:#252. Adjectives expressing passive qualities, but occasionally active, are formed by means of the suffixes:

-ilis, -bilis, -ius, -tilis (-silis)

frag- ilis, frail; frangere (FRAG), to break.

no- bilis, well known, famous; noscere (GNO), to know.

exim- ius, choice, rare (cf. e-greg- ius); eximere, to take out, select.

ag- ilis, active; agere, to drive.

hab- ilis, handy; habere, to hold.

al- tilis, fattened (see note); alere, to nourish.

NOTE.--Of these, - ius is primary, but is also used as secondary (cf. Sect: 241. b. N.). -ilis is both primary (as in agilis, fragilis) and secondary (as in similis, like, cf. homos, homalos, English same); - bilis is in some way related to -bulum and -brum (Sect: 240. N.); in -tilis and - silis, - lis is added to to- (so-), stem of the perfect participle: as, fossilis, dug up (from fossus, dug); volatilis, winged (from volatus, flight).

SECTION:#253. Verbal Adjectives that are Participial in meaning are formed with the suffixes:

-ndus, -bundus, -cundus

-ndus (the same as the gerundive ending) forms a few active or reflexive adjectives:

secu- ndus, second (the following), favorable; sequi, to follow.

rotu- ndus, round (whirling); rotare, to whirl.

-bundus, -cundus, denote a continuance of the act or quality expressed by the verb:

vita-bundus, avoiding; vitare, to shun.

treme- bundus, trembling; tremere, to tremble.

mori- bundus, dying, at the point of death; moriri, to die.

fa- cundus, eloquent; fari, to speak.

fe- cundus, fruitful; root Fe, nourish.

ira- cundus, irascible; cf. irasci, to be angry.

NOTE.--These must have been originally nominal: as in the series, rubus, red bush; rubidus (but no *rubicus), ruddy; Rubicon, Red River (cf. Minio, a river of Etruria; Minius, a river of Lusitania); rubicundus (as in averruncus, homun- culus). So turba, commotion; turbo, a top; turbidus, roily, etc. Cf. apexabo, longabo, gravedo, dulcedo.

Here belong also the participial suffixes - minus, -mnus (cf. Greek -menos), from which are formed a few nouns in which the participial force is still discernible:

fe- mina, woman (the nourisher); root Fe, nourish.

alu- mnus, a foster-child, nursling; alere, to nourish.

1 Cf. volvendis mensibus (Aen. 1.269) , in the revolving months; cf. oriundi ab Sabinis (Liv. 1.17) , sprung from the Sabines, where oriundi= orti.

Nouns with Adjective Suffixes

SECTION:#254. Many fixed forms of the Nominal Adjective suffixes men tioned in the preceding sections, make Nouns more or less regularly used in particular senses:

1. -arius, person employed about anything:

argent- arius, M., silversmith, broker, from argentum, silver.

Corinthi-arius, M., worker in Corinthian bronze (sarcastic nickname of Augustus), from ( aes) Corinthium, Corinthian bronze.

centon-arius, M., ragman, from cento, patchwork.

2. -aria, thing connected with something:

argent-aria, F., bank, from argentum, silver.

aren-ariae, F. plural, sandpits, from arena, sand.

Asin-aria, F., name of a play, from asinus, ass.

3. -arium, place of a thing (with a few of more general meaning):

aer-arium, N., treasury, from aes, copper.

tepid- arium, N., warm bath, from tepidus, warm.

sud-arium, N., a towel, cf. sudo, - are, sweat.

sal-a rium, N., salt money, salary, from sal, salt.

calendarium, N., a note-book, from calendae, calends.

4. -toria (-soria):

Agita-toria, F., a play of Plautus, The Carter, from agitator.

vor-soria, F., a tack (nautical), from vorsus, a turn.

5. -torium (-sorium), place of action (with a few of more general meaning):

devor-sorium, N., an inn, as from devorto, turn aside.

audi-torium, N., a lecture-room, as from audio, hear.

ten-torium, N., a tent, as from tendo, stretch.

tec-torium, N., plaster, as from tego, tectus, cover.

por-torium, N., toll, cf. porto, carry, and portus, harbor.

6. -ile, animal-stall:

bov-ile, N., cattle-stall, from bos, bovis, ox, cow.

ov-ile, N., sheepfold, from ovis, stem ovi-, sheep.

7. -al for - ale, thing connected with the primitive:

capit-al, N., headdress, capital crime, from caput, head.

penetr- ale (especially in plural), N., inner apartment, cf. penetro, enter.

Saturn- alia, N. plural (the regular form for names of festivals), feast of Sat urn, from Saturnus.

8. - etum, N. (cf. -atus, -utus, see Sect: 246. N.), - tum, place of a thing, especially with names of trees and plants to designate where these grow:

querc-etum, N., oak grove, from quercus, oak.

oliv-etum, N., olive grove, from oliva, an olive tree.

salic-tum, N., a willow thicket, from salix, a willow tree.

Argil-etum, N., The Clay Pit, from argilla, clay.

9. - cus (sometimes with inserted i, -icus), -icus, in any one of the genders, with various meanings:

vili-cus, M., a steward, vili-ca, F., a stewardess, from villa, farm-house.

fabr-ica, F., a workshop, from faber, workman.

am- icus, M., am-ica, F., friend, cf. amare, to love.

bubul-cus, M., ox-tender, from bub- ulus, diminutive, cf. bos, ox.

cant-icum, N., song, from cantus, act of singing.

rubr-ica, F., red paint, from ruber, red.

10. -eus, - ea, - eum, with various meanings:

alv-eus, M., a trough, from alvus, the belly.

capr-ea, F., a wild she-goat, from caper, he-goat.

flamm-eum, N., a bridal veil, from flamma, flame, from its color.

11. - ter (stem tri-), -aster, - ester:

eques-ter, M., knight, for equet-ter.

sequ-ester, M., a stake-holder, from derivative of sequor, follow.

ole-aster, M., wild olive, from olea, an olive tree.


SECTION:#255. The suffix - o (genitive -onis, stem on-), usually added to verb-stems (see Sect: 236. c), is sometimes used with noun-stems to form nouns denoting possessed of. These were originally adjectives expressing quality or character, and hence often appear as proper names:

epulae, a feast; epul- o, a feaster.

nasus, a nose; nas- o, with a large nose (also as a proper name).

volus (in bene- volus), wishing; vol- ones (plural), volunteers.

frons, forehead; front- o, big-head (also as a proper name).

curia, a curia; curi- o, head of a curia (also as a proper name).

restis, a rope; resti- o, a rope-maker.

Rarely suffixes are added to compound stems imagined, but not used in their compound form:

ad-verb- ium, adverb; ad, to, and verbum, verb, but without the intervening adverbus.

lati-fund- ium, large estate; latus, wide, fundus, estate, but without the inter vening latifundus.

su-ove-taur- ilia, a sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull; sus, swine, ovis, sheep, taurus, bull, where the primitive would be impossible in Latin, though such formations are common in Sanskrit.


SECTION:#256. Verbs may be classed as Primitive or Derivative.

1. Primitive Verbs are those inherited by the Latin from the parent speech.

2. Derivative Verbs are those formed in the development of the Latin as a separate language.

SECTION:#257. Derivative Verbs are of two main classes:

1. Denominative Verbs, formed from nouns or adjectives.

2. Verbs apparently derived from the stems of other verbs

.Denominative Verbs

SECTION:#258. Verbs were formed in Latin from almost every form of noun-stem and adjective-stem.


1. Verbs of the First Conjugation are formed directly from a-stems, regularly with a transitive meaning: as, fuga, flight; fugare, put to flight.

2. Many verbs of the First Conjugation are formed from o- stems, changing the o- into a-. These are more commonly transitive:

stimulo, - are, to incite, from stimulus, a good (stem stimulo-).

aequo, - are, to make even, from aequus, even (stem aequo-).

hiberno, - are, to pass the winter, from hibernus, of the winter (stem hiberno-).

albo, - are, to whiten, from albus, white (stem albo-).

pio, - are, to expiate, from pius, pure (stem pio-).

novo, -are, to renew, from novus, new (stem novo-).

armo, - are, to arm, from arma, arms (stem armo-).

damno, - are, to injure, from damnum, injury (stem damno-).

3. A few verbs, generally intransitive, are formed by analogy from consonant and i- or u-stems, adding a to the stem:

vigilo, - are, to watch, from vigil, awake.

exsulo, - are, to be in exile, from exsul, an exile.

auspicor, - ari, to take the auspices, from auspex (stem auspic-), augur.

pulvero, - are, to turn (anything) to dust, from pulvis (stem pulver- for pulvis-), dust.

aestuo, - are, to surge, boil, from aestus (stem aestu-), tide, seething

levo, - are, to lighten, from levis (stem levi-), light.

SECTION:#260. A few verbs of the Second Conjugation (generally intransitive) are recognizable as formed from noun-stems; but most are inherited, or the primitive noun-stem is lost:

albeo, - ere, to be white, from albus (stem ( albo/e-), white.

caneo, - ere, to be hoary, from canus (stem ( cano/e-), hoary.

clareo, - ere, to shine, from clarus, bright.

claudeo, - ere, to be lame, from claudus, lame.

algeo, - ere, to be cold, cf. algidus, cold.

SECTION:#261. Some verbs of the Third Conjugation in - uo, - uere, are formed from noun-stems in u- and have lost a consonant i:

statu o (for statu-yo), - ere, to set up, from status, position.

metuo, - ere, to fear, from metus, fear.

acuo, - ere, to sharpen, from acus, needle.

arguo, - ere, to clear up, from inherited stem argu-, bright (cf. arguros).

NOTE.--Many verbs in u are inherited, being formed from roots in u: as, fluo, fluere, flow; so- lvo (for se-luo, cf. lu?), solvere, dissolve. Some roots have a parasitic u: as, loquor, locutus, speak.

SECTION:#262. Many i-verbs or verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are formed from i-stems:

molior, - iri, to toil, from moles (- is), mass.

finio, - ire, to bound, from finis, end.

sitio, - ire, to thirst, from sitis, thirst.

stabilio, - ire, to establish, from stabilis, stable.

Some arise by confusion from other stems treated as i-stems:

bullio, - ire, to boil, from bulla (stem bulla-), bubble.

condio, - ire, to preserve, from condus (stem condo-), storekeeper.

insanio, - ire, to rave, from insanus (stem insano-), mad.

gestio, - ire, to show wild longing, from gestus (stem gestu-), gesture.

NOTE.--Some of this form are of doubtful origin: as, ordior, begin, cf. ordo and exordium. The formation is closely akin to that of verbs in -io of the third conjugation (p. 102).

Some are formed with -io from consonant stems:

custodio, - ire, to guard, from custos (stem custod-), guardian.

fulgurio, - ire, to lighten, from fulgur, lightning.

NOTE.--Here probably belong the so-called desideratives in - urio (see Sect: 263. 4. N.).

1 The type of all or most of the denominative formations in Sect: 259-262 was inherited, but the process went on in the development of Latin as a separate language.

.Verbs from Other Verbs

SECTION:#263. The following four classes of verbs regularly derived from other verbs have special meanings connected with their terminations.

NOTE.--These classes are all really denominative in their origin, but the formations had become so associated with actual verbs that new derivatives were often formed directly from verbs without the intervention of a noun-stem.

1. Inceptives or Inchoatives add -scoto the present stem of verbs. They denote the beginning of an action and are of the Third Conjugation. Of some there is no simple verb in existence:

cale- sco, grow warm, from caleo, be warm.

laba- sco, begin to totter, from labo, totter.

sci- sco, determine, from scio, know.

con-cupi- sco, conceive a desire for, from cupio, desire.

ale- sco, grow, from alo, feed.

So ira- scor, get angry; cf. ira- tus.

iuvene- sco, grow young; cf. iuvenis, young man.

mite- sco, grow mild; cf. mitis, mild.

vespera-scit, it is getting late; cf. vesper, evening.

NOTE.--Inceptives properly have only the present stem, but many use the perfect and supine systems of simple verbs: as, calesco, grow warm, calui; ardesco, blaze forth, arsi; proficiscor, set out, profectus.

2. Intensives or Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem and end in-to or - ito (rarely -so). They denote a forcible or repeated action, but this special sense often disappears. Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in - ito (not -ato).

iac- to, hurl, from iacio, throw.

dormi- to, be sleepy, from dormio, sleep.

vol- ito, flit, from volo, fly.

vendi- to, try to sell, from vendo, sell.

quas- so, shatter, from quatio, shake.

They are of the first conjugation, and are properly denominative.

Compound suffixes -tito, - sito, are formed with a few verbs. These are probably derived from other Iteratives; thus, cantito may come from canto, iterative of cano, sing.

Another form of Intensives--sometimes called Meditatives, or verbs of practice--ends in -esso (rarely -isso). These denote a certain energy or eagerness of action rather than its repetition:

cap- esso, lay hold on, from capio, take.

fac- esso, do (with energy), from facio, do.

pet-esso, pet-isso, seek (eagerly), from peto, seek.

These are of the third conjugation, usually having the perfect and supine of the fourth:

arcesso, arcesse re, arcessivi, arcessitum, summon.

lacesso, lacesse re, lacessivi, lacessitum, provoke.

NOTE.--The verbs in -esso, -isso, show the same formation as levasso, impetrassere, iudicassit, etc. (Sect: 183. 5), but its origin is not fully explained.

3. Diminutives end in - illo, and denote a feeble or petty action:

cav- illor, jest, cf. cavilla, raillery.

cant- illo, chirp or warble, from canto, sing.

NOTE.--Diminutives are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supposed diminutive nouns.

4. Desideratives end in - turio (- surio), and express longing or wishing. They are of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in common use:

par- turio, be in labor, from pario, bring forth.

e- surio (for *ed-turio), be hungry, from edo, eat.

Others are used by the dramatists.

NOTE.--Desideratives are probably derived from some noun of agency: as, empturio, wish to buy, from emptor, buyer. Viso, go to see, is an inherited desiderative of a different formation.


SECTION:#264. A Compound Word is one whose stem is made up of two or more simple stems.

A final stem-vowel of the first member of the compound usually disappears before a vowel, and usually takes the form of i before a consonant. Only the second member receives inflection.

Only noun-stems can be thus compounded. A preposition, however, often becomes attached to a verb.

SECTION:#265. New stems are formed by Composition in three ways:

1. The second part is simply added to the first:

su-ove- taurilia ( sus, ovis, taurus), the sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull (cf. Sect: 255. a).

septen-decim ( septem, decem), seventeen.

2. The first part modifies the second as an adjective or adverb (Determinative Compounds):

lati- fundium ( latus, fundus), a large landed estate.

omni- potens ( omnis, potens), omnipotent.

3. The first part has the force of a case, and the second a verbal force (Objective Compounds):

agri- cola ( ager, field, * cola akin to colo, cultivate), a farmer.

armi-ger ( arma, arms, *ger akin to gero, carry), armor-bearer.

corni-cen ( cornu, horn, * cen akin to cano, sing), horn-blower.

carni-fex ( caro, flesh, *fex akin to facio, make), executioner.

Compounds of the above kinds, in which the last word is a noun, may become adjectives, meaning possessed of the quality denoted:

ali-pes ( ala, wing, pes, foot), wing-footed.

magn- animus ( magnus, great, animus, soul), great-souled.

an- ceps (amb-, at both ends, caput, head), double.

NOTE.--Many compounds of the above classes appear only in the form of some further derivative, the proper compound not being found in Latin.

Syntactic Compounds

SECTION:#266. In many apparent compounds, complete words--not stems--have grown together in speech. These are not strictly compounds in the etymological sense. They are called Syntactic Compounds. Examples are:

Compounds of facio, facto, with an actual or formerly existing nounstem confounded with a verbal stem in e-. These are causative in force.

consue-facio, habituate (cf. consue- sco, become accustomed).

cale-facio, cale- facto, to heat (cf. cale- sco, grow warm).

An adverb or noun combined with a verb:

bene- dico ( bene, well, dico, speak), to bless.

satis-facio ( satis, enough, facio, do), to do enough (for).

Many apparent compounds of stems:

fide-iubeo ( fide, surety, iubeo, command), to give surety.

man- suetus ( manui, to the hand, suetus, accustomed), tame.

Marci- por ( Marci puer), slave of Marcus.

Iuppiter ( Iu old vocative, and pater), father Jove.

anim- adverto ( animum adverto), attend to, punish.

A few phrases forced into the ordinary inflections of nouns:

pro-consul, proconsul (for pro consule, instead of a consul).

trium-vir, triumvir (singular from trium virorum).

septen-trio, the Bear, a constellation (supposed singular of septem triones, the Seven Plough-Oxen).

In all these cases it is to be observed that words, not stems, are united.

SECTION:#267. Many syntactic compounds are formed by prefixing a Particle to some other part of speech.

Prepositions are often prefixed to Verbs. In these compounds the prepositions retain their original adverbial sense:

a, ab, AWAY: a- mittere, to send away.

ad, TO, TOWARDS: af- ferre (ad- fero), to bring.

ante, BEFORE: ante- ferre, to prefer; ante- cellere, to excel.

circum, AROUND: circum- munire, to fortify completely.

com-, con- (cum), TOGETHER or FORCIBLY: con- ferre, to bring together; collocare, to set firm.

de, DOWN, UTTERLY: de- spicere, despise; de- struere, destroy.

e, ex, OUT: ef- ferre (ec-fero), to carry forth, uplift.

in (with verbs), IN, ON, AGAINST: in- ferre, to bear against.

inter, BETWEEN, TO PIECES: inter- rumpere, to interrupt.

ob, TOWARDS, TO MEET: of- ferre, to offer; ob-venire, to meet.

sub, UNDER, UP FROM UNDER: sub- struere, to build beneath; sub- ducere, to lead up

super, UPON, OVER AND ABOVE: super- fluere, to overflow.

NOTE 1.--In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their crdinary force as prepositions, especially ad, in, circum, trans, and govern the case of a noun: as, transire flumen, to cross a river (see Sect: 388. b).

NOTE 2.--Short a of the root is weakened to i before one consonant, to e before two: as, facio, conficio, confectus; iacio, eicio, eiectus. But long a is retained: as, peractus.

VERBS are also compounded with the following inseparable particles, which do not appear as prepositions in Latin:

amb- (am-, an-), AROUND: amb-ire, to go about (cf. amphi, about).

dis-, di-, ASUNDER, APART: dis-ce dere, to depart (cf. duo, two); di-vide re, to divide.

por-, FORWARD: por-tendere, to hold forth, predict (cf. porro, forth).

red-, re-, BACK, AGAIN: red-ire, to return; re- cludere, to open (from claudo, shut); re- ficere, to repair (make again).

sed-, se-, APART: se-cerno, to separate; cf. sed- itio, a going apart, secession ( eo, ire, to go).

Many Verbals are found compounded with a preposition, like the verbs to which they correspond:

per- fuga, deserter; cf. per-fugio.

tra-dux, vine-branch; cf. tra- duco (trans- duco).

ad- vena, stranger; cf. ad-venio.

con- iux (con- iunx), spouse; cf. con-iungo.

in-dex, pointer out; cf. in-dico.

prae-ses, guardian; cf. prae-sideo.

com- bibo, boon companion; cf. com-bibo, -ere.

An Adjective is sometimes modified by an adverbial prefix.

1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat; in-, not, ar regular, and are very freely prefixed to adjectives:

per-magnus, very large. in- nocuus, harmless.

per- pauci, very few. in- imicus, unfriendly.

sub- rusticus, rather clownish. in-sanus, insane.

sub-fuscus, darkish. in- finitus, boundless.

prae- longus, very long. im- purus, impure.

NOTE.--Per and sub, in these senses, are also prefixed to verbs: as, per- terreo, terrify; sub-rideo, smile. In ignosco, pardon, in- appears to be the negative prefix.

2. The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective that does not occur alone:

in-ermis, unarmed (cf. arma, arms).

im- bellis, unwarlike (cf. bellum, war).

im- punis, without punishment (cf. poena, punishment).

in- teger, untouched, whole (cf. tango, to touch, root TAG).

in- vitus, unwilling (probably from root seen in vi- s, thou wishest).

END Part I (Grammar) continued Part II (Syntax)

William Harris
Prof. Em. Middlebury College