Go to Part I: GRAMMAR

Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar



SECTION: #268. The study of formal grammar arose at a late period in the history of language, and dealt with language as a fully developed product. Accordingly the terms of Syntax correspond to the logical habits of thought and forms of expression that had grown up at such a period, and have a logical as well as a merely grammatical meaning. But a developed syntactical structure is not essential to the expression of thought. A form of words--like ó puerum pulchrum! oh! beautiful boy--expresses a thought and might even be called a sentence; though it does not logically declare anything, and does not, strictly speaking, make what is usually called a sentence at all.

At a very early period of spoken language, word-forms were no doubt significant in themselves, without inflections, and constituted the whole of language,--just as to a child the name of some familiar object will stand for all he can say about it. At a somewhat later stage, such uninflected words put side by side made a rudimentary form of proposition: as a child might say fire bright; horse run. With this began the first form of logical distinction, that of Subject and Predicate; but as yet there was no distinction in form between noun and verb, and no fixed distinction in function. At a later stage forms were differentiated in function and--by various processes of composition which cannot be fully traced--Inflections were developed. These served to express person, tense, case, and other grammatical relations, and we have true Parts of Speech.

Not until language reached this last stage was there any fixed limit to the association of words, or any rule prescribing the manner in which they should be combined. But gradually, by usage, particular forms came to be limited to special functions (as nouns, verbs, adjectives), and fixed customs arose of combining words into what we now call Sentences. These customs are in part the result of general laws or modes of thought (logic), resulting from our habits of mind (General Grammar); and in part are what may be called By-Laws, established by custom in a given language (Particular Grammar), and making what is called the Syntax of that language.

In the fully developed methods of expression to which we are almost exclusively accustomed, the unit of expression is the Sentence: that is, the completed statement, with its distinct Subject and Predicate. Originally sentences were simple. But two simple sentence-forms may be used together, without the grammatical subordination of either, to express a more complex form of thought than could be denoted by one alone. This is parataxis (arrangement side by side). Since, however, the two sentences, independent in form, were in fact used to express parts of a complex whole and were therefore mutually dependent, the sense of unity found expression in conjunctions, which denoted the grammatical subordination of the one to the other. This is hypotaxis (arrangement under, subordination). In this way, through various stages of development, which correspond to our habitual modes of thought, there were produced various forms of complex sentences. Thus, to express the complex idea I beseech you to pardon me, the two simple sentence-forms quaesó and ígnóscás were used side by side, quaesó ígnóscás; then the feeling of grammatical subordination found expression in a conjunction, quaesó ut ígnóscás, forming a complex sentence. The results of these processes constitute the subject-matter of Syntax.

1 The second part generally has its usual inflection; but, as this kind of composition is in fact older than inflection, the compounded stem sometimes has an inflection of its own (as, cornicen, - cinis; lúcifer, - ferí; iúdex, - dicis), from stems not occurring in Latin. Especially do compound adjectives in Latin take the form of i-stems: as, animus, exanimis; nórma, abnórmis (see Sect: 73). In composition, stems regularly have their uninflected form: as, ígni- spicium, divining by fire. But in o- and á-stems the final vowel of the stem appears as i-, as in áli-pés (from ála, stem álá-); and i- is so common a termination of compounded stems, that it is often added to stems which do not properly have it: as, flóri-comus, flower-crowned (from flós, flór-is, and coma, hair).

SECTION: #269. A Sentence is a form of words which contains a Statement, a Question, an Exclamation, or a Command.

A sentence in the form of a Statement is called a Declarative Sentence: as,-- canis currit, the dog runs.

A sentence in the form of a Question is called an Interrogative Sentence: as,-- canisne currit? does the dog run?

A sentence in the form of an Exclamation is called an Exclamatory Sentence: as,-- quam celeriter currit canis! how fast the dog runs!

A sentence in the form of a Command, an Exhortation, or an Entreaty is called an Imperative Sentence: as,--í, curre per Alpís, go, run across the Alps; currat canis, let the dog run.

.Subject and .Predicate

SECTION: #270. Every sentence consists of a Subject and a Predicate.

The Subject of a sentence is the person or thing spoken of. The Predicate is that which is said of the Subject.

Thus in canis currit, the dog runs, canis is the subject, and currit the predicate.

SECTION: #271. The Subject of a sentence is usually a Noun or Pronoun, or some word or group of words used as a Noun:
     equités ad Caesarem vénérunt, the cavalry came to Caesar.
     húmánum est erráre, to err is human.
     quaeritur num mors malum sit. the question is whether death is an evil.

But in Latin the subject is often implied in the termination of the verb:

sedé-mus, we sit. curri-tis, you run. inqui-t, says he.

SECTION: #272. The Predicate of a sentence may be a Verb (as in canis currit, the dog runs), or it may consist of some form of sum and a Noun or Adjective which describes or defines the subject (as in Caesar cónsul erat, Caesar was consul).

Such a noun or adjective is called a Predicate Noun or Adjective, and the verb sum is called the Copula (i.e. the connective).

Thus in the example given, Caesar is the subject, cónsul the predicate noun, and erat the copula (see Sect: 283).

.Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

SECTION: #273. Verbs are either Transitive or Intransitive.

1. A Transitive Verb has or requires a direct object to complete its sense (see Sect: 274): as,-- frátrem cecídit, he slew his brother.

2. An Intransitive Verb admits of no direct object to complete its sense:

cadó, I fall (or am falling). sól lúcet, the sun shines (or is shining).

NOTE 1.--Among transitive verbs Factitive Verbs are sometimes distinguished as a separate class. These state an act which produces the thing expressed by the word which completes their sense. Thus ménsam fécit, he made a table (which was not in existence before), is distinguished from ménsam percussit, he struck a table (which already existed).

NOTE 2.--A transitive verb may often be used absolutely, i.e. without any object expressed: as,-- arat, he is ploughing, where the verb does not cease to be transitive because the object is left indefinite, as we see by adding,-- quid, what? agrum suum, his land.

NOTE 3.--Transitive and Intransitive Verbs are often called Active and Neuter Verbs respectively.


SECTION: #274. The person or thing immediately affected by the action of a verb is called the Direct Object.

A person or thing indirectly affected by the action of a verb is called the Indirect Object.

Only transitive verbs can have a Direct Object; but an Indirect Object may be used with both transitive and intransitive verbs (Sect: 362, 366):
     pater vocat filium (direct object), the father calls his son.
     mihi (ind. obj.) agrum (dir. obj.) ostendit, he showed me a field.
     mihi (ind. obj.) placet, it is pleasing to me.

NOTE.--The distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs is not a fixed dis tinction, for most transitive verbs may be used intransitively, and many verbs usually intransitive may take a direct object and so become transitive (Sect: 388. a).

With certain verbs, the Genitive, Dative, or Ablative is used where the English, from a difference in meaning, requires the direct object (Objective):
     hominem videó, I see the man (Accusative).
     hominí servió, I serve the man (Dative, see Sect: 367).
     hominis misereor, I pity the man (Genitive, see Sect: 354. a).
     homine amícó útor, I treat the man as a friend (Ablative, see Sect: 410).

Many verbs transitive in Latin are rendered into English by an intransitive verb with a preposition:
     petit aprum, he aims at the boar.
     laudem affectat, he strives after praise.
     cúrat valétúdinem, he takes care of his health.
     meum cásum doluérunt, they grieved at my misfortune.
     rídet nostram ámentiam (Quinct. 55) , he laughs at our stupidity.

SECTION: #275. When a transitive verb is changed from the Active to the Passive voice, the Direct Object becomes the Subject and is put in the Nominative case:
     Active: pater fílium vocat, the father calls his son.
     Passive: fílius á patre vocátur, the son is called by his father.
     Active: lúnam et stellás vidémus, we see the moon and the stars.
     Passive: lúna et stellae videntur, the moon and stars are seen (appear).


SECTION: #276. A Subject or a Predicate may be modified by a single word, or by a group of words (a phrase or a clause).

The modifying word or group of words may itself be modified in the same way.

A single modifying word may be an adjective, an adverb, an appositive (Sect: 282), or the oblique case of a noun.

Thus in the sentence vir fortis patienter fert, a brave man endures patiently, the adjective fortis, brave, modifies the subject vir, man, and the adverb patienter, patiently, modifies the predicate fert, endures.

The modifying word is in some cases said to limit the word to which it belongs.

Thus in the sentence puerí patrem videó, I see the boy's father, the genitive puerí limits patrem (by excluding any other father).

SECTION: #277. A Phrase is a group of words, without subject or predicate of its own, which may be used as an Adjective or an Adverb.

Thus in the sentence vir fuit summá nóbilitáte, he was a man of the highest nobility, the words summá nóbilitáte, of the highest nobility, are used for the adjective nóbilis, noble (or nóbilissimus, very noble), and are called an Adjective Phrase.

So in the sentence mágná celeritáte vénit, he came with great speed, the words mágná celeritáte, with great speed, are used for the adverb celeriter, quickly (or celerrimé, very quickly), and are called an Adverbial Phrase.

.Clauses and Sentences

SECTION: #278. Sentences are either Simple or Compound.

1. A sentence containing a single statement is called a Simple Sentence.

2. A sentence containing more than one statement is called a Compound Sentence, and each single statement in it is called a Clause.

If one statement is simply added to another, the clauses are said to be Coordinate. They are usually connected by a Coordinate Conjunction (Sect: 223. a); but this is sometimes omitted:
     dívide et imperá, divide and control. But,--
     véní, vídí, vící, I came, I saw, I conquered.

If one statement modifies another in any way, the modifying clause is said to be Subordinate, and the clause modified is called the Main Clause.

This subordination is indicated by some connecting word, either a Subordinate Conjunction (Sect: 223. b) or a Relative:
     óderint dum metuant, let them hate so long as they fear.
     servum mísit quem sécum habébat, he sent the slave whom he had with him.

A sentence containing one or more subordinate clauses is sometimes called Complex.

NOTE.--A subordinate clause may itself be modified by other subordinate clauses.

SECTION: #279. Subordinate Clauses are of various kinds.

A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb is called a Relative Clause:
     Mosa prófluit ex monte Vosegó, quí est in fínibus Lingonum (B. G. 4.10) , the Meuse rises in the Vosges mountains, which are on the borders of the Lingones.

For Relative Pronouns (or Relative Adverbs) serving to connect independent sentences, see Sect: 308. f.

A clause introduced by an Adverb of Time is called a Temporal Clause:
     cum tacent, clámant (Cat. 1.21) , while they are silent, they cry aloud.
     hominés aegrí morbó graví, cum iactantur aestú febríque, sí aquam gelidam biberint, prímó relevárí videntur ( id. 1.31), men suffering with a severe sickness, when they are tossing with the heat of fever, if they drink cold water, seem at first to be relieved.

A clause containing a Condition, introduced by sí, if (or some equivalent expression), is called a Conditional Clause. A sentence containing a conditional clause is called a Conditional Sentence.

Thus, sí aquam gelidam biberint, prímó relevárí videntur (in b, above) is a Conditional Sentence, and sí ... biberint is a Conditional Clause.

A clause expressing the Purpose of an action is called a Final Clause:
     edó ut vívam, I eat to live (that I may live).
     mísit légátós quí dícerent, he sent ambassadors to say (who should say).

A clause expressing the Result of an action is called a Consecutive Clause:
     tam longé aberam ut nón vidérem, I was too far away to see (so far away that I did not see).


SECTION: #280. A word is said to agree with another when it is required by usage to be in the same Gender, Number, Case, or Person.

The following are the general forms of agreement, sometimes called the Four Concords:

1. The agreement of the Noun in Apposition or as Predicate (Sect: 281-284).

2. The agreement of the Adjective with its Noun (Sect: 286).

3. The agreement of the Relative with its Antecedent (Sect: 305).

4. The agreement of the Finite Verb with its Subject (Sect: 316).

A word sometimes takes the gender or number, not of the word with which it should regularly agree, but of some other word implied in that word.

This use is called Synesis, or cónstrúctió ad sénsum (construction according to sense).


SECTION: #281. A noun used to describe another, and denoting the same person or thing, agrees with it in Case.

The descriptive noun may be either an Appositive (Sect: 282) or a Predicate noun (Sect: 283).


SECTION: #282. A noun used to describe another, and standing in the same part of the sentence with the noun described, is called an Appositive, and is said to be in apposition:
     externus timor, maximum concordiae vinculum, iungébat animós (Liv. 2.39) , fear of the foreigner, the chief bond of harmony, united their hearts. [Here the appositive belongs to the subject.]
     quattuor híc prímum ómen equós vídí; ( Aen. 3.537), I saw here four horses, the first omen. [Here both nouns are in the predicate.]
     litterás Graecás senex didicí; (Cat. M. 26), I learned Greek when an old man. [Here senex, though in apposition with the subject of didicí, really states something further: viz., the time, condition, etc., of the act (Predicate Apposition).]

Words expressing parts may be in apposition with a word including the parts, or vice versa (Partitive Apposition):
     Nec P. Popilius neque Q. Metellus, clárissimí virí atque amplissimí, vim tribúníciam sustinére potuérunt (Clu. 95) , neither Publius Popilius nor Quintus Metellus, [both of them] distinguished and honorable men, could withstand the power of the tribunes.
     Gnaeus et Públius Scípiónés, Cneius and Publius Scipio (the Scipios).

An Adjective may be used as an appositive:
     ea Sex. Róscium inopem recépit (Rosc. Am. 27) , she received Sextus Roscius in his poverty (needy).

An appositive generally agrees with its noun in Gender and Number when it can:
     sequuntur nátúram, optimam ducem (Lael. 19) , they follow nature, the best guide.
     omnium doctrínárum inventrícés Athénás (De Or. 1.13) , Athens, discoverer of all learning.

NOTE.--But such agreement is often impossible: as,-- ólim truncus eram fículnus, inútile lígnum (Hor. S. 1.8.1) , I once was a fig-tree trunk, a useless log.

A common noun in apposition with a Locative (Sect: 427) is put in the Ablative, with or without the preposition in:
     Antiochíae, celebrí quondam urbe (Arch. 4) , at Antioch, once a famous city.
     Albae cónstitérunt, in urbe múnítá; ( Phil. 4.6), they halted at Alba, a fortified town.

For a Genitive in apposition with a Possessive Pronoun or an Adjective, see Sect: 302.

For the so-called Appositional Genitive, see Sect: 343. d.

For the construction with nómen est, see Sect: 373. a.

.Predicate Noun or Adjective

SECTION: #283. With sum and a few other intransitive or passive verbs, a noun or an adjective describing or defining the subject may stand in the predicate. This is called a Predicate Noun or Adjective.

The verb sum is especially common in this construction, and when so used is called the copula (i.e. connective).

Other verbs which take a predicate noun or adjective are the socalled copulative verbs signifying to become, to be made, to be named, to appear, and the like.

SECTION: #284. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after the copula sum or a copulative verb is in the same case as the Subject:
     pácis semper auctor fuí; ( Lig. 28), I have always been an adviser of peace.
     quae pertinácia quibusdam, eadem aliís cónstantia vidérí potest (Marc. 31) , what may seem obstinacy to some, may seem to others consistency.
     eiius mortis sedétis ultórés (Mil. 79) , you sit as avengers of his death.
     habeátur vir égregius Paulus (Cat. 4.21) , let Paulus be regarded as an extraordinary man.
     ego patrónus exstití; ( Rosc. Am. 5), I have come forward as an advocate.
     dícit nón omnís bonós esse beátós, he says that not all good men are happy.

A predicate noun referring to two or more singular nouns is in the plural:
     cónsulés creantur Caesar et Servílius (B. C. 3.1) , Caesar and Servilius are elected consuls.

Sum in the sense of exist makes a complete predicate without a predicate noun or adjective. It is then called the substantive verb:
     sunt virí fortés, there are (exist) brave men. [Cf. víxére fortés ante Agamemnona ( Hor. Od. 4.9.25), brave men lived before Agamemnon.]

For Predicate Accusative and Predicate Ablative, see Sect: 392, 415. N.


Attributive and Predicate Adjectives

SECTION: #285. Adjectives are either Attributive or Predicate.

1. An Attributive Adjective simply qualifies its noun without the intervention of a verb or participle, expressed or implied: as, -- bonus imperátor, a good commander; stellae lúcidae, bright stars; verbum Graecum, a Greek word.

2. All other adjectives are called Predicate Adjectives:
     stellae lúcidae erant, the stars were bright.
     sit Scípió clárus (Cat. 4.21) , let Scipio be illustrious.
     hominés mítís reddidit (Inv. 1.2) , has rendered men mild.
     tria praedia Capitóní propria tráduntur (Rosc. Am. 21) , three farms are handed over to Capito as his own.
     cónsilium cépérunt plénum sceleris ( id. 28), they formed a plan full of villany.

NOTE.--A predicate adjective may be used with sum or a copulative verb (Sect: 283); it may have the construction of a predicate accusative after a verb of naming, calling, or the like (Sect: 393. N.); or it may be used in apposition like a noun (Sect: 282. b).

Rules of Agreement

SECTION: #286. Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Participles agree with their nouns in Gender, Number, and Case:
     vir fortis, a brave man.
     illa mulier, that woman.
     urbium mágnárum, of great cities.
     cum ducentís mílitibus, with two hundred soldiers.
     imperátor victus est, the general was beaten.
     secútae sunt tempestátés, storms followed.

NOTE.--All rules for the agreement of adjectives apply also to adjective pronouns and to participles.

With two or more nouns the adjective is regularly plural, but often agrees with the nearest (especially when attributive):
     Nísus et Euryalus prímí (Aen. 5.294) , Nisus and Euryalus first.
     Caesaris omní et grátiá et opibus fruor (Fam. 1.9.21) , I enjoy all Caesar's favor and resources.

NOTE.--An adjective referring to two nouns connected by the preposition cum is occasionally plural (synesis, Sect: 280. a): as,-- Iuba cum Labiénó captí (B. Afr. 52), Juba and Labienus were taken.

A collective noun may take an adjective of a different gender and number agreeing with the gender and number of the individuals implied (synesis, Sect: 280. a):
     pars certáre parátí (Aen. 5.108) , a part ready to contend.
     colóniae aliquot déductae, Príscí Latíní appellátí (Liv. 1.3) , several colonies were planted (led out) [of men] called Old Latins.
     multitúdó convictí sunt (Tac. Ann. 15.44) , a multitude were convicted.
     mágna pars raptae ( id. 1.9), a large part [of the women] were seized.

NOTE.--A superlative in the predicate rarely takes the gender of a partitive genitive by which it is limited: as,-- vélócissimum animálium delphínus est (Plin. N. H. 9.20), the dolphin is the swiftest [creature] of creatures.

SECTION: #287. One adjective may belong in sense to two or more nouns of different genders. In such cases,:/p>

1. An Attributive Adjective agrees with the nearest noun:
     multae operae ac labóris, of much trouble and toil.
     víta mórésque meí, my life and character.
     sí rés, sí vir, sí tempus úllum dígnum fuit (Mil. 19) , if any thing, if any man, if any time was fit.

2. A Predicate Adjective may agree with the nearest noun, if the Nouns form one connected idea:
     factus est strepitus et admurmurátió; ( Verr. 1.45), a noise of assent was made (noise and murmur).

NOTE.--This is only when the copula agrees with the nearest subject (Sect: 317. c).

3. But generally, a Predicate Adjective will be masculine, if nouns of different genders mean living beings; neuter, if things without life:
     uxor deinde ac líberí amplexí (Liv. 2.40) , then his wife and children embraced him.
     labor (M.) voluptás que (F.) societáte quádam inter sé nátúrálí sunt iúncta (N.) ( id. 5.4), labor and delight are bound together by a certain natural alliance.

4. If nouns of different genders include both living beings and things without life, a Predicate Adjective is sometimes masculine (or feminine), sometimes neuter, and sometimes agrees in gender with the nearest if that is plural:
     réx régiaque classis úná profectí (Liv. 21.50) , the king and the royal fleet set out together.
     nátúrá inimíca sunt líbera cívitás et réx ( id. 44.24), by nature a free state and a king are hostile.
     légátós sortésque óráculí exspectandás ( id. 5.15), that the ambassadors and the replies of the oracle should be waited for.

Two or more abstract nouns of the same gender may have a Predicate Adjective in the neuter plural (cf. Sect: 289. c):
     stultitia et temeritás et iniústitia ... sunt fugienda (Fin. 3.39) , foliy, rashness, and injustice are [things] to be shunned.

Adjectives used Substantively

SECTION: #288. Adjectives are often used as Nouns (substantively), the masculine usually to denote men or people in general of that kind, the feminine women, and the neuter things:

omnés, all men (everybody). omnia, all things (everything).

máiórés, ancestors. minórés, descendants.

Rómání, Romans. barbarí, barbarians.

líberta, a freedwoman. Sabínae, the Sabine wives.

sapiéns, a sage (philosopher). amícus, a friend.

boní, the good (good people). bona, goods, property.

NOTE.--The plural of adjectives, pronouns, and participles is very common in this use. The singular is comparatively rare except in the neuter (Sect: 289. a, c) and in words that have become practically nouns.

Certain adjectives have become practically nouns, and are often modified by other adjectives or by the possessive genitive:
     tuus vícínus proximus, your next-door neighbor.
     propinquí céterí, his other relatives.
     meus aequális, a man of my own age.
     eiius familiáris Catilína (Har. Resp. 5) , his intimate friend Catiline.
     Leptae nostrí familiárissimus (Fam. 9.13.2) , a very close friend of our friend Lepta.

When ambiguity would arise from the substantive use of an adjective, a noun must be added:
     boní, the good; omnia, everything (all things); but,--
     potentia omnium rérum, power over everything.

Many adjectives are used substantively either in the singular or the plural, with the added meaning of some noun which is understood from constant association:
     áfricus [ ventus], the southwest wind; Iánuárius [ ménsis], January; vitulína [ caró], veal (calf's flesh); fera [ béstia], a wild beast; patria [ terra], the fatherland; Gallia [ terra], Gaul (the land of the Gallí); híberna [ castra], winter quarters; trirémis [ návis], a three-banked galley, trireme; argentárius [ faber], a silversmith; régia [ domus], the palace; Latínae [ fériae], the Latin festival.

NOTE.--These adjectives are specific in meaning, not generic like those in Sect: 288. They include the names of winds and months (Sect: 31).

For Nouns used as Adjectives, see Sect: 321. c.

For Adverbs used like Adjectives, see Sect: 321. d.

SECTION: #289. Neuter Adjectives are used substantively in the following special senses:

The neuter singular may denote either a single object or an abstract quality:

raptó vívere, to live by plunder. in áridó, on dry ground.
     honestum, an honorable act, or virtue (as a quality).
     opus est mátúrátó, there is need of haste. [Cf. impersonal passives Sect: 208. d.]

The neuter plural is used to signify objects in general having the quality denoted, and hence may stand for the abstract idea:

honesta, honorable deeds (in general). praeterita, the past (lit., bygones).
     omnés fortia laudant, all men praise bravery (brave things).

A neuter adjective may be used as an appositive or predicate noun with a noun of different gender (cf. Sect: 287. a):
     tríste lupus stabulís (Ecl. 3.80) , the wolf [is] a grievous thing for the fold.
     varium et mútábile semper fémina (Aen. 4.569) , woman is ever a changing and fickle thing.
     malum mihi vidétur esse mors (Tusc. 1.9) , death seems to me to be an evil.

A neuter adjective may be used as an attributive or a predicate adjective with an infinitive or a substantive clause:
     istuc ipsum nón esse (Tusc. 1.12) , that very "not to be."
     húmánum est erráre, to err is human.
     aliud est erráre Caesarem nólle, aliud nólle miserérí; ( Lig. 16), it is one thing to be unwilling that Caesar should err, another to be unwilling that he should pity.

Adjectives with Adverbial Force

SECTION: #290. An adjective, agreeing with the subject or object, is often used to qualify the action of the verb, and so has the force of an adverb:
     prímus vénit, he was the first to come (came first).
     núllus dubitó, I no way doubt.
     laetí audiére, they were glad to hear.
     erat Rómae frequéns (Rosc. Am. 16) , he was often at Rome.
     sérus in caelum redeás (Hor. Od. 1.2.45) , mayst thou return late to heaven.

.Comparatives and Superlatives

SECTION: #291. Besides their regular signification (as in English), the forms of comparison are used as follows:

The Comparative denotes a considerable or excessive degree of a quality: as,-- brevior, rather short; audácior, too bold.

The Superlative (of eminence) often denotes a very high degree of a quality without implying a distinct comparison: as,-- móns altissimus, a very high mountain.

NOTE.--The Superlative of Eminence is much used in complimentary references to persons and may often be translated by the simple positive.

With quam, vel, or únus the Superlative denotes the highest possible degree:
     quam plúrimí, as many as possible.
     quam maximé potest ( maximé quam potest), as much as can be.
     vel minimus, the very least.
     vir únus doctissimus, the one most learned man.

NOTE 1.--A high degree of a quality is also denoted by such adverbs as admodum, valdé, very, or by per or prae in composition (Sect: 267. d. 1): as,-- valdé malus, very bad= pessimus; permágnus, very great; praealtus, very high (or deep).

NOTE 2.--A low degree of a quality is indicated by sub in composition: as,-- subrústicus, rather clownish, or by minus, not very; minimé, not at all; parum, not enough; nón satis, not much.

NOTE 3.--The comparative máiórés (for máiórés nátú, greater by birth) has the special signification of ancestors; so minórés often means descendants.

For the Superlative with quisque, see Sect: 313. b. For the construction of a substantive after a Comparative, see Sect: 406, 407; for that of a clause, see Sect: 535. c, 571. a. For the Ablative of Degree of Difference with a Comparative ( multó etc.), see Sect: 414.

SECTION: #292. When two qualities of an object are compared, both adjectives are in the Comparative:
     longior quam látior aciés erat (Liv. 27.48) , the line was longer than it was broad (or, rather long than broad).
     vérior quam grátior ( id. 22.38), more true than agreeable.

NOTE.--So also with adverbs: as,-- libentius quam vérius (Mil. 78) , with more freedom than truth.

Where magis is used, both adjectives are in the positive:
     disertus magis quam sapiéns (Att. 10.1.4) , eloquent rather than wise.
     clárí magis quam honestí (Iug. 8) , more renowned than honorable.

NOTE.--A comparative and a positive, or even two positives, are sometimes connected by quam. This use is rarer and less elegant than those before noticed:
     clárís máióribus quam vetustís (Tac. Ann. 4.61) , of a family more famous than old.
     vehementius quam cauté (Tac. Agr. 4) , with more fury than good heed.

SECTION: #293. Superlatives (and more rarely Comparatives) denoting order and succession--also medius, [ céterus], reliquus--usually designate not what object, but what part of it, is meant:
     summus móns, the top of the hill.
     in ultimá plateá, at the end of the place.
     prior áctió, the earlier part of an action.
     reliquí captíví, the rest of the prisoners.
     in colle medió (B. G. 1.24) , half way up the hill (on the middle of the hill).
     inter céteram plánitiem (Iug. 92) , in a region elsewhere level.

NOTE.--A similar use is found in sérá ( multá) nocte, late at night, and the like. But medium viae, the middle of the way; multum diéí, much of the day, also occur.

1 Observe that the classes defined in a-e are not mutually exclusive, but that a single clause may belong to several of them at once. Thus a relative clause is usually subordinate, and may be at the same time temporal or conditional: and subordinate clauses may be coordinate with each other


SECTION: #294. A Pronoun indicates some person or thing without either naming or describing it. Pronouns are derived from a distinct class of roots, which seem to have denoted only ideas of place and direction (Sect: 228. 2), and from which nouns or verbs can very rarely be formed. They may therefore stand for Nouns when the person or thing, being already present to the senses or imagination, needs only to be pointed out, not named.

Some pronouns indicate the object in itself, without reference to its class, and have no distinction of gender. These are Personal Pronouns. They stand syntactically for Nouns, and have the same construction as nouns.

Other pronouns designate a particular object of a class, and take the gender of the individuals of that class. These are called Adjective Pronouns. They stand for Adjectives, and have the same construction as adjectives.

Others are used in both ways; and, though called adjective pronouns, may also be treated as personal, taking, however, the gender of the object indicated.

In accordance with their meanings and uses, Pronouns are classified as follows:

Personal Pronouns (Sect: 295). Interrogative Pronouns (Sect: 333).

Demonstrative Pronouns (Sect: 296). Relative Pronouns (Sect: 303).

Reflexive Pronouns (Sect: 299). Indefinite Pronouns (Sect: 309).

Possessive Pronouns (Sect: 302).

.Personal Pronouns

SECTION: #295. The Personal Pronouns have, in general, the same constructions as nouns.

The personal pronouns are not expressed as subjects, except for distinction or emphasis:
     té vocó, I call you. But,--
     quis mé vocat? ego té vocó, who is calling me? I (emphatic) am calling you.

The personal pronouns have two forms for the genitive plural, that in -um being used partitively (Sect: 346), and that in - í oftenest objectively (Sect: 348):
     máior vestrum, the elder of you.
     habétis ducem memorem vestrí, oblítum suí; ( Cat. 4.19), you have a leader who thinks (is mindful) of you and forgets (is forgetful of) himself.
     pars nostrum, a part (i.e. some) of us.

NOTE 1.--The genitives nostrum, vestrum, are occasionally used objectively (Sect: 348): as,-- cupidus vestrum (Verr. 3.224) , fond of you; cústós vestrum (Cat. 3.29) , the guardian of you (your guardian).

NOTE 2.--"One of themselves"is expressed by únus ex suís or ipsís (rarely ex sé), or únus suórum.

The Latin has no personal pronouns of the third person except the reflexive sé. The want is supplied by a Demonstrative or Relative (Sect: 296. 2, 308. f)

Demonstrative Pronouns

SECTION: #296. Demonstrative Pronouns are used either adjectively or substantively.

1. As adjectives, they follow the rules for the agreement of adjectives and are called Adjective Pronouns or Pronominal Adjectives (Sect: 286, 287):
     hóc proelió factó, after this battle was fought (this battle having been fought).
     eódem proelió, in the same battle.
     ex eís aedificiís, out of those buildings.

2. As substantives, they are equivalent to personal pronouns. This use is regular in the oblique cases, especially of is:
     Caesar et exercitus eiius, Caesar and his army (not suus). [But, Caesar exercitum suum dímísit, Caesar disbanded his [own] army.]
     sí obsidés ab eís dentur (B. G. 1.14) , if hostages should be given by them (persons just spoken of).
     hí sunt extrá próvinciam tráns Rhodanum prímí; ( id. 1.10), they (those just mentioned) are the first [inhabitants] across the Rhone.
     ille minimum propter aduléscentiam poterat ( id. 1.20), he (emphatic) had very little power, on account of his youth.

An adjective pronoun usually agrees with an appositive or predicate noun, if there be one, rather than with the word to which it refers (cf. Sect: 306):
     híc locus est únus quó perfugiant; híc portus, haec arx, haec ára sociórum (Verr. 5.126) , this is the only place to which they can flee for refuge; this is the haven, this the citadel, this the altar of the allies.
     rérum caput hóc erat, híc fóns (Hor. Ep. 1.17.45) , this was the head of things, this the source.
     eam sapientiam interpretantur quam adhúc mortális némó est cónsecútus [ for id. .. quod] (Lael. 18) , they explain that [thing] to be wisdom which no man ever yet attained.

SECTION: #297. The main uses of híc, ille, iste, and is are the following:

Híc is used of what is near the speaker (in time, place, or thought). It is hence called the demonstrative of the first person.

It is sometimes used of the speaker himself; sometimes for "the latter"of two persons or things mentioned in speech or writing; more rarely for "the former" when that, though more remote on the written page, is nearer the speaker in time, place, or thought. Often it refers to that which has just been mentioned.

Ille is used of what is remote (in time, etc.); and is hence called the demonstrative of the third person.

It is sometimes used to mean "the former; also (usually following its noun) of what is famous or well-known; often (especially the neuter illud) to mean "the following.

Iste is used of what is between the two others in remoteness: often in allusion to the person addressed,--hence called the demonstrative of the second person.

It especially refers to one's opponent (in court, etc.), and frequently implies antagonism or contempt.

Is is a weaker demonstrative than the others and is especially common as a personal pronoun. It does not denote any special object, but refers to one just mentioned, or to be afterwards explained by a relative. Often it is merely a correlative to the relative quí:
     vénit mihi obviam tuus puer, is mihi litterás abs té reddidit (Att. 2.1.1) , your boy met me, he delivered to me a letter from you.
     eum quem, one whom.
     eum cónsulem quí nón dubitet (Cat. 4.24) , a consul who will not hesitate.

The pronouns híc, ille, and is are used to point in either direction, back to something just mentioned or forward to something about to be mentioned.

The neuter forms often refer to a clause, phrase, or idea:
     est illud quidem vel maximum, animum vidére (Tusc. 1.52) , that is in truth a very great thing,--to see the soul.

The demonstratives are sometimes used as pronouns of reference, to indicate with emphasis a noun or phrase just mentioned:
     núllam virtús aliam mercédem désíderat praeter hanc laudis (Arch. 28) , virtue wants no other reward except that [just mentioned] of praise.

NOTE.--But the ordinary English use of that of is hardly known in Latin. Commonly the genitive construction is continued without a pronoun, or some other construction is preferred:
     cum eí Simónidés artem memoriae pollicérétur: oblíviónis, inquit, mállem (Fin. 2.104) , when Simonides promised him the art of memory, "I should prefer" said he, "[that] of forgetfulness.
     Caesaris exercitus Pompeiiánós ad Pharsálum vícit, the army of Caesar defeated that of Pompey (the Pompeians) at Pharsalus.

SECTION: #298. The main uses of .ídem and .ipse are as follows:

When a quality or act is ascribed with emphasis to a person or thing already named, is or ídem (often with the concessive quidem) is used to indicate that person or thing:
     per únum servum et eum ex gladiátórió lúdó; ( Att. 1.16.5), by means of a single slave, and that too one from the gladiatorial school.
     vincula, et ea sempiterna (Cat. 4.7) , imprisonment, and that perpetual.
     Ti. Gracchus régnum occupáre cónátus est, vel régnávit is quidem paucós ménsís (Lael. 41) , Tiberius Gracchus tried to usurp royal power, or rather he actually reigned a few months.

NOTE.--So rarely with ille: as,-- nunc dextrá ingemináns ictús, nunc ille sinistrá (Aen. 5.457) , now dealing redoubled blows with his right hand, now (he) with his left. [In imitation of the Homeric ho ge: cf. Aen. 5.334; 9.796.]

Idem, the same, is often used where the English requires an adverb or adverbial phrase (also, too, yet, at the same time):
     órátió splendida et grandis et eadem in prímís facéta (Brut. 273) , an oration, brilliant, able, and very witty too.
     cum [ haec] dícat, negat ídem esse in Deó grátiam (N. D. 1.121) , when he says this, he denies also that there is mercy with God (he, the same man).

NOTE.--This is really the same use as in a above, but in this case the pronoun cannot be represented by a pronoun in English.

The intensive ipse, self, is used with any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis:
     turpe mihi ipsí vidébátur (Phil. 1.9) , even to me (to me myself) it seemed disgraceful.
     id ipsum, that very thing; quod ipsum, which of itself alone.
     in eum ipsum locum, to that very place.
     tum ipsum (Off. 2.60) , at that very time.

NOTE 1.--The emphasis of ipse is often expressed in English by just, very, mere, etc.

NOTE 2.--In English, the pronouns himself etc. are used both intensively (as, he will come himself) and reflexively (as, he will kill himself): in Latin the former would be translated by ipse, the latter by sé or sésé.

Ipse is often used alone, substantively, as follows:

1. As an emphatic pronoun of the third person:
     idque reí públicae praeclárum, ipsís glóriósum (Phil. 2.27) , and this was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves.
     omnés boní quantum in ipsís fuit ( id. 2.29), all good men so far as was in their power (in themselves).
     dí capití ipsíus generíque reservent (Aen. 8.484) , may the gods hold in reserve [such a fate] to fall on his own and his son-in-law's head.

2. To emphasize an omitted subject of the first or second person:
     vóbíscum ipsí recordáminí; ( Phil. 2.1), remember in your own minds (yourselves with yourselves).

3. To distinguish the principal personage from subordinate persons:
     ipse díxit (cf. autos epha), he (the Master) said it.
     Nómentánus erat super ipsum (Hor. S. 2.8.23) , Nomentanus was above [the host] himself [at table].

Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of a reflexive (see Sect: 300. b).

Ipse usually agrees with the subject, even when the real emphasis in English is on a reflexive in the predicate:
     mé ipse cónsólor (Lael. 10) , I console myself. [Not mé ipsum, as the English would lead us to expect.]

.Reflexive Pronouns

SECTION: #299. The Reflexive Pronoun ( sé), and usually its corresponding possessive ( suus), are used in the predicate to refer to the subject of the sentence or clause:
     sé ex náví próiécit (B. G. 4.25) , he threw himself from the ship.
     Dumnorígem ad sé vocat ( id. 1.20), he calls Dumnorix to him.
     sésé castrís tenébant ( id. 3.24), they kept themselves in camp.
     contemní sé putant (Cat. M. 65) , they think they are despised.
     Caesar suás cópiás subdúcit (B. G. 1.22) , Caesar leads up his troops.
     Caesar statuit sibi Rhénum esse tránseundum ( id. 4.16), Caesar decided that he must cross the Rhine (the Rhine must be crossed by himself).

For reflexives of the first and second persons the oblique cases of the personal pronouns ( meí, tuí, etc.) and the corresponding possessives ( meus, tuus, etc.) are used:
     mortí mé obtulí; ( Mil. 94), I have exposed myself to death.
     hinc té régínae ad límina perfer (Aen. 1.389) , do you go (bear yourself) hence to the queen's threshold.
     quid est quod tantís nós in labóribus exerceámus (Arch. 28) , what reason is there why we should exert ourselves in so great toils?
     singulís vóbís novénós ex turmís manipulísque vestrí similés éligite (Liv. 21.54) , for each of you pick out from the squadrons and maniples nine like yourselves.

SECTION: #300. In a subordinate clause of a complex sentence there is a double use of Reflexives.

1. The reflexive may always be used to refer to the subject of its own clause (Direct Reflexive):
     iúdicárí potest quantum habeat in sé boní cónstantia (B. G. 1.40) , it can be determined how much good firmness possesses (has in itself).
     [ Caesar] nóluit eum locum vacáre, né Germání é suís fínibus tránsírent ( id. 1.28), Caesar did not wish this place to lie vacant, for fear the Germans would cross over from their territories.
     sí qua sígnificátió virtútis élúceat ad quam sé similis animus adplicet et adiungat (Lael. 48) , if any sign of virtue shine forth to which a similar disposition may attach itself.

2. If the subordinate clause expresses the words or thought of the subject of the main clause, the reflexive is regularly used to refer to that subject (Indirect Reflexive):
     petiérunt ut sibi licéret (B. G. 1.30) , they begged that it might be allowed them (the petitioners).
     Iccius núntium mittit, nisi subsidium sibi submittátur ( id. 2.6), Iccius sends a message that unless relief be furnished him, etc.
     decima legió eí grátiás égit, quod dé sé optimum iúdicium fécisset ( id. 1.41), the tenth legion thanked him because [they said] he had expressed a high opinion of them.
     sí obsidés ab eís (the Helvetians) sibi (Caesar, who is the speaker) dentur, sé (Caesar) cum eís pácem esse factúrum ( id. 1.14), [Caesar said that] if hostages were given him by them he would make peace with them.

NOTE.--Sometimes the person or thing to which the reflexive refers is not the grammatical subject of the main clause, though it is in effect the subject of discourse: Thus,-- cum ipsí deó nihil minus grátum futúrum sit quam nón omnibus patére ad sé plácandum viam (Legg. 2.25) , since to God himself nothing will be less pleasing than that the way to appease him should not be open to all men.

If the subordinate clause does not express the words or thought of the main subject, the reflexive is not regularly used, though it is occasionally found:
     sunt ita multí ut eós carcer capere nón possit (Cat. 2.22) , they are so many that the prison cannot hold them. [Here sé could not be used; so also in the example following.]
     ibi in proximís víllís ita bipartító fuérunt, ut Tiberis inter eós et póns interesset ( id. 3.5), there they stationed themselves in the nearest farmhouses, in two divisions, in such a manner that the Tiber and the bridge were between them (the divisions).
     nón fuit eó contentus quod eí praeter spem acciderat (Manil. 25) , he was not content with that which had happened to him beyond his hope.
     Compare: quí fit, Maecénás, ut némó, quam sibi sortem seu ratió dederit seu fors obiécerit, illá contentus vívat (Hor. S. 1.1.1) , how comes it, M"cenas, that nobody lives contented with that lot which choice has assigned him or chance has thrown in his way? [Here sibi is used to put the thought into the mind of the discontented man.]

Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of an indirect reflexive, either to avoid ambiguity or from carelessness; and in later writers is sometimes found instead of the direct reflexive:
     cúr dé suá virtúte aut dé ipsíus díligentiá déspérárent (B. G. 1.40) , why (he asked) should they despair of their own courage or his diligence?
     omnia aut ipsós aut hostés populátós (Q. C. 3.5.6) , [they said that] either they themselves or the enemy had laid all waste. [Direct reflexive.]
     quí sé ex hís minus timidós exístimárí volébant, nón sé hostem verérí, sed angustiás itineris et mágnitúdinem silvárum quae intercéderent inter ipsós (the persons referred to by sé above) atque Ariovistum ... timére dícébant (B. G. 1.39) , those of them who wished to be thought less timid said they did not fear the enemy, but were afraid of the narrows and the vast extent of the forests which were between themselves and Ariovistus.
     audístis núper dícere légátós Tyndaritánós Mercurium quí sacrís anniversáriís apud eós colerétur esse sublátum (Verr. 4.84) , you have just heard the ambassadors from Tyndaris say that the statue of Mercury which was worshipped with annual rites among them was taken away. [Here Cicero wavers between apud eós colébátur, a remark of his own, and apud sé colerétur, the words of the ambassadors. eós does not strictly refer to the ambassadors, but to the people--the Tyndaritani.]

SECTION: #301. Special uses of the Reflexive are the following:

The reflexive in a subordinate clause sometimes refers to the subject of a suppressed main clause:
     Paetus omnís librós quós fráter suus relíquisset mihi dónávit (Att. 2.1) , P"tus gave me all the books which (as he said in the act of donation) his brother had left him.

The reflexive may refer to any noun or pronoun in its own clause which is so emphasized as to become the subject of discourse:
     Sócratem cívés suí interfécérunt, Socrates was put to death by his own fellowcitizens.
     quí poterat salús sua cuiquam nón probárí; ( Mil. 81), how can any one fail to approve his own safety? [In this and the preceding example the emphasis is preserved in English by the change of voice.]
     hunc sí secútí erunt suí comités (Cat. 2.10) , this man, if his companions follow him.

NOTE.--Occasionally the clause to which the reflexive really belongs is absorbed: as,-- studeó sánáre sibi ipsós (Cat. 2.17) , I am anxious to cure these men for their own benefit (i.e. ut sání sibi sint).

Suus is used for one's own as emphatically opposed to that of others, in any part of the sentence and with reference to any word in it:
     suís flammís déléte Fídénás (Liv. 4.33) , destroy Fiden" with its own fires (the fires kindled by that city, figuratively). [Cf. Cat. 1.32.]

The reflexive may depend upon a verbal noun or adjective:
     suí laus, self-praise.
     habétis ducem memorem vestrí, oblítum suí (Cat. 4.19) , you have a leader mindful of you, forgetful of himself.
     perdití hominés cum suí similibus servís (Phil. 1.5) , abandoned men with slaves like themselves.

The reflexive may refer to the subject implied in an infinitive or verbal abstract used indefinitely:
     contentum suís rébus esse maximae sunt dívitiae (Par. 51) , the greatest wealth is to be content with one's own.
     cui próposita sit cónservátió suí (Fin. 5.37) , one whose aim is self-preservation.

Inter sé ( nós, vós), among themselves (ourselves, yourselves), is egularly used to express reciprocal action or relation:
     inter sé cónflígunt (Cat. 1.25) , contend with each other.
     inter sé continentur (Arch. 2) , are joined to each other.

.Possessive Pronouns

SECTION: #302. The Possessive Pronouns are derivative adjectives, which take the gender, number, and case of the noun to which they belong, not those of the possessor:
     haec órnámenta sunt mea (Val. 4.4) , these are my jewels. [ mea is neuter plural, though the speaker is a woman.]
     meí sunt órdinés, mea díscríptió; (Cat. M. 59), mine are the rows, mine the arrangement. [ mea is feminine, though the speaker is Cyrus.]
     multa in nostró collégió praeclára ( id. 64), [there are] many fine things in our college. [ nostró is neuter singular, though men are referred to.]
     Germání suás cópiás castrís édúxérunt (B. G. 1.51) , the Germans led their troops out of the camp.

To express possession and similar ideas the possessive pronouns are regularly used, not the genitive of the personal or reflexive pronouns (Sect: 343. a):
     domus mea, my house. [Not domus meí.]
     pater noster, our father. [Not pater nostrí.]
     patrimónium tuum, your inheritance. [Not tuí.]

NOTE 1.--Exceptions are rare in classic Latin, common in later writers. For the use of a possessive pronoun instead of an Objective Genitive, see Sect: 348. a.

NOTE 2.--The Interrogative Possessive cúius, - a, -um, occurs in poetry and early Latin: as,-- cúium pecus (Ecl. 3.1) , whose flock? The genitive cúius is generally used instead.

The possessives have often the acquired meaning of peculiar to, favorable or propitious towards, the person or thing spoken of:
     [ petere] ut suá clémentiá ac mánsuétúdine útátur (B. G. 2.14) , they asked (they said) that he would show his [wonted] clemency and humanity.
     ígnórantí quem portum petat núllus suus ventus est (Sen. Ep. 71.3) , to him who knows not what port he is bound to, no wind is fair (his own).
     tempore tuó púgnástí; ( Liv. 38.45.10), did you fight at a fit time?

NOTE.--This use is merely a natural development of the meaning of the possessive, and the pronoun may often be rendered literally.

The possessives are regularly omitted (like other pronouns) when they are plainly implied in the context:
     socium fraudávit, he cheated his partner. [ socium suum would be distinctive, his partner (and not another's); suum socium, emphatic, his own partner.]

Possessive pronouns and adjectives implying possession are often used substantively to denote some special class or relation:
     nostrí, our countrymen, or men of our party.
     suós continébat (B. G. 1.15) , he held his men in check.
     flamma extréma meórum (Aen. 2.431) , last flames of my countrymen.
     Sullání, the veterans of Sulla's army; Pompeiiání, the partisans of Pompey.

NOTE.--There is no reason to suppose an ellipsis here. The adjective becomes a noun like other adjectives (see Sect: 288).

A possessive pronoun or an adjective implying possession may take an appositive in the genitive case agreeing in gender, number, and case with an implied noun or pronoun:
     meá sólíus causá; ( Ter. Heaut. 129), for my sake only.
     in nostró omnium flétú; ( Mil. 92), amid the tears of us all.
     ex Anniáná Milónis domó; ( Att. 4.3.3), out of Annius Milo's house. [Equivalent to ex Anní Milónis domó.]
     nostra omnium patria, the country of us all.
     suum ipsíus régnum, his own kingdom.

For the special reflexive use of the possessive suus, see Sect: 299, 300.

.Relative Pronouns

SECTION: #303. A Relative Pronoun agrees with some word expressed or implied either in its own clause, or (often) in the antecedent (demonstrative) clause. In the fullest construction the antecedent is expressed in both clauses, with more commonly a corresponding demonstrative to which the relative refers: as,-- iter in ea loca facere coepit, quibus in locís esse Germánós audiébat (B. G. 4.7) , he began to march into those PLACES in which PLACES he heard the Germans were. But one of these nouns is commonly omitted.

The antecedent is in Latin very frequently (rarely in English) found in the relative clause, but more commonly in the antecedent clause.

Thus relatives serve two uses at the same time:

1. As Nouns (or Adjectives) in their own clause: as,-- eí quí Alesiae obsídébantur (B. G. 7.77) , those who were besieged at Alesia.

2. As Connectives: as,--T. Balventius, quí superióre annó prímum pílum dúxerat ( id. 5.35), Titus Balventius, who the year before had been a centurion of the first rank.

When the antecedent is in a different sentence, the relative is often equivalent to a demonstrative with a conjunction: as,-- quae cum ita sint (= et cum ea ita sint), [and] since this is so.

The subordinating force did not belong to the relative originally, but was developed from an interrogative or indefinite meaning specialized by use. But the subordinating and the later connective force were acquired by quí at such an early period that the steps of the process cannot now be traced.

SECTION: #304. A Relative Pronoun indicates a relation between its own clause and some substantive. This substantive is called the Antecedent of the relative.

Thus, in the sentence--
     eum nihil délectábat quod fás esset (Mil. 43) , nothing pleased him which was right,

the relative quod connects its antecedent nihil with the predicate fás esset, indicating a relation between the two.

SECTION: #305. A Relative agrees with its Antecedent in Gender and Number; but its Case depends on its construction in the clause in which it stands:
     ea diés quam cónstituerat vénit (B. G. 1.8) , that day which he had appointed came.
     pontem quí erat ad Genávam iubet rescindí; ( id. 1.7), he orders the bridge which was near Geneva to be cut down.
     Aduatucí, dé quibus suprá díximus, domum revertérunt ( id. 2.29), the Aduatuci, of whom we have spoken above, returned home.

NOTE.--This rule applies to all relative words so far as they are variable in form: as, quális, quantus, quícumque, etc.

If a relative has two or more antecedents, it follows the rules for the agreement of predicate adjectives (Sect: 286, 287):
     fílium et fíliam, quós valdé díléxit, unó tempore ámísit, he lost at the same time a son and a daughter whom he dearly loved.
     grandés nátú mátrés et parvulí líberí, quórum utrórumque aetás misericor, diam nostram requírit (Verr. 5.129) , aged matrons and little children, whose time of life in each case demands our compassion.
     ótium atque dívitiae, quae príma mortálés putant ( Sall. Cat. 36), idleness and wealth, which men count the first (objects of desire).
     eae frúgés et frúctús quós terra gignit (N. D. 2.37) , those fruits and crops which the earth produces.

For the Person of the verb agreeing with the Relative, see Sect: 316. a.

SECTION: #306. A Relative generally agrees in gender and number with an appositive or predicate noun in its own clause, rather than with an antecedent of different gender or number (cf. Sect: 296. a):
     mare etiam quem Neptúnum esse dícébás (N. D. 3.52) , the sea, too, which you said was Neptune. [Not quod.]
     Thébae ipsae, quod Boeotiae caput est (Liv. 42.44) , even Thebes, which is the chief city of Boeotia.

NOTE.--This rule is occasionally violated: as,-- flúmen quod appellátur Tamesis (B. G. 5.11) , a river which is called the Thames.

A relative occasionally agrees with its antecedent in case (by attraction):
     sí aliquid agá eórum quórum cónsuéstí; (Fam. 5.14), if you should do something of what you are used to do. [For eórum quae.]

NOTE.--Occasionally the antecedent is attracted into the case of the relative: urbem quam statuó vestra est (Aen. 1.573) , the city which I am founding is yours. Naucratem, quem conveníre voluí, in náví nón erat (Pl. Am. 1009) , Naucrates, whom I wished to meet, was not on board the ship.

A relative may agree in gender and number with an implied antecedent:
     quártum genus ... quí in vetere aere aliénó vacillant (Cat. 2.21) , a fourth class, who are staggering under old debts.
     únus ex eó numeró quí parátí erant (Iug. 35) , one of the number [of those] who were ready.
     coniúrávére paucí, dé quá [ i. e. coniúrátióne] dícam ( Sall. Cat. 18), a few have conspired, of which [conspiracy] I will speak.

NOTE.--So regularly when the antecedent is implied in a possessive pronoun: as, -- nostra ácta, quós tyrannós vocás (Vat. 29) , the deeds of us, whom you call tyrants. [Here quós agrees with the nostrum (genitive plural) implied in nostra.]

Antecedent of the Relative

SECTION: #307. The Antecedent Noun sometimes appears in both clauses, but usually only in the one that precedes. Sometimes it is wholly omitted.

The antecedent noun may be repeated in the relative clause:
     locí nátúra erat haec quem locum nostrí délégerant (B. G. 2.18) , the nature of the ground which our men had chosen was this.

The antecedent noun may appear only in the relative clause, agreeing with the relative in case:
     quás rés in cónsulátú nostró gessimus attigit híc versibus (Arch. 28) , he has touched in verse the things which I did in my consulship.
     quae príma innocentis mihi défénsió est obláta suscépí; ( Sull. 92), I undertook the first defence of an innocent man that was offered me.

NOTE.--In this case the relative clause usually comes first (cf. Sect: 308. d) and a lemonstrative usually stands in the antecedent clause:
     quae pars cívitátis calamitátem populó Rómánó intulerat, ea prínceps poenás persolvit (B. G. 1.12) , that part of the state which had brought disaster on the Roman people was the first to pay the penalty.
     quae grátia currum fuit vívís, eadem sequitur (Aen. 6.653) , the same pleasure that they took in chariots in their lifetime follows them (after death).
     quí fit ut némó, quam sibi sortem ratió dederit, illá contentus vívat (cf. Hor. S. 1.1.1), how does it happen that no one lives contented with the lot which choice has assigned him?

The antecedent may be omitted, especially if it is indefinite:
     quí decimae legiónis aquilam ferébat (B. G. 4.25) , [the man] who bore the eagle of the tenth legion.
     quí cógnóscerent mísit ( id. 1.21), he sent [men] to reconnoitre.

The phrase id quod or quae rés may be used (instead of quod alone) to refer to a group of words or an idea:
     [ obtrectátum est] Gabínió dícam anne Pompeiió? an utríque--id quod est vérius? ( Manil. 57), an affront has been offered--shall I say to Gabinius or to Pompey? or--which is truer--to both?
     multum sunt in vénátiónibus, quae rés vírés alit (B. G. 4.1) , they spend much time in hunting, which [practice] increases their strength.

NOTE.--But quod alone often occurs: as,--Cassius noster, quod mihi mágnae voluptátí fuit, hostem reiiécerat (Fam. 2.10) , our friend Cassius--which was a great satisfaction to me--had driven back the enemy.

The antecedent noun, when in apposition with the main clause, or with some word of it, is put in the relative clause:
     fírmí [ amící], cúius generis est mágna pénúria (Lael. 62) , steadfast friends, a class of which there is great lack (of which class there is, etc.).

A predicate adjective (especially a superlative) belonging to the antecedent may stand in the relative clause:
     vása ea quae pulcherrima apud eum víderat (Verr. 4.63) , those most beautiful vessels which he had seen at his house. [Nearly equivalent to the vessels of which he had seen some very beautiful ones.]

SECTION: #308. In the use of Relatives, the following points are to be observed:

The relative is never omitted in Latin, as it often is in English:
     liber quem mihi dedistí, the book you gave me.
     is sum quí semper fuí, I am the same man I always was.
     eó in locó est dé quó tibi locútus sum, he is in the place I told you of.

When two relative clauses are connected by a copulative conjunction, a relative pronoun sometimes stands in the first and a demonstrative in the last:
     erat profectus obviam legiónibus Macedonicís quattuor, quás sibi conciliáre pecúniá cógitábat eásque ad urbem addúcere (Fam. 12.23.2) , he had set out to meet four legions from Macedonia, which he thought to win over to himself by a gift of money and to lead (them) to the city.

A relative clause in Latin often takes the place of some other construction in English,--particularly of a participle, an appositive, or a noun of agency:
     légés quae nunc sunt, the existing laws (the laws which now exist).
     Caesar quí Galliam vícit, Caesar the conqueror of Gaul.
     iústa glória quí est frúctus virtútis (Pison. 57) , true glory [which is] the fruit of virtue.
     ille quí petit, the plaintiff (he who sues).
     quí legit, a reader (one who reads).

In formal or emphatic discourse, the relative clause usually comes first, often containing the antecedent noun (cf. Sect: 307. b):
     quae pars cívitátis Helvétiae ínsígnem calamitátem populó Rómánó intulerat, ea prínceps poenás persolvit (B. G. 1.12) , the portion of the Helvetian state which had brought a serious disaster on the Roman people was the first to pay the penalty.

NOTE.--In colloquial language, the relative clause in such cases often contains a redundant demonstrative pronoun which logically belongs in the antecedent clause: as,-- ille quí cónsulté cavet, diútiné útí bene licet partum bene (Plaut. Rud. 1240), he who is on his guard, he may long enjoy what he has well obtained.

The relative with an abstract noun may be used in a parenthetical clause to characterize a person, like the English such:
     quae vestra prúdentia est (Cael. 45) , such is your wisdom. [Equivalent

to pró vestrá prúdentiá.]
     audíssés cómoedós vel léctórem vel lyristén, vel, quae mea líberálitás, omnés (Plin. Ep. 1.15) , you would have listened to comedians, or a reader, or a lyre-player, or--such is my liberality--to all of them.

A relative pronoun (or adverb) often stands at the beginning of an independent sentence or clause, serving to connect it with the sentence or clause that precedes:
     Caesar statuit exspectandam classem; quae ubi convénit (B. G. 3.14) , Caesar decided that he must wait for the fleet; and when this had come together, etc.
     quae quí audiébant, and those who heard this (which things).
     quae cum ita sint, and since this is so.
     quórum quod simile factum (Cat. 4.13) , what deed of theirs like this?
     quó cum vénisset, and when he had come there (whither when he had come).

NOTE.--This arrangement is common even when another relative or an interrogative follows. The relative may usually be translated by an English demonstrative, with or without and.

A relative adverb is regularly used in referring to an antecedent in the Locative case; so, often, to express any relation of place instead of the formal relative pronoun:
     mortuus Cúmís quó sé contulerat (Liv. 2.21) , having died at Cum ", whither he had retired. [Here in quam urbem might be used, but not in quás.]
     locus quó aditus nón erat, a place to which (whither) there was no access.
     régna unde genus dúcis (Aen. 5.801) , the kingdom from which you derive your race.
     unde petitur, the defendant (he from whom something is demanded).

The relatives quí, quális, quantus, quot, etc. are often rendered simply by as in English:
     idem quod semper, the same as always.
     cum esset tális quálem té esse videó; ( Mur. 32), since he was such a man as I see you are.
     tanta dímicátió quanta numquam fuit (Att. 7.1.2) , such a fight as never was before.
     tot mala quot sídera (Ov. Tr. 1.5.47), as many troubles as stars in the sky.

The general construction of relatives is found in clauses introduced by relative adverbs: as, ubi, quó, unde, cum, quáré.

.Indefinite Pronouns

SECTION: #309. The Indefinite Pronouns are used to indicate that some person or thing is meant, without designating what one.

SECTION: #310. Quis, quispiam, aliquis, quídam, are particular indefinites, meaning some, a certain, any. Of these, quis, any one, is least definite, and quídam, a certain one, most definite; aliquis and quispiam, some one, stand between the two:
     díxerit quis ( quispiam), some one may say.
     aliquí philosophí ita putant, some philosophers think so. [ quídam would mean certain persons defined to the speaker's mind, though not named.]
     habitant híc quaedam mulierés pauperculae (Ter. Ad. 647) , some poor women live here [i.e. some women he knows of; some women or other would be aliquae or nesció quae].

The indefinite quis is rare except in the combinations sí quis, if any; nisi quis, if any ... not; né quis, lest any, in order that none; num quis ( ecquis), whether any; and in relative clauses.

The compounds quispiam and aliquis are often used instead of quis after sí, nisi, né, and num, and are rather more emphatic:
     quid sí hóc quispiam voluit deus (Ter. Eun. 875) , what if some god had desired this?
     nisi alicui suórum negótium daret (Nep. Dion. 8.2), unless he should employ some one of his friends.
     cavébat Pompeiius omnia, né aliquid vós timérétis (Mil. 66) , Pompey took every precaution, so that you might have no fear.

SECTION: #311. In a particular negative aliquis ( aliquí), some one (some), is regularly used, where in a universal negative quisquam, any one, or úllus, any, would be required:
     iústitia numquam nocet cuiquam (Fin. 1.50) , justice never does harm to anybody. [ alicui would mean to somebody who possesses it.]
     nón sine aliquó metú, not without some fear. But,-- sine úlló metú, without any fear.
     cum aliquid nón habeás (Tusc. 1.88) , when there is something you have not.

NOTE.--The same distinction holds between quis and aliquis on the one hand, and quisquam ( úllus) on the other, in conditional and other sentences when a negative is expressed or suggested:
     sí quisquam, ille sapiéns fuit (Lael. 9) , if any man was (ever) a sage, he was.
     dum praesidia úlla fuérunt (Rosc. Am. 126) , while there were any armed forces.
     sí quid in té peccáví; ( Att. 3.15.4), if I have done wrong towards you [in any particular case (see Sect: 310)].

SECTION: #312. Quívís or quílibet (any one you will), quisquam, and the corresponding adjective úllus, any at all, are general indefinites.

Quívís and quílibet are used chiefly in affirmative clauses, quisquam and úllus in clauses where a universal negative is expressed or suggested:
     nón cuivís hominí contingit adíre Corinthum (Hor. Ep. 1.17.36) , it is not every man's luck to go to Corinth. [ nón cuiquam would mean not any man's.]
     quemlibet modo aliquem (Acad. 2.132) , anybody you will, provided it be somebody.
     sí quisquam est timidus, is ego sum (Fam. 6.14.1) , if any man is timorous, I am he.
     sí tempus est úllum iúre hominis necandí; ( Mil. 9), if there is any occasion whatever when homicide is justifiable.

NOTE.--The use of the indefinites is very various, and must be learned from the Lexicon and from practice. The choice among them may depend merely on the point of view of the speaker, so that they are often practically interchangeable. The differences are (with few exceptions) those of logic, not of syntax.

SECTION: #313. The distributives quisque (every), uterque (each of two), and únus quisque (every single one) are used in general assertions:
     bonus liber melior est quisque quó máior (Plin. Ep. 1.20.4) , the larger a good book is, the better (each good book is better in proportion, etc.).
     ambó exercitús suás quisque abeunt domós (Liv. 2.7.1) , both armies go away, every man to his home.
     uterque utríque erat exercitus in cónspectú; ( B. G. 7.35), each army was in sight of the other (each to each).
     pónite ante oculós únum quemque régum (Par. 1.11) , set before your eyes each of the kings.

Quisque regularly stands in a dependent clause, if there is one:
     quó quisque est sollertior, hóc docet írácundius (Rosc. Com. 31) , the keenerwitted a man is, the more impatiently he teaches.

NOTE.-- Quisque is generally postpositive: as, suum cuique, to every man his own.

Quisque is idiomatically used with superlatives and with ordinal numerals:
     nóbilissimus quisque, all the noblest (one after the other in the order of their nobility).
     prímó quóque tempore (Rosc. Am. 36) , at the very first opportunity.
     antíquissimum quodque tempus (B. G. 1.45) , the most ancient times.
     decimus quisque ( id. 5.52), one in ten.

NOTE 1.--Two superlatives with quisque imply a proportion: as,-- sapientissimus quisque aequissimó animó moritur (Cat. M. 83) , the wisest men die with the greatest equanimity.

NOTE 2.-- Quotus quisque has the signification of how many, pray? often in a disparaging sense (how few):
     quotus enim quisque disertus? quotus quisque iúris perítus est (Planc. 62) , for how few are eloquent! how few are learned in the law!
     quotus enim istud quisque fécisset (Lig. 26) , for how many would have done this? [i.e. scarcely anybody would have done it].

SECTION: #314. Némó, no one, is used of persons only:/p>

1. As a substantive:
     néminem accúsat, he accuses no one.

2. As an adjective pronoun instead of núllus:
     vir némó bonus (Legg. 2.41) , no good man.

NOTE.--Even when used as a substantive, némó may take a noun in apposition: as,-- némó scríptor, nobody [who is] a writer.

Núllus, no, is commonly an adjective; but in the genitive and ablative singular it is regularly used instead of the corresponding cases of némó, and in the plural it may be either an adjective or a substantive:
     núllum mittitur télum (B. C. 2.13) , not a missile is thrown.
     núlló hoste prohibente (B. G. 3.6) , without opposition from the enemy.
     núllíus ínsector calamitátem (Phil. 2.98) , I persecute the misfortune of no one.
     núlló adiuvante ( id. 10.4), with the help of no one (no one helping).
     núllí erant praedónés (Flacc. 28) , there were no pirates.
     núllí eximentur (Pison. 94) , none shall be taken away.

For nón némó, nón núllus ( nón núllí), see Sect: 326. a.

.Alius and Alter

SECTION: #315. Alius means simply other, another (of an indefinite number); alter, the other (of two), often the second in a series; céterí and reliquí, all the rest, the others; alteruter, one of the two:
     proptereá quod aliud iter habérent núllum (B. G. 1.7) , because (as they said) they had no other way.
     úní epistulae respondí, venió ad alteram (Fam. 2.17.6) , one letter I have answered, I come to the other.
     alterum genus (Cat. 2.19) , the second class.
     iécissem ipse mé potius in profundum ut céterós cónservárem (Sest. 45) , I should have rather thrown myself into the deep to save the rest.
     Servílius cónsul, reliquíque magistrátús (B. C. 3.21) , Servilius the consul and the rest of the magistrates.
     cum sit necesse alterum utrum vincere (Fam. 6.3) , since it must be that one of the two should prevail.

NOTE.--Alter is often used, especially with negatives, in reference to an indefinite number where one is opposed to all the rest taken singly:
     dum né sit té dítior alter (Hor. S. 1.1.40) , so long as another is not richer than you (lit. the other, there being at the moment only two persons considered).
     nón ut magis alter, amícus ( id. 1.5.33), a friend such that no other is more so.

The expressions alter ... alter, the one ... the other, alius ... alius, one ... another, may be used in pairs to denote either division of a group or reciprocity of action:
     alterí dímicant, alterí victórem timent (Fam. 6.3) , one party fights, the other fears the victor.
     alteram alterí praesidió esse iusserat (B. C. 3.89) , he had ordered each (of the two legions) to support the other.
     alií gladiís adoriuntur, alií fragmentís saeptórum (Sest. 79) , some make an attack with swords, others with fragments of the railings.
     alius ex alió causam quaerit (B. G. 6.37) , they ask each other the reason.
     alius alium percontámur (Pl. Stich. 370) , we keep asking each other.

Alius and alter are often used to express one as well as another (the other) of the objects referred to:
     alter cónsulum, one of the [two] consuls.
     aliud est maledícere, aliud accúsáre (Cael. 6) , it is one thing to slander, another to accuse.

Alius repeated in another case, or with an adverb from the same stem, expresses briefly a double statement:
     alius aliud petit, one man seeks one thing, another another (another seeks another thing).
     iussit aliós alibí fodere (Liv. 44.33) , he ordered different persons to dig in different places.
     alií alió locó resistébant (B. C. 2.39) , some halted in one place, some in another.


.Agreement of Verb and Subject

SECTION: #316. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Person:

ego statuó, I resolve. senátus décrévit, the senate ordered.
     silent légés inter arma (Mil. 11) , the laws are dumb in time of war.

NOTE.--In verb-forms containing a participle, the participle agrees with the subject in gender and number (Sect: 286):
     órátió est habita, the plea was delivered. bellum exortum est, a war arose.

A verb having a relative as its subject takes the person of the expressed or implied antecedent:
     adsum quí fécí (Aen. 9.427) , here am I who did it.
     tú, quí scís, omnem díligentiam adhibébis (Att. 5.2.3) , you, who know, will use all diligence.
     vidéte quam déspiciámur omnés quí sumus é múnicipiís (Phil. 3.15) , see how all of us are scorned who are from the free towns.

A verb sometimes agrees in number (and a participle in the verbform in number and gender) with an appositive or predicate noun:
     amantium írae amóris integrátió est (Ter. And. 555) , the quarrels of lovers are the renewal of love.
     nón omnis error stultitia dícenda est (Div. 2.90) , not every error should be called folly.
     Corinthus lúmen Graeciae exstínctum est (cf. Manil. 11), Corinth, the light of Greece, is put out.

.Double or .Collective Subject

SECTION: #317. Two or more Singular Subjects take a verb in the Plural:
     pater et avus mortuí sunt, his father and grandfather are dead.

NOTE.--So rarely (by synesis, Sect: 280. a) when to a singular subject is attached an ablative with cum: as,-- dux cum aliquot príncipibus capiuntur (Liv. 21.60) , the general and several leading men are taken.

When subjects are of different persons, the verb is usually in the first person rather than the second, and in the second rather than the third:
     sí tú et Tullia valétis ego et Ciceró valémus (Fam. 14.5) , if you and Tullia are well, Cicero and I are well. [Notice that the first person is also first in order, not last, as by courtesy in English.]

NOTE.--In case of different genders a participle in a verb-form follows the rule for predicate adjectives (see Sect: 287. 2-4).

If the subjects are connected by disjunctives (Sect: 223. a), or if they are considered as a single whole, the verb is usually singular:
     quem neque fidés neque iús iúrandum neque illum misericordia repressit (Ter. Ad. 306) , not faith, nor oath, nay, nor mercy, checked him.
     senátus populusque Rómánus intellegit (Fam. 5.8) , the Roman senate and people understand. [But, neque Caesar neque ego habití essémus ( id. 11.20), neither Caesar nor I should have been considered.]
     fáma et víta innocentis défenditur (Rosc. Am. 15) , the reputation and life of an innocent man are defended.
     est in eó virtús et probitás et summum officium summaque observantia ( Fam. 13.28A. 2), in him are to be found worth, uprightness, the highest sense of duty, and the greatest devotion.

NOTE.--So almost always when the subjects are abstract nouns.

When a verb belongs to two or more subjects separately, it often agrees with one and is understood with the others:
     intercédit M. Antónius Q. Cassius tribúní plébis (B. C. 1.2) , Mark Antony and Quintus Cassius, tribunes of the people, interpose.
     hóc mihi et Peripatéticí et vetus Académia concédit (Acad. 2.113) , this both the Peripatetic philosophers and the Old Academy grant me.

A collective noun commonly takes a verb in the singular; but the plural is often found with collective nouns when individuals are thought of (Sect: 280. a):
     (1) senátus haec intellegit (Cat. 1.2) , the senate is aware of this.
     ad híberna exercitus redit (Liv. 21.22) , the army returns to winter-quarters.
     plébés á patribus sécessit ( Sall. Cat. 33), the plebs seceded from the patricians.
     (2) pars praedás agébant (Iug. 32) , a part brought in booty.
     cum tanta multitúdó lapidés conicerent (B. G. 2.6) , when such a crowd were throwing stones.

NOTE 1.--The point of view may change in the course of a sentence: as,-- equitátum omnem ... quem habébat praemittit, quí videant (B. G. 1.15) , he sent ahead all the cavalry he had, to see (who should see).

NOTE 2.--The singular of a noun regularly denoting an individual is sometimes used collectively to denote a group: as, Poenus, the Carthaginians; míles, the soldiery; eques, the cavalry.

Quisque, each, and únus quisque, every single one, have very often a plural verb, but may be considered as in partitive apposition with a plural subject implied (cf. Sect: 282. a):
     sibi quisque habeant quod suum est (Pl. Curc. 180) , let every one keep his own (let them keep every man his own).

NOTE.--So also uterque, each (of two), and the reciprocal phrases alius ... alium alter ... alterum (Sect: 315. a).

.Omission of Subject or Verb

SECTION: #318. The Subject of the Verb is sometimes omitted:

A Personal pronoun, as subject, is usually omitted unless emphatic:
     loquor, I speak. But, ego loquor, it is I that speak.

An indefinite subject is often omitted: créderés, you would have supposed; putámus, we (people) think; dícunt, ferunt, perhibent, they say.

A passive verb is often used impersonally without a subject expressed or understood (Sect: 208. d):
     diú atque ácriter púgnátum est (B. G. 1.26) , they fought long and vigorously.

SECTION: #319. The verb is sometimes omitted:

Dícó, fació, agó, and other common verbs are often omitted in familiar phrases:
     quórsum haec [ spectant], what does this aim at?
     ex ungue leónem [ cógnóscés], you will know a lion by his claw.
     quid multa, what need of many words? (why should I say much?)
     quid? quod, what of this, that ...? (what shall I say of this, that ... ?) [A form of transition.]
     Aeolus haec contrá; ( Aen. 1.76), Aeolus thus [spoke] in reply.
     tum Cotta [ inquit], then said Cotta.
     dí melióra [duint]! (Cat. M. 47), Heaven forfend (may the gods grant better things)!
     unde [ venís] et quó [ tendis]? ( Hor. S. 2.4.1), where from and whither bound? [Cf. id. 1.9.62for the full form.]

The copula sum is very commonly omitted in the present indica tive and present infinitive, rarely (except by late authors) in the sub junctive:
     tú coniúnx (Aen. 4.113) , you [are] his wife.
     quid ergó? audácissimus ego ex omnibus (Rosc. Am. 2) , what then? am I the boldest of all?
     omnia praeclára rára (Lael. 79) , all the best things are rare.
     potest incidere saepe contentió et comparátió dé duóbus honestís utrum honestius (Off. 1.152) , there may often occur a comparison of two honorable actions, as to which is the more honorable. [Here, if any copula were expressed, it would be sit, but the direct question would be complete without any.]
     accipe quae peragenda prius (Aen. 6.136) , hear what is first to be accomplished. [Direct: quae peragenda prius?]

1 That is, it does not stand first in its clause.

2 As, in taking things one by one off a pile, each thing is uppermost when you take it.


SECTION: #320. The proper function of Adverbs, as petrified case-forms, is to modify Verbs: as,--celeriter íre, to go with speed. It is from this use that they derive their name ( adverbium, from ad, to, and verbum, verb; see Sect: 241. b). They also modify adjectives, showing in what manner or degree the quality described is manifested: as, splendidé mendáx, gloriously false. More rarely they modify other adverbs: as, nimis graviter, too severely. Many adverbs, especially relative adverbs, serve as connectives, and are hardly to be distinguished from conjunctions (see Sect: 20. g. N.).

SECTION: #321. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs.

A Demonstrative or Relative adverb is often equivalent to the corresponding Pronoun with a preposition (see Sect: 308. g):
     eó [ = in ea] impónit vása (Iug. 75) , upon them (thither, thereon, on the beasts) he puts the camp-utensils.
     eó mílités impónere (B. G. 1.42) , to put soldiers upon them (the horses).
     apud eós quó [ = ad quós] sé contulit (Verr. 4.38) , among those to whom (whither) he resorted.
     quí eum necásset unde [ = quó] ipse nátus esset (Rosc. Am. 71) , one who should have killed his own father (him whence he had his birth).
     ó condiciónés miserás administrandárum próvinciárum ubi [ = in quibus] sevéritás perículósa est (Flacc. 87) , O! wretched terms of managing the provinces, where strictness is dangerous.

The participles dictum and factum, when used as nouns, are regularly modified by adverbs rather than by adjectives; so occasionally other perfect participles:
     praecláré facta (Nep. Timoth. 1) , glorious deeds (things gloriously done).
     multa facété dicta (Off. 1.104) , many witty sayings.

A noun is sometimes used as an adjective, and may then be modified by an adverb:
     victor exercitus, the victorious army.
     admodum puer, quite a boy (young).
     magis vir, more of a man (more manly).
     populum láté régem (Aen. 1.21) , a people ruling far and wide.

NOTE.--Very rarely adverbs are used with nouns which have no adjective force bat which contain a verbal idea:
     hinc abitió; (Plaut. Rud. 503), a going away from here.
     quid cógitem dé obviarr itióne (Att. 13.50) , what I think about going to meet (him). [Perhaps felt as a compound.]

A few adverbs appear to be used like adjectives. Such are obviam, palam, sometimes contrá, and occasionally others:
     fit obviam Clódió; ( Mil. 29), he falls in with (becomes in the way of) Clodius. [Cf. the adjective obvius: as,-- sí ille obvius eí futúrus nón erat ( id. 47), if he was not likely to fall in with him.]
     haec commemoró quae sunt palam (Pison. 11) , I mention these facts, which are well-known.
     alia probábilia, contrá alia dícimus (Off. 2.7) , we call some things probable, others the opposite (not probable). [In this use, contrá contradicts a previous adjective, and so in a manner repeats it.]
     erí semper lénitás (Ter. And. 175) , my master's constant (always) gentleness. [An imitation of a Greek construction.]

NOTE.--In some cases one can hardly say whether the adverb is treated as an adjective modifying the noun, or the noun modified is treated as an adjective (as in c above).

For propius, prídié, palam, and other adverbs used as prepositions, see Sect: 432.

SECTION: #322. The following adverbs require special notice:

Etiam ( et iam), also, even, is stronger than quoque, also, and usually precedes the emphatic word, while quoque follows it:
     nón verbís sólum sed etiam ví; ( Verr. 2.64), not only by words, but also by force.
     hóc quoque maleficium (Rosc. Am. 117) , this crime too.

Nuncmeans definitely now, in the immediate present, and is rarely used of the immediate past.

Iam means now, already, at length, presently, and includes a reference to previous time through which the state of things described has been or will be reached. It may be used of any time. With negatives iam means (no) longer.

Tum, then, is correlative to cum, when, and may be used of any time. Tunc, then, at that time, is a strengthened form of tum ( tum-ce, cf. nunc):
     ut iam anteá díxí, as I have already said before.
     sí iam satis aetátis atque róboris habéret (Rosc. Am. 149) , if he had attained a suitable age and strength (lit. if he now had, as he will have by and by).
     nón est iam lénitátí locus, there is no longer room for mercy.
     quod iam erat ínstitútum, which had come to be a practice (had now been established).
     nunc quidem déléta est, tunc flórébat (Lael. 13) , now ('t is true) she [Greece] is ruined, then she was in her glory.
     tum cum régnábat, at the time when he reigned.

Certó means certainly, certé (usually) at least, at any rate:
     certó sció, I know for a certainty; ego certé, I at least.

Prímum means first (first in order, or for the first time), and implies a series of events or acts. Prímó means at first, as opposed to afterwards, giving prominence merely to the difference of time:
     hóc prímum sentió, this I hold in the first place.
     aedís prímó ruere rébámur, at first we thought the house was falling.

NOTE.--In enumerations, prímum (or prímó) is often followed by deinde, secondly, in the next place, or by tum, then, or by both in succession. Deinde may be several times repeated (secondly, thirdly, etc.). The series is often closed by dénique or postrémó, lastly, finally. Thus,-- prímum dé genere bellí, deinde dé mágnitúdine, tum dé imperátóre déligendó (Manil. 6) , first of the kind of war, next of its magnitude, then of the choice of a commander.

Quidem, indeed, gives emphasis, and often has a concessive meaning, especially when followed by sed, autem, etc.:
     hóc quidem vidére licet (Lael. 54) , THIS surely one may see. [Emphatic.]
     [ sécúritás] specié quidem blanda, sed reápse multís locís repudianda ( id. 47), (tranquillity) in appearance, it is true, attractive, but in reality to be rejected for many reasons. [Concessive.]

Né ... quidem means not even or not ... either. The emphatic word or words must stand between né and quidem:
     sed né Iugurtha quidem quiétus erat (Iug. 51) , but Jugurtha was not quiet either.
     ego autem né íráscí possum quidem iís quós valdé amó; ( Att. 2.19.1), but I cannot even get angry with those whom I love very much.

NOTE.-- Equidem has the same senses as quidem, but is in Cicero confined to the first person. Thus,-- equidem adprobábó (Fam. 2.3.2) , I for my part shall approve.



1 For the derivation and classification of adverbs, see Sect: 214-217.

2 For num-ce; cf. tunc (for *tum-ce).

3 For the classification of conjunctions, see Sect: 223, 224.

SECTION: #323. Copulative and Disjunctive Conjunctions connect similar constructions, and are regularly followed by the same case or mood that precedes them:
     scríptum senátuí et populó; ( Cat. 3.10), written to the senate and people.
     ut eás [ partís] sánárés et cónfírmárés (Mil. 68) , that you might cure and strengthen those parts.
     neque meá prúdentiá neque húmánís cónsiliís frétus (Cat. 2.29) , relying neither on my own foresight nor on human wisdom.

Conjunctions of Comparison (as ut, quam, tamquam, quasi) also commonly connect similar constructions:
     hís igitur quam physicís potius crédendum exístimás (Div. 2.37) , do you think these are more to be trusted than the natural philosophers?
     hominem callidiórem vídí néminem quam Phormiónem (Ter. Ph. 591) , a shrewder man I never saw than Phormio (cf. Sect: 407).
     ut nón omne vínum síc nón omnis nátúra vetustáte coacéscit (Cat. M. 65) , as every wine does not sour with age, so [does] not every nature.
     in mé quasi in tyrannum (Phil. 14.15) , against me as against a tyrant.

Two or more coordinate words, phrases, or sentences are often put together without the use of conjunctions (Asyndeton, Sect: 601. c):
     omnés dí, hominés, all gods and men.
     summí, medií, ínfimí, the highest, the middle class, and the lowest.
     iúra, légés, agrós, líbertátem nóbís relíquérunt (B. G. 7.77) , they have left us our rights, our laws, our fields, our liberty.


1. Where there are more than two coordinate words etc., a conjunction, if used, is ordinarily used with all (or all except the first):
     aut aere aliénó aut mágnitúdine tribútórum aut iniúriá potentiórum (B. G. 6.13) , by debt, excessive taxation, or oppression on the part of the powerful.
     at sunt mórósí et anxií et írácundí et difficilés senés (Cat. M. 65) , but (you say) old men are capricious, solicitous, choleric, and fussy.

2. But words are often so divided into groups that the members of the groups omit the conjunction (or express it), while the groups themselves express the conjunction (or omit it):
     propudium illud et portentum, L. Antónius ínsígne odium omnium hominum (Phil. 14.8) , that wretch and monster, Lucius Antonius, the abomination of all men.
     utrumque égit graviter, auctóritáte et offénsióne animí nón acerbá; (Lael. 77), he acted in both cases with dignity, without loss of authority and with no bitterness of feeling.

3. The enclitic - que is sometimes used with the last member of a series, even when there is no grouping apparent:
     vóce voltú mótúque (Brut. 110) , by voice, expression, and gesture.
     cúram cónsilium vigilantiamque (Phil. 7.20) , care, wisdom, and vigilance.
     quórum auctóritátem dígnitátem voluntátemque défenderás (Fam. 1.7.2) , whose dignity, honor, and wishes you had defended.

Two adjectives belonging to the same noun are regularly connected by a conjunction:
     multae et gravés causae, many weighty reasons.
     vir líber ac fortis (Rep. 2.34) , a free and brave man.

Often the same conjunction is repeated in two coordinate clauses:
     et ... et (- que ... - que), both ... and.
     aut ... aut, either ... or.
     vel ... vel, either ... or. [Examples in Sect: 324. e.]
     síve ( seu) ... síve ( seu), whether ... or. [Examples in Sect: 324. f.]

Many adverbs are similarly used in pairs, as conjunctions, partly or wholly losing their adverbial force:
     nunc ... nunc, tum ... tum, iam ... iam, now ... now.
     modo ... modo, now ... now.
     simul ... simul, at the same time ... at the same time.
     quá ... quá, now ... now, both ... and, alike [this] and [that].
     modo ait modo negat (Ter. Eun. 714) , now he says yes, now no.
     simul grátiás agit, simul grátulátur (Q. C. 6.7.15) , he thanks him and at the same time congratulates him.
     érumpunt saepe vitia amícórum tum in ipsós amícós tum in aliénós (Lael. 76) , the faults of friends sometimes break out, now against their friends themselves, now against strangers.
     quá marís quá féminás (Pl. Mil. 1113), both males and females.

Certain relative and demonstrative adverbs are used correla tively as conjunctions:
     ut (rel.) ... ita, síc ( dem.), as (while) ... so (yet).
     tam ( dem.) ... quam (rel.), so (as) ... as.
     cum (rel.) ... tum ( dem.), while ... so also; not only ... but also.

SECTION: #324. The following Conjunctions require notice:

Et, and, simply connects words or clauses; - que combines more closely into one connected whole. - que is always enclitic to the word connected or to the first or second of two or more words connected:
     cum coniugibus et líberís, with [their] wives and children.
     ferró ígní que, with fire and sword. [Not as separate things, but as the combined means of devastation.]
     aquá et ígní interdictus, forbidden the use of water and fire. [In a legal formula, where they are considered separately.]

Atque ( ac), and, adds with some emphasis or with some implied reflection on the word added. Hence it is often equivalent to and so, and yet, and besides, and then. But these distinctions depend very much upon the feeling of the speaker, and are often untranslatable:
     omnia honesta atque inhonesta, everything honorable and dishonorable (too, without the slightest distinction).
     úsus atque disciplína, practice and theory beside (the more important or less expected).
     atque ego crédó, and yet I believe (for my part).

Atque ( ac), in the sense of as, than, is also used after words of comparison and likeness:
     simul atque, as soon as.
     nón secus ( nón aliter) ac sí, not otherwise than if.
     pró eó ac débuí, as was my duty (in accordance as I ought).
     aequé ac tú, as much as you.
     haud minus ac iussí faciunt, they do just as they are ordered.

For and not, see Sect: 328. a.

Sed and the more emphatic vérum or véró, but, are used to introduce something in opposition to what precedes, especially after negatives (not this ... but something else). At (old form ast) introduces with emphasis a new point in an argument, but is also used like the others; sometimes it means at least. At enim is almost always used to introduce a supposed objection which is presently to be overthrown. At is more rarely used alone in this sense.

Autem, however, now, is the weakest of the adversatives, and often marks a mere transition and has hardly any adversative force perceptible. Atquí, however, now, sometimes introduces an objection and sometimes a fresh step in the reasoning. Quod sí, but if, and if, now if, is used to continue an argument.

NOTE.--Et, - que, and atque ( ac) are sometimes used where the English idiom would suggest but, especially when a negative clause is followed by an affirmative clause continuing the same thought: as,-- impetum hostés ferre nón potuérunt ac terga vertérunt (B. G. 4.35) , the enemy could not stand the onset, but turned their backs.

Aut, or, excludes the alternative; vel (an old imperative of voló) and - ve give a choice between two alternatives. But this distinction is not always observed:
     sed quis ego sum aut quae est in mé facultás (Lael. 17) , but who am I or what special capacity have I? [Here vel could not be used, because in fact a negative is implied and both alternatives are excluded.]
     aut bibat aut abeat (Tusc. 5.118) , let him drink or (if he won't do that, then let him) quit. [Here vel would mean, let him do either as he chooses.]
     víta tális fuit vel fortúná vel glóriá; (Lael. 12), his life was such either in respect to fortune or fame (whichever way you look at it).
     sí propinquós habeant imbécilliórés vel animó vel fortúná; ( id. 70), if they have relatives beneath them either in spirit or in fortune (in either respect, for example, or in both).
     aut deórum aut régum fílií; ( id. 70), sons either of gods or of kings. [Here one case would exclude the other.]
     implicáté vel úsú diúturnó vel etiam officiís ( id. 85), entangled either by close intimacy or even by obligations. [Here the second case might exclude the first.]

Síve ( seu) is properly used in disjunctive conditions (if either ... or if), but also with alternative words and clauses, especially with two names for the same thing:
     síve inrídéns síve quod ita putáret (De Or. 1.91) , either laughingly or because he really thought so.
     síve deae seu sint volucrés (Aen. 3.262) , whether they (the Harpies) are goddesses or birds.

Vel, even, for instance, is often used as an intensive particle with no alternative force: as,-- vel minimus, the very least.

Nam and namque, for, usually introduce a real reason, formally expressed, for a previous statement; enim (always postpositive), a less important explanatory circumstance put in by the way; etenim (for, you see; for, you know; for, mind you) and its negative neque enim introduce something self-evident or needing no proof.
     ( ea víta) quae est sóla víta nóminanda. nam dum sumus inclúsí in hís compágibus corporis, múnere quódam necessitátis et graví opere perfungimur; est enim animus caelestis, etc. (Cat. M. 77), (that life) which alone deserves to be called life; for so long as we are confined by the body's frame, we perform a sort of necessary function and heavy task. For the soul is from heaven.
     hárum trium sententiárum núllí prórsus adsentior. nec enim illa príma véra est (Lael. 57) , for of course that first one is n't true.

Ergó, therefore, is used of things proved formally, but often has a weakened force. Igitur, then, accordingly, is weaker than ergó and is used in passing from one stage of an argument to another. Itaque, therefore, accordingly, and so, is used in proofs or inferences from the nature of things rather than in formal logical proof. All of these are often used merely to resume a train of thought broken by a digression or parenthesis. Idcircó, for this reason, on this account, is regularly followed (or preceded) by a correlative (as, quia, quod, sí, ut, né), and refers to the special point introduced by the correlative.
     malum mihi vidétur esse mors. est miserum igitur, quoniam malum. certé. ergó et eí quibus événit iam ut morerentur et eí quibus éventúrum est miserí. mihi ita vidétur. némó ergó nón miser. (Tusc. 1.9.) Death seems to me to be an evil. It is wretched, then, since it is an evil. Certainly. Therefore, all those who have already died and who are to die hereafter are wretched. So it appears to me. There is no one, therefore, who is not wretched.
     quia nátúra mútárí nón potest, idcircó vérae amícitiae sempiternae sunt (Lael. 32) , because nature cannot be changed, for this reason true friendships are eternal.

Autem, enim, and véró are postpositive; so generally igitur and often tamen.

Two conjunctions of similar meaning are often used together for the sake of emphasis or to bind a sentence more closely to what precedes: as, at véró>, but in truth, but surely, still, however; itaque ergó, accordingly then; namque, for; et- enim, for, you see, for of course (Sect: 324. h).

For Conjunctions introducing Subordinate Clauses, see Syntax.

.Negative Particles


SECTION: #325. In the use of the Negative Particles, the following points are to be observed:

SECTION: #326. Two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative:
     némó nón audiet, every one will hear (nobody will not hear).
     nón possum nón cónfitérí; ( Fam. 9.14.1), I must confess.
     ut ... né nón timére quidem sine aliquó timóre possímus (Mil. 2) , so that we cannot even be relieved of fear without some fear.

Many compounds or phrases of which nón is the first part express an indefinite affirmative:
     nón núllus, some; nón núllí; (= aliquí), some few.
     nón nihil (= aliquid), something.
     nón némó; (=aliquot), sundry persons.
     nón numquam (= aliquotiéns), sometimes.

Two negatives of which the second is nón (belonging to the predicate) express a universal affirmative:
     némó nón, núllus nón, nobody [does] not, i.e. everybody [does]. [Cf. nón némó, not nobody, i.e. somebody.]
     nihil nón, everything. [Cf. nón nihil, something.]
     numquam nón, never not, i.e. always. [Cf. nón numquam, sometimes.]

A statement is often made emphatic by denying its contrary (Litotes, Sect: 641):
     nón semel (= saepissimé), often enough (not once only).
     nón haec sine númine dívom éveniunt (Aen. 2.777) , these things do not occur without the will of the gods.
     haec nón nimis exquíró; ( Att. 7.18.3), not very much, i.e. very little.

NOTE.--Compare nón núllus, nón némó, etc., in a above.

SECTION: #327. A general negation is not destroyed:/p>

1. By a following né ... quidem, not even, or nón modo, not only:
     numquam tú nón modo ótium, sed né bellum quidem nisi nefárium concupístí; ( Cat. 1.25), not only have you never desired repose, but you have never desired any war except one which was infamous.

2. By succeeding negatives each introducing a separate subordinate member:
     eaque nesciébant nec ubi nec quália essent (Tusc. 3.4) , they knew not where or of what kind these things were.

3. By neque introducing a coordinate member:
     nequeó satis mírárí neque conicere (Ter. Eun. 547) , I cannot wonder enough nor conjecture.

SECTION: #328. The negative is frequently joined with a conjunction or with an indefinite pronoun or adverb. Hence the forms of negation in Latin differ from those in English in many expressions:
     núllí ( neutrí) crédó (not nón crédó úllí), I do not believe either (I believe neither).
     sine úlló perículó; (less commonly cum núlló), with no danger (without any danger).
     nihil umquam audíví iúcundius, I never heard anything more amusing.
     Cf. negó haec esse véra (not dícó nón esse), I say this is not true (I deny, etc.)

In the second of two connected ideas, and not is regularly expressed by neque ( nec), not by et nón:
     hostés terga vertérunt, neque prius fugere déstitérunt (B. G. 1.53) , the enemy turned and fled, and did not stop fleeing until, etc.

NOTE.--Similarly nec quisquam is regularly used for et némó; neque úllus for et núllus; nec umquam for et numquam; néve (neu), for et né.

SECTION: #329. The particle immo, nay, is used to contradict some part of a preceding statement or question, or its form; in the latter case, the same statement is often repeated in a stronger form, so that immo becomes nearly equivalent to yes (nay but, nay rather):
     causa igitur nón bona est? immo optima (Att. 9.7.4) , is the cause then not a good one? on the contrary, the best.

Minus, less (especially with sí, if, quó, in order that), and minimé, least, often have a negative force:
     sí minus possunt, if they cannot. [For quó minus, see Sect: 558. b.]
     audácissimus ego ex omnibus? minimé (Rosc. Am. 2) , am I the boldest of them all? by no means (not at all).


Forms of Interrogation

1 That is, they do not stand first in their clause.

2 For a list of Negative Particles see Sect: 217. e.

SECTION: #330. Questions are either Direct or Indirect.

1. A Direct Question gives the exact words of the speaker:

quid est? what is it? ubi sum? where am I?

2. An Indirect Question gives the substance of the question, adapted to the form of the sentence in which it is quoted. It depends on a verb or other expression of asking, doubting, knowing, or the like:
     rogávit quid esset, he asked what it was. [Direct: quid est, what is it?]
     nesció ubi sim, I know not where I am. [Direct: ubi sum, where am I?]

SECTION: #331. Questions in Latin are introduced by special interrogative words, and are not distinguished by the order of words, as in English.

NOTE.--The form of Indirect Questions (in English introduced by whether, or by an interrogative pronoun or adverb) is in Latin the same as that of Direct; the difference being only in the verb, which in indirect questions is regularly in the Subjunctive (Sect: 574).

SECTION: #332. A question of simple fact, requiring the answer yes or no, is formed by adding the enclitic - ne to the emphatic word:
     túne id veritus es (Q. Fr. 1.3.1) , did you fear that?
     hícine vir usquam nisi in patriá moriétur (Mil. 104) , shall this man die anywhere but in his native land?
     is tibi mortemne vidétur aut dolórem timére (Tusc. 5.88) , does he seem to you to fear death or pain?

The interrogative particle - ne is sometimes omitted:
     patére tua cónsilia nón sentís (Cat. 1.1) , do you not see that your schemes are manifest? (you do not see, eh?)

NOTE.--In such cases, as no sign of interrogation appears, it is often doubtful whether the sentence is a question or an ironical statement.

When the enclitic - ne is added to a negative word, as in nónne, an affirmative answer is expected. The particle num suggests a negative answer:
     nónne animadvertis (N. D. 3.89) , do you not observe?
     num dubium est (Rosc. Am. 107) , there is no doubt, is there?

NOTE.--In Indirect Questions num commonly loses its peculiar force and means simply whether.

The particle - ne often when added to the verb, less commonly when added to some other word, has the force of nónne:
     meministíne mé in senátú dícere (Cat. 1.7) , don't you remember my saying in the Senate?
     récténe interpretor sententiam tuam (Tusc. 3.37) , do I not rightly interpret your meaning?

NOTE 1.--This was evidently the original meaning of - ne; but in most cases the negative force was lost and - ne was used merely to express a question. So the English interrogative no? shades off into eh?

NOTE 2.--The enclitic - ne is sometimes added to other interrogative words: as, utrumne, whether? anne, or; quantane (Hor. S. 2.3.317) , how big? quóne maló ( id. 2.3.295), by what curse?

SECTION: #333. A question concerning some special circumstance is formed by prefixing to the sentence an interrogative pronoun or adverb as in English (Sect: 152):
     quid exspectás (Cat. 2.18) , what are you looking forward to?
     quó igitur haec spectant (Fam. 6.6.11) , whither then is all this tending?
     I care, ubi es (Ov. M. 8.232) , Icarus, where are you?
     quod vectígal vóbís tútum fuit? quem socium défendistis? cui praesidió classibus vestrís fuistis? ( Manil. 32), what revenue has been safe for you? what ally have you defended? whom have you guarded with your fleets?

NOTE.--A question of this form becomes an exclamation by changing the tone of the voice: as,--
     quális vir erat! what a man he was!
     quot calamitátés passí sumus! how many misfortunes we have suffered!
     quó studió cónsentiunt (Cat. 4.15) , with what zeal they unite!

The particles - nam (enclitic) and tandem may be added to interrogative pronouns and adverbs for the sake of emphasis:
     quisnam est, pray who is it? [ quis tandem est? would be stronger.]
     ubinam gentium sumus (Cat. 1.9) , where in the world are we?
     in quá tandem urbe hóc disputant (Mil. 7) , in what city, pray, do they maintain this?

NOTE--Tandem is sometimes added to verbs:
     ain tandem (Fam. 9.21) , you don't say so! (say you so, pray?)
     itane tandem uxórem dúxit Antiphó; ( Ter. Ph. 231), so then, eh? Antipho's got married.

.Double Questions

SECTION: #334. A Double or Alternative Question is an inquiry as to which of two or more supposed cases is the true one.

SECTION: #335. In Double or Alternative Questions, utrum or - ne, whether, stands in the first member; an, anne, or, annón, necne, or not, in the second; and usually an in the third, if there be one:
     utrum nescís, an pró nihiló id putás (Fam. 10.26) , is it that you don't know, or do you think nothing of it?
     vós ne L. Domitium an vós Domitius déseruit (B. C. 2.32) , did you desert Lucius Domitius, or did Domitius desert you?
     quaeró servós ne an líberós (Rosc. Am. 74) , I ask whether slaves or free.
     utrum hostem an vós an fortúnam utríusque populí ígnórátis (Liv. 21.10) , is it the enemy, or yourselves, or the fortune of the two peoples, that you do not know?

NOTE.--Anne for an is rare. Necne is rare in direct questions, but in indirect questions it is commoner than annón. In poetry - ne ... - ne sometimes occurs.

The interrogative particle is often omitted in the first member; in which case an or - ne ( anne, necne) may stand in the second:
     Gabínió dícam anne Pompeiió an utríque (Manil. 57) , shall I say to Gabinius, or to Pompey, or to both?
     sunt haec tua verba necne (Tusc. 3.41) , are these your words or not?
     quaesíví á Catilíná in conventú apud M. Laecam fuisset necne (Cat. 2.13) , I asked Catiline whether he had been at the meeting at Marcus Laeca's or not.

Sometimes the first member is omitted or implied, and an ( anne) alone asks the question,--usually with indignation or surprise:
     an tú miserós putás illós (Tusc. 1.13) , what! do you think those men wretched?
     an iste umquam dé sé bonam spem habuisset, nisi dé vóbís malam opíniónem animó imbibisset (Verr. 1.42) , would he ever have had good hopes about himself unless he had conceived an evil opinion of you?

Sometimes the second member is omitted or implied, and utrum may ask a question to which there is no alternative:
     utrum est in clárissimís cívibus is, quem ... (Flacc. 45) , is he among the noblest citizens, whom, etc.?

The following table exhibits the various forms of alternative questions:
     utrum ... an ... an
     utrum ... annón ( necne, see Sect: 335. N.)
     ... an ( anne)
     - ne ... an
     ... - ne, necne
     - ne ... necne
     - ne ... - ne

NOTE.--From double (alternative) questions must be distinguished those which are in themselves single, but of which some detail is alternative. These have the common disjunctive particles aut or vel (- ve). Thus,-- quaeró num iniústé aut improbé fécerit (Off. 3.54) , I ask whether he acted unjustly or even dishonestly. Here there is no double question. The only inquiry is whether the man did either of the two things supposed, not which of the two he did.

Question and Answer

SECTION: #336. There is no one Latin word in common use meaning simply yes or no. In answering a question affirmatively, the verb or some other emphatic word is generally repeated; in answering negatively, the verb, etc., with nón or a similar negative:
     valetne, is he well? valet, yes (he is well).
     eratne técum, was he with you? nón erat, no (he was not).
     num quidnam noví? there is nothing new, is there? nihil sáné, oh! nothing.

An intensive or negative particle, a phrase, or a clause is sometimes used to answer a direct question:

1. For YES:

véró, in truth, true, no doubt, yes. ita véró, certainly (so in truth), etc.

etiam, even so, yes, etc. sáné quidem, yes, no doubt, etc.

ita, so, true, etc. ita est, it is so, true, etc.
     sáné, surely, no doubt, doubtless, etc.
     certé, certainly, unquestionably, etc.
     factum, true, it's a fact, you're right, etc. (lit., it was done).

2. For NO:

nón, not so. núlló modó, by no means.
     minimé, not at all (lit., in the smallest degree, cf. Sect: 329. a).
     minimé véró, no, not by any means; oh! no, etc.
     nón quidem, why, no; certainly not, etc.
     nón hercle véró, why, gracious, no! (certainly not, by Hercules!)

Examples are:
     quidnam? an laudátiónés? ita, why, what? is it eulogies? just so.
     aut etiam aut nón respondére (Acad. 2.104) , to answer (categorically) yes or no.
     estne ut fertur forma? sáné (Ter. Eun. 361) , is she as handsome as they say she is? (is her beauty as it is said?) oh! yes.
     miser ergó Archeláus? certé sí iniústus (Tusc. 5.35) , was Archelaus wretched then? certainly, if he was unjust.
     an haec contemnitis? minimé (De Or. 2.295) , do you despise these things? not at all.
     volucribusne et ferís? minimé véró (Tusc. 1.104) , to the birds and beasts? why, of course not.
     ex tuí animí sententiá tú uxórem habés? nón hercle, ex meí animí sententiá; (De Or. 2.260), Lord! no, etc.

SECTION: #337. In answering a double question, one member of the alternative, or some part of it, must be repeated:
     vídistí an dé audító núntiás?-- egomet vídí; (Plaut. Merc. 902), did you see it or are you repeating something you have heard?--I saw it myself.


For a list of Interrogative Particles, see Sect: 217. d.

SECTION: #338. The Cases of nouns express their relations to other words in the sentence. The most primitive way of expressing such relations was by mere juxtaposition of uninflected forms. From this arose in time composition, i.e. the growing together of stems, by means of which a complex expression arises with its parts mutually dependent. Thus such a complex as armi-gero- came to mean arm-bearing; fidi-cen-, playing on the lyre. Later, Cases were formed by means of suffixes expressing more definitely such relations, and Syntax began. But the primitive method of composition still continues to hold an important place even in the most highly developed languages.

Originally the Indo-European family of languages, to which Latin belongs, had at least seven case-forms, besides the Vocative. But in Latin the Locative and the Instrumental were lostexcept in a few words (where they remained without being recognized as cases), and their functions were divided among the other cases.

The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative express the simplest and perhaps the earliest case-relations. The Nominative is the case of the Subject, and generally ends in -s. The Vocative, usually without a termination, or like the Nominative (Sect: 38. a), perhaps never had a suffix of its own.The Accusative, most frequently formed by the suffix -m, originally connected the noun loosely with the verb-idea, not necessarily expressed by a verb proper, but as well by a noun or an adjective (see Sect: 386).

The Genitive appears to have expressed a great variety of relations and to have had no single primitive meaning; and the same may be true of the Dative.

The other cases perhaps at first expressed relations of place or direction (TO, FROM, AT, WITH), though this is not clear in all instances. The earlier meanings, however, have become confused with each other, and in many instances the cases are no longer distinguishable in meaning or in form. Thus the Locative was for the most part lost from its confusion with the Dative and Ablative; and its function was often performed by the Ablative, which is freely used to express the place where (Sect: 421). To indicate the case-relations--especially those of place--more precisely, Prepositions (originally adverbs) gradually came into use. The case-endings, thus losing something of their significance, were less distinctly pronounced as time went on (see Sect: 36, phonetic decay), and prepositions have finally superseded them in the modern languages derived from Latin. But in Latin a large and various body of relations was still expressed by caseforms. It is to be noticed that in their literal use cases tended to adopt the preposition, and in their figurative uses to retain the old construction. (See Ablative of Separation, Sect: 402-404; Ablative of Place and Time, Sect: 421 ff.)

The word cásus, case, is a translation of the Greek pt?sis, a falling away (from the erect position). The term pt?sis was originally applied to the Oblique Cases (Sect: 35. g), to mark them as variations from the Nominative, which was called orth<, erect ( cásus réctus). The later name Nominative ( cásus nóminátívus) is from nóminó, and means the naming case. The other case-names (except Ablative) are of Greek origin. The name Genitive ( cásus genetívus) is a translation of genik< [ pt?sis], from genos (class), and refers to the class to which a thing belongs. Dative ( cásus datívus, from dó) is translated from dotik<, and means the case of giving. Accusative ( accúsátívus, from accúsó) is a mistranslation of aitiatik< (the case of causing), from aitia, cause, and meant to the Romans the case of accusing. The name Vocative ( vocátívus, from vocó) is translated from kl


SECTION: #339. The Subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative:
     Caesar Rhénum tránsíre décréverat (B. G. 4.17) , Caesar had determined to cross the Rhine.

For the omission of a pronominal subject, see Sect: 295. a.

The nominative may be used in exclamations:
     én dextra fidésque (Aen. 4.597) , lo, the faith and plighted word!
     ecce tuae litterae dé Varróne (Att. 13.16) , lo and behold, your letters aoout Varro!

NOTE.--But the accusative is more common (Sect: 397. d).


SECTION: #340. The Vocative is the case of direct address:
     Tiberíne pater, té, sáncte, precor (Liv. 2.10) , O father Tiber, thee, holy one, I pray.
     rés omnis mihi técum erit, Horténsí (Verr. 1.33) , my whole attention will be devoted to you, Hortensius.

A noun in the nominative in apposition with the subject of the imperative mood is sometimes used instead of the vocative:
     audí tú, populus Albánus (Liv. 1.24) , hear, thou people of Alba.

The vocative of an adjective is sometimes used in poetry instead of the nominative, where the verb is in the second person:
     quó moritúre ruis (Aen. 10.811) , whither art thou rushing to thy doom?
     cénsórem trabeáte salútás (Pers. 3.29) , robed you salute the censor.

The vocative macte is used as a predicate in the phrase macte estó ( virtúte), success attend your (valor):
     iubérem té macte virtúte esse (Liv. 2.12) , I should bid you go on and prosper in your valor.
     macte nová virtúte puer (Aen. 9.641) , success attend your valor, boy!

NOTE.--As the original quantity of the final e in macte is not determinable, it may be that the word was an adverb, as in bene est and the like.


SECTION: #341. The Genitive is regularly used to express the relation of one noun to another. Hence it is sometimes called the adjective case, to distinguish it from the Dative and the Ablative, which may be called adverbial cases.

The uses of the Genitive may be classified as follows:

I. Genitive with Nouns: 1. Of Possession (Sect: 343).

2. Of Material (Sect: 344).

3. Of Quality (Sect: 345).

4. Of the Whole, after words designating a Part (Partitive, Sect: 346).

5. With Nouns of Action and Feeling (Sect: 348).

II. Genitive with Adjectives: 1. After Relative Adjectives (or Verbals) (Sect: 349).

2. Of Specification (later use) (Sect: 349. d).

III. Genitive with Verbs: 1. Of Memory, Feeling, etc. (Sect: 350, 351, 354).

2. Of Accusing, etc. (Charge or Penalty) (Sect: 352).


SECTION: #342. A noun used to limit or define another, and not meaning the same person or thing, is put in the Genitive.

This relation is most frequently expressed in English by the preposition of, sometimes by the English genitive (or possessive) case:
     librí Cicerónis, the books of Cicero, or Cicero's books.
     inimící Caesaris, Caesar's enemies, or the enemies of Caesar.
     talentum aurí, a talent of gold.
     vir summae virtútis, a man of the greatest courage.

But observe the following equivalents:
     vacátió labóris, a respite FROM toil.
     petítió cónsulátús, candidacy FOR the consulship.
     régnum cívitátis, royal power OVER the state.

Possessive Genitive

SECTION: #343. The Possessive Genitive denotes the person or thing to which an object, quality, feeling, or action belongs:
     Alexandrí canis, Alexander's dog.
     potentia Pompeií ( Sall. Cat. 19), Pompey's power.
     Ariovistí mors (B. G. 5.29) , the death of Ariovistus.
     perditórum temeritás (Mil. 22) , the recklessness of desperate men.

NOTE 1.--The Possessive Genitive may denote (1) the actual owner (as in Alexander's dog) or author (as in Cicero's writings), or (2) the person or thing that possesses some feeling or quality or does some act (as in Cicero's eloquence, the strength of the bridge, Catiline's evil deeds). In the latter use it is sometimes called the Subjective Genitive; but this term properly includes the possessive genitive and several other genitive constructions (nearly all, in fact, except the Objective Genitive, Sect: 347).

NOTE 2.--The noun limited is understood in a few expressions:
     ad Castoris [ aedés] (Quinct. 17) , at the [ temple] of Castor. [Cf. St. Paul's.]
     Flaccus Claudí, Flaccus [slave] of Claudius.
     Hectoris Andromaché; (Aen. 3.319), Hector's [wife] Andromache.

For the genitive of possession a possessive or derivative adjective is often used,--regularly for the possessive genitive of the personal pronouns (Sect: 302. a):
     liber meus, my book. [Not liber meí.]
     aliéna perícula, other men's dangers. [But also aliórum.]
     Sullána tempora, the times of Sulla. [Oftener Sullae.]

The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, connected with its noun by a verb (Predicate Genitive):
     haec domus est patris meí, this house is my father's.
     iam mé Pompeií tótum esse scís (Fam. 2.13) , you know I am now all for Pompey (all Pompey's).
     summa laus et tua et Brútí est (Fam. 12.4.2) , the highest praise is due both to you and to Brutus (is both yours and Brutus's).
     compendí facere, to save (make of saving).
     lucrí facere, to get the benefit of (make of profit).

NOTE.--These genitives bear the same relation to the examples in Sect: 343 that a predicate noun bears to an appositive (Sect: 282, 283).

An infinitive or a clause, when used as a noun, is often limited by a genitive in the predicate:
     neque suí iúdicí [ erat] discernere (B. C. 1.35) , nor was it for his judgment to decide (nor did it belong to his judgment).
     cúiusvís hominis est erráre (Phil. 12.5) , it is any man's [liability] to err.
     negávit móris esse Graecórum, ut in convívió virórum accumberent mulierés (Verr. 2.1.66) , he said it was not the custom of the Greeks for women to appear as guests (recline) at the banquets of men.
     sed timidí est optáre necem (Ov. M. 4.115) , but't is the coward's part to wish for death.
     stultí erat spéráre, suádére impudentis (Phil. 2.23) , it was folly (the part of a fool) to hope, effrontery to urge.
     sapientis est pauca loquí, it is wise (the part of a wise man) to say little. [Not sapiéns (neuter) est, etc.]

NOTE 1.--This construction is regular with adjectives of the third declension instead of the neuter nominative (see the last two examples).

NOTE 2.--A derivative or possessive adjective may be used for the genitive in this construction, and must be used for the genitive of a personal pronoun:
     mentírí nón est meum [not meí], it is not for me to lie.
     húmánum [for hominis] est erráre, it is man's nature to err (to err is human).

A limiting genitive is sometimes used instead of a noun in apposition (Appositional Genitive) (Sect: 282):
     nómen ínsániae (for nómen ínsánia), the word madness.
     oppidum Antiochíae (for oppidum Antiochía, the regular form), the city of Antioch.

1 Some of the endings, however, which in Latin are assigned to the dative and ablative are doubtless of locative or instrumental origin (see p. 34, footnote).

2 The e-vocative of the second declension is a form of the stem (Sect: 45. c).

Possessive Genitive

SECTION: #344. The Genitive may denote the Substance or Material of which a thing consists (cf. Sect: 403):

talentum aurí, a talent of gold. flúmina lactis, rivers of milk.

Genitive of Quality

SECTION: #345. The Genitive is used to denote Quality, but only when the quality is modified by an adjective:
     vir summae virtútis, a man of the highest courage. [But not vir virtútis.]
     mágnae est délíberátiónis, it is an affair of great deliberation.
     mágní formíca labóris (Hor. S. 1.1.33) , the ant [a creature] of great toil.
     ille autem suí iúdicí (Nep. Att. 9) , but he [a man] of independent (his own) judgment.

NOTE.--Compare Ablative of Quality (Sect: 415). In expressions of quality, the genitive or the ablative may often be used indifferently: as, praestantí prúdentiá vir, a man of surpassing wisdom; maximí animí homó, a man of the greatest courage. In classic prose, however, the genitive of quality is much less common than the ablative; it is practically confined to expressions of measure or number, to a phrase with eiius, and to nouns modified by mágnus, maximus, summus, or tantus. In general the Genitive is used rather of essential, the Ablative of special or incidental characteristics.

The genitive of quality is found in the adjective phrases eiius modí, cúius modí (equivalent to tális, such; quális, of what sort):
     eiius modí sunt tempestátés cónsecútae, utí; ( B. G. 3.29), such storms followed, that, etc.

The genitive of quality, with numerals, is used to define measures of length, depth, etc. (Genitive of Measure):
     fossa trium pedum, a trench of three feet [in depth].
     múrus sédecim pedum, a wall of sixteen feet [high].

For the Genitive of Quality used to express indefinite value, see Sect: 417.

Partitive Genitive

SECTION: #346. Words denoting a Part are followed by the Genitive of the Whole to which the part belongs.

Partitive words, followed by the genitive, are:/p>

1. Nouns or Pronouns (cf. alsobelow):
     pars mílitum, part of the soldiers. quis nostrum, which of us?
     nihil erat reliquí, there was nothing left.
     némó eórum (B. G. 7.66) , not a man of them.
     mágnam partem eórum interfécérunt ( id. 2.23), they killed a large part of them.

2. Numerals, Comparatives, Superlatives, and Pronominal words like alius, alter, núllus, etc.:
     únus tribúnórum, one of the tribunes (see c below).
     sapientum octávus (Hor. S. 2.3.296) , the eighth of the wise men.
     mília passuum sescenta (B. G. 4.3) , six hundred miles (thousands of paces).
     máior frátrum, the elder of the brothers.
     animálium fortióra, the stronger [of] animals.
     Suébórum géns est longé maxima et bellicósissima Germánórum omnium (B. G. 4.1) , the tribe of the Suevi is far the largest and most warlike of all the Germans.
     alter cónsulum, one of the [two] consuls.
     núlla eárum (B.G. 4.28) , not one of them (the ships).

3. Neuter Adjectives and Pronouns, used as nouns:
     tantum spatí, so much [of] space.
     aliquid nummórum, a few pence (something of coins).
     id locí (or locórum), that spot of ground; id temporis, at that time ( 397. a).
     plána urbis, the level parts of the town.
     quid noví, what news? (what of new?)
     paulum frúmentí (B. C. 1.78) , a little grain.
     plús dolóris (B. G. 1.20) , more grief.
     suí aliquid timóris (B. C. 2.29) , some fear of his own (something of his own fear).

NOTE 1.--In classic prose neuter adjectives (not pronominal) seldom take a partitive genitive, except multum, tantum, quantum, and similar words.

NOTE 2.--The genitive of adjectives of the third declension is rarely used partitively: nihil noví (genitive), nothing new; but,-- nihil memorábile (nominative), nothing worth mention (not nihil memorábilis).

4. Adverbs, especially those of Quantity and of Place:
     parum ótí, not much ease (too little of ease).
     satis pecúniae, money enough (enough of money).
     plúrimum tótíus Galliae equitátú valet (B. G. 5.3) , is strongest of all Gaul in cavalry.
     ubinam gentium sumus (Cat. 1.9) , where in the world are we (where of nations)?
     ubicumque terrárum et gentium (Verr. 5.143) , wherever in the whole world.
     rés erat eó iam locí ut (Sest. 68) , the business had now reached such a point that, etc.
     eó miseriárum (Iug. 14.3) , to that [pitch] of misery.
     inde locí, next in order (thence of place). [Poetical.]

The poets and later writers often use the partitive genitive after adjectives, instead of a noun in its proper case:
     sequimur té, sáncte deórum (Aen. 4.576) , we follow thee, O holy deity. [For sáncte deus (Sect: 49. g. N.)]
     nigrae lánárum (Plin. H. N. 8.193) , black wools. [For nigrae lánae.]
     expedítí mílitum (Liv. 30.9) , light-armed soldiers. [For expedítí mílités.]
     hominum cúnctós (Ov. M. 4.631) , all men. [For cúnctós hominés; cf. e.]

Cardinal numerals (except mília) regularly take the Ablative with é ( ex) or dé instead of the Partitive Genitive. So also quídam, a certain one, commonly, and other words occasionally:
     únus ex tribúnís, one of the tribunes. [But also, únus tribúnórum (cf. a. 2).]
     minumus ex illís (Iug. 11) , the youngest of them.
     medius ex tribus (ib.), the middle one of the three.
     quídam ex mílitibus, certain of the soldiers.
     únus dé multís (Fin. 2.66) , one of the many.
     paucí dé nostrís cadunt (B. G. 1.15) , a few of our men fall.
     hominem dé comitibus meís, a man of my companions.

Uterque, both (properly each), and quisque, each, with Nouns are regularly used as adjectives in agreement, but with Pronouns take a partitive genitive:
     uterque cónsul, both the consuls; but, uterque nostrum, both of us.
     únus quisque vestrum, each one of you.
     utraque castra, both camps.

Numbers and words of quantity including the whole of any thing take a case in agreement, and not the partitive genitive. So also words denoting a part when only that part is thought of:
     nós omnés, all of us (we all). [Not omnés nostrum.]
     quot sunt hostés, how many of the enemy are there?
     cavé inimícós, quí multí sunt, beware of your enemies, who are many.
     multí mílités, many of the soldiers.
     némó Rómánus, not one Roman.

Objective Genitive

SECTION: #347. The Objective Genitive is used with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.

SECTION: #348. Nouns of action, agency, and feeling govern the Genitive of the Object:

cáritás tuí, affection for you. désíderium ótí, longing for rest.

vacátió múneris, relief from duty. grátia beneficí, gratitude for kindness.

fuga malórum, refuge from disaster. precátió deórum, prayer to the gods.

contentió honórum, struggle for office. opínió virtútis, reputation for valor.

NOTE.--This usage is an extension of the idea of belonging to (Possessive Genitive). Thus in the phrase odium Caesaris, hate of Caesar, the hate in a passive sense belongs to Caesar, as odium, though in its active sense he is the object of it, as hate (cf. a). The distinction between the Possessive (subjective) and the Objective Genitive is very unstable and is often lost sight of. It is illustrated by the following example: the phrase amor patris, love of a father, may mean love felt by a father, a father's love (subjective genitive), or love towards a father (objective genitive).

The objective genitive is sometimes replaced by a possessive pronoun or other derivative adjective:
     mea invidia, my unpopularity (the dislike of which I am the object). [Cf. odium meí (Har. Resp. 5) , hatred of me.]
     laudátor meus (Att. 1.16.5) , my eulogist (one who praises me). [Cf. nostrí laudátor ( id. 1.14.6).]
     Clódiánum crímen (Mil. 72) , the murder of Clodius (the Clodian charge). [As we say, the Nathan murder.]
     metus hostílis (Iug. 41) , fear of the enemy (hostile fear).
     ea quae faciébat, tuá sé fídúciá facere dícébat (Verr. 5.176) , what he was doing, he said he did relying on you (with your reliance).
     neque neglegentiá tuá, neque id odió fécit tuó (Ter. Ph. 1016) , he did this neither from neglect nor from hatred of you.

Rarely the objective genitive is used with a noun already limited by another genitive:
     animí multárum rérum percursió; (Tusc. 4.31), the mind's traversing of many things.

A noun with a preposition is often used instead of the objective genitive:
     odium in Antónium (Fam. 10.5.3) , hate of Antony.
     merita ergá mé ( id. 1.1.1), services to me.
     meam in té pietátem ( id. 1.9.1), my devotion to you.
     impetus in urbem (Phil. 12.29) , an attack on the city.
     excessus é vítá (Fin. 3.60) , departure from life. [Also, excessus vítae, Tusc. 1.27.]
     adoptió in Domitium (Tac. Ann. 12.25) , the adoption of Domitius. [A late and bold extension of this construction.]

NOTE.--So also in late writers the dative of reference (cf. 366. b): as,-- longó belló máteria (Tac. H. 1.89) , resources for a long war.


SECTION: #349. Adjectives requiring an object of reference govern the Objective Genitive.

Adjectives denoting desire, knowledge, memory, fulness, power, sharing, guilt, and their opposites govern the genitive:
     avidí laudis (Manil. 7) , greedy of praise.
     fastídiósus litterárum, disdaining letters.
     iúris perítus, skilled in law. [So also the ablative, iúre, cf. Sect: 418.]
     memorem vestrí, oblítum suí (Cat. 4.19) , mindful of you, forgetful of himself.
     ratiónis et órátiónis expertés (Off. 1.50) , devoid of sense and speech.
     nostrae cónsuétúdinis imperítí; ( B. G. 4.22), unacquainted with our customs.
     plénus fideí, full of good faith.
     omnis speí egénam (Tac. Ann. 1.53) , destitute of all hope.
     tempestátum potentem (Aen. 1.80) , having sway over the storms.
     impoténs írae (Liv. 29.9.9) , ungovernable in anger.
     coniúrátiónis participés (Cat. 3.14) , sharing in the conspiracy.
     affínis reí capitális (Verr. 2.2.94) , involved in a capital crime.
     ínsóns culpae (Liv. 22.49) , innocent of guilt.

Participles in -ns govern the genitive when they are used as adjectives, i.e. when they denote a constant disposition and not a particular act:
     sí quem tuí amantiórem cógnóvistí; ( Q. Fr. 1.1.15), if you have become acquainted with any one more fond of you.
     multitúdó ínsoléns bellí (B. C. 2.36) , a crowd unused to war.
     erat Iugurtha appeténs glóriae mílitáris (Iug. 7) , Jugurtha was eager for military glory.

NOTE 1.--Participles in -ns, when used as participles, take the case regularly governed by the verb to which they belong: as,--Sp. Maelium régnum appetentem interémit (Cat. M. 56), he put to death Spurius Maelius, who was aspiring to royal power.

NOTE 2.--Occasionally participial forms in -ns are treated as participles (see note 1) even when they express a disposition or character: as,-- virtús quam alií ipsam temperantiam dícunt esse, alií obtemperantem temperantiae praeceptís et eam subsequentem (Tusc. 4.30) , observant of the teachings of temperance and obedient to her.

Verbals in -áx (Sect: 251) govern the genitive in poetry and later Latin:
     iústum et tenácem próposití virum (Hor. Od. 3.3) , a man just and steadfast to his purpose.
     circus capáx populí (Ov. A. A. 1.136) , a circus big enough to hold the people.
     cibí víníque capácissimus (Liv. 9.16.13) , a very great eater and drinker (very able to contain food and wine).

The poets and later writers use the genitive with almost any adjective, to denote that with reference to which the quality exists (Genitive of Specification):
     callidus reí mílitáris (Tac. H. 2.32) , skilled in soldiership.
     pauper aquae (Hor. Od. 3.30.11) , scant of water.
     nótus animí paterní ( id. 2.2.6), famed for a paternal spirit.
     fessí rérum (Aen. 1.178) , weary of toil.
     integer vítae sceleris que púrus (Hor. Od. 1.22.1) , upright in life, and unstained by guilt.

NOTE.--The Genitive of Specification is only an extension of the construction with adjectives requiring an object of reference (Sect: 349). Thus callidus denotes knowledge; pauper, want; púrus, innocence; and so these words in a manner belong to the classes under a.

For the Ablative of Specification, the prose construction, see Sect: 418. For Adjectives of likeness etc. with the Genitive, apparently Objective, see Sect: 385. c. For Adjectives with animí (locative in origin), see Sect: 358.


Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting

SECTION: #350. Verbs of remembering and forgetting take either the Accusative or the Genitive of the object:

Meminí takes the Accusative when it has the literal sense of retaining in the mind what one has seen, heard, or learned. Hence the accusative is used of persons whom one remembers as acquaintances, or of things which one has experienced.

So oblívíscor in the opposite sense,--to forget literally, to lose all memory of a thing (very rarely, of a person).
     Cinnam meminí; ( Phil. 5.17), I remember Cinna.
     utinam avum tuum meminissés ( id. 1.34), oh! that you could remember your grandfather! (but he died before you were born).
     Postumium, cúius statuam in Isthmó meminisse té dícis (Att. 13.32) , Postumius, whose statue you say you remember (to have seen) on the Isthmus.
     omnia meminit Síron Epicúrí dogmata (Acad. 2.106) , Siron remembers all the doctrines of Epicurus.
     multa ab aliís audíta meminérunt (De Or. 2.355) , they remember many things that they have heard from others.
     tótam causam oblítus est (Brut. 217) , he forgot the whole case.
     hinc iam oblívíscere Gráiós (Aen. 2.148) , from henceforth forget the Greeks (i.e. not merely disregard them, but banish them from your mind, as if you had never known them).

Meminí takes the Genitive when it means to be mindful or regardful of a person or thing, to think of somebody or something (often with special interest or warmth of feeling).

So oblívíscor in the opposite sense,--to disregard, or dismiss from the mind,--and the adjective oblítus, careless or regardless.
     ipse suí meminerat (Verr. 2.136) , he was mindful of himself (of his own interests).
     faciam ut húius locí di ei que m ei que semper memineris ( Ter. Eun. 801), I will make you remember this place and this day and me as long as you live.
     nec mé meminisse pigébit Elissae, dum memor ipse meí; ( Aen. 4.335), nor shall I feel regret at the thought of Elissa, so long as I remember myself.
     meminerint verécundiae (Off. 1.122) , let them cherish modesty.
     húmánae ínfírmitátis meminí; ( Liv. 30.31.6), I remember human weakness.
     oblívíscí temporum meórum, meminisse áctiónum (Fam. 1.9.8) , to disregard my own interests, to be mindful of the matters at issue.
     nec tamen Epicúrí licet oblívíscí; (Fin. 5.3), and yet I must not forget Epicurus.
     oblívíscere caedis atque incendiórum (Cat. 1.6) , turn your mind from slaughter and conflagrations (dismiss them from your thoughts).

NOTE 1.--With both meminí and oblívíscor the personal and reflexive pronouns are regularly in the Genitive; neuter pronouns and adjectives used substantively are regularly in the Accusative; abstract nouns are often in the Genitive. These uses come in each instance from the natural meaning of the verbs (as defined above).

NOTE 2.-- Meminí in the sense of mention takes the Genitive: as,-- eundem Achillam cúius suprá meminimus (B. C. 3.108) , that same Achillas whom I mentioned above.

Reminíscor is rare. It takes the Accusative in the literal sense of call to mind, recollect; the Genitive in the more figurative sense of be mindful of:
     dulcís moriéns reminíscitur Argós (Aen. 10.782) , as he dies he calls to mind his beloved Argos.
     reminíscerétur et veteris incommodí populí Rómání et prístinae virtútis Helvétiórum (B. G. 1.13) , let him remember both the former discomfiture of the Roman people and the ancient valor of the Helvetians. [A warning,-- let him bear it in mind (and beware)!]

Recordor, recollect, recall, regularly takes the Accusative:
     recordáre cónsénsum illum theátrí; ( Phil. 1.30), recall that unanimous agreement of the [audience in the] theatre.
     recordáminí omnís cívílís dissénsiónés (Cat. 3.24) , call to mind all the civil wars.

NOTE.-- Recordor takes the genitive once (Pison. 12); it is never used with a personal object, but may be followed by dé with the ablative of the person or thing (cf. Sect: 351. N.):
     dé té recordor (Scaur. 49) , I remember about you.
     dé illís ( lacrimís) recordor (Planc. 104) , I am reminded of those tears.

Verbs of Reminding

SECTION: #351. Verbs of reminding take with the Accusative of the person a Genitive of the thing; except in the case of a neuter pronoun, which is put in the accusative (cf. Sect: 390. c).

So admoneó, commoneó, commonefació, commonefíó. But moneó with the genitive is found in late writers only.
     Catilína admonébat alium egestátis, alium cupiditátis suae ( Sall. Cat. 21), Catiline reminded one of his poverty, another of his cupidity.
     eós hóc moneó; ( Cat. 2.20), I give them this warning.
     quod vós léx commonet (Verr. 3.40) , that which the law reminds you of.

NOTE.--All these verbs often take dé with the ablative, and the accusative of nouns as well as of pronouns is sometimes used with them:
     saepius té admoneó dé syngraphá Sittiáná; ( Fam. 8.4.5) I remind you again and again of Sittius's bond.
     officium vostrum ut vós maló cógátis commonérier (Plaut. Ps. 150), that you may by misfortune force yourselves to be reminded of your duty.

Verbs of Accusing, Condemning, and Acquitting

SECTION: #352. Verbs of accusing, condemning, and acquitting, take the Genitive of the Charge or Penalty:
     arguit mé furtí, he accuses me of theft.
     pecúlátús damnátus ( pecúniae públicae damnátus) ( Flacc. 43), condemned for embezzlement.
     videó nón té absolútum esse improbitátis, sed illós damnátós esse caedis (Verr. 2.1.72) , I see, not that you were acquitted of outrage, but that they were condemned for homicide.

Peculiar genitives, under this construction, are--
     capitis, as in damnáre capitis, to sentence to death.
     máiestátis [ laesae], treason (crime against the dignity of the state).
     repetundárum [ rérum], extortion (lit. of an action for reclaiming money).
     vótí damnátus (or reus), bound [to the payment] of one's vow, i.e. successful in one's effort.
     pecúniae ( damnáre, iúdicáre, see note).
     duplí etc., as in duplí condemnáre, condemn to pay twofold.

NOTE.--The origin of these genitive constructions is pointed at by pecúniae damnáre (Gel. 20.1.38) , to condemn to pay money, in a case of injury to the person; quantae pecúniae iúdicátí essent ( id.xx.1.47), how much money they were adjudged to pay, in a mere suit for debt; cónfessí aeris ac débití iúdicátí ( id.xx.1. 42), adjudged to owe an admitted sum due. These expressions show that the genitive of the penalty comes from the use of the genitive of value to express a sum of money due either as a debt or as a fine. Since in early civilizations all offences could be compounded by the payment of fines, the genitive came to be used of other punishments, not pecuniary. From this to the genitive of the actual crime is an easy transition, inasmuch as there is always a confusion between crime and penalty (cf. Eng. guilty of death). It is quite unnecessary to assume an ellipsis of crímine or iúdició.

SECTION: #353. Other constructions for the Charge or Penalty are:/p>

1. The Ablative of Price: regularly of a definite amount of fine, and often of indefinite penalties (cf. Sect: 416):
     Frusinátés tertiá parte agrí damnátí; ( Liv. 10.1), the people of Frusino condemned [to forfeit] a third part of their land.

2. The Ablative with dé, or the Accusative with inter, in idiomatie expressions:
     dé aleá, for gambling; dé ambitú, for bribery.
     dé pecúniís repetundís, of extortion (cf. Sect: 352. a).
     inter sícáriós (Rosc. Am. 90) , as an assassin (among the assassins).
     dé ví et máiestátis damnátí; ( Phil. 1.21), convicted of assault and treason.

NOTE.--The accusative with ad and in occurs in later writers to express the penalty: as,-- ad mortem (Tac. Ann. 16.21) , to death; ad ( in) metalla, to the mines.

Verbs of .Feeling

SECTION: #354. Many verbs of feeling take the Genitive of the object which excites the feeling.

Verbs of pity, as misereor and miseréscó, take the genitive:
     miseréminí familiae, iúdicés, miseréminí patris, miseréminí fílí (Flacc. 106) , have pity on the family, etc.
     miserére animí nón dígna ferentis (Aen. 2.144) , pity a soul that endures unworthy things.
     miseréscite régis ( id. 8.573), pity the king. [Poetical.]

NOTE.--But miseror, commiseror, bewail, take the accusative: as,-- commúnem condiciónem miserárí (Mur. 55) , bewail the common lot.

As impersonals, miseret, paenitet, piget, pudet, taedet (or pertaesum est), take the genitive of the cause of the feeling and the accusative of the person affected:
     quós ínfámiae suae neque pudet neque taedet (Verr. 1.35) , who are neither ashamed nor weary of their dishonor.
     mé miseret parietum ipsórum (Phil. 2.69) , I pity the very walls.
     mé cívitátis mórum piget taedetque (Iug. 4) , I am sick and tired of the ways of the state.
     decemvirórum vós pertaesum est (Liv. 3.67) , you became tired of the decemvirs.

With miseret, paenitet, etc., the cause of the feeling may be expressed by an infinitive or a clause:
     neque mé paenitet mortálís inimícitiás habére (Rab. Post. 32) , nor am I sorry to have deadly enmities.
     nón dedisse istunc pudet; mé quia nón accépí piget (Pl. Pseud. 282), he is ashamed not to have given; I am sorry because I have not received.

NOTE.-- Miseret etc. are sometimes used personally with a neuter pronoun as subject: as,-- nón té haec pudent (Ter. Ad. 754) , do not these things shame you?

.Interest and .Réfert

SECTION: #355. The impersonals interest and réfert take the Genitive of the person (rarely of the thing) affected.

The subject of the verb is a neuter pronoun or a substantive clause:
     Clódí intererat Milónem períre (cf. Mil. 56), it was the interest of Clodius that Milo should die.
     aliquid quod illórum magis quam suá rétulisse vidérétur (Iug. 111) , something which seemed to be more for their interest than his own.
     videó enim quid meá intersit, quid utríusque nostrum (Fam. 7.23.4) , forsee what is for my good and for the good of us both.

Instead of the genitive of a personal pronoun the corresponding possessive is used in the ablative singular feminine after interest or réfert:
     quid tuá id réfert? mágní; ( Ter. Ph. 723), how does that concern you? much. [See also the last two examples above.]
     vehementer intererat vestrá quí patrés estis (Plin. Ep. 4.13.4) , it would be very much to your advantage, you who are fathers.

NOTE.--This is the only construction with réfert in classic prose, except in one passage in Sallust (see example above).

The accusative with ad is used with interest and réfert to express the thing with reference to which one is interested:
     mágní ad honórem nostrum interest (Fam. 16.1) , it is of great consequence to our honor.
     réfert etiam ad frúctús (Varr. R. R. 1.16.6) , it makes a difference as to the crop.

NOTE 1.--Very rarely the person is expressed by ad and the accusative, or (with réfert) by the dative (probably a popular corruption):
     quid id ad mé aut ad meam rem réfert (Pl. Per. 513) , what difference does that make to me or to my interests?
     quid réferat intrá nátúrae fínís víventí (Hor. S. 1.1.49) , what difference does it make to me who live within the limits of natural desire?
     nón réferre dédecorí (Tac. Anu. 15.65), that it makes no difference as to the disgrace.

NOTE 2.--The degree of interest is expressed by a genitive of value, an adverb, or an adverbial accusative.

Verbs of Plenty and Want

SECTION: #356. Verbs of Plenty and Want sometimes govern the genitive (cf. Sect: 409. a. N.):
     convívium vícínórum compleó; (Cat. M. 46, in the mouth of Cato), I fill up the banquet with my neighbors.
     implentur veteris Bacchí pinguisque ferínae (Aen. 1.215) , they fill themselves with old wine and fat venison.
     né quis auxilí egeat (B. G. 6.11) , lest any require aid.
     quid est quod défénsiónis indigeat (Rosc. Am. 34) , what is there that needs defence?
     quae ad cónsólandum máióris ingení et ad ferendum singuláris virtútis indigent ( Fam. 6.4.2), [sorrows] which for their comforting need more ability, and for endurance unusual courage.

NOTE.--Verbs of plenty and want more commonly take the ablative (see Sect: 409. a, <
    >01), except egeó, which takes either case, and indigeó. But the genitive is by a Greek idiom often used in poetry instead of the ablative with all words denoting separation and want (cf. Sect: 357. b. 3):
     abstinétó írárum (Hor. Od. 3.27.69) , refrain from wrath.
     operum solútís ( id. 3.17.16), free from toils.
     désine mollium querellárum ( id. 2.9.17), have done with weak complaints.

Genitive with Special Verbs

SECTION: #357. The Genitive is used with certain special verbs.

The genitive sometimes follows potior, get possession of; as always in the phrase potírí rérum, to be master of affairs:
     illíus régní potírí; ( Fam. 1.7.5), to become master of that kingdom.
     Cleanthés sólem dominárí et rérum potírí putat (Acad. 2.126) , Cleanthes thinks the sun holds sway and is lord of the universe.

NOTE.--But potior usually takes the ablative (see Sect: 410).

Some other verbs rarely take the genitive:/p>

1. By analogy with those mentioned in Sect: 354:
     neque húius sís veritus féminae prímáriae (Ter. Ph. 971) , and you had no respect for this high-born lady.

2. As akin to adjectives which take the genitive:
     fastídit meí (Plaut. Aul. 245), he disdains me. [Cf. fastídiósus.]
     studet tuí (quoted N. D. 3.72), he is zealous for you. [Cf. studiósus.]

3. In imitation of the Greek:
     iústitiae ne prius mírer, bellíne labórum (Aen. 11.126) , shall I rather admire his justice or his toils in war?
     neque ille séposití ciceris nec longae invídit avénae (Hor. S. 2.6.84) , nor did he grudge his garnered peas, etc. [But cf. invidus, parcus.]
     labórum décipitur (Hor. Od. 2.13.38) , he is beguiled of his woes.
     mé labórum levás (Pl. Rud. 247) , you relieve me of my troubles.

SECTION: #358. The apparent Genitive animí (really Locative) is used with a few verbs and adjectives of feeling and the like:
     Antiphó mé excruciat animí (Ter. Ph. 187) , Antipho tortures my mind (me in my mind).
     quí pendet animí (Tusc. 4.35) , who is in suspense.
     mé animí fallit (Lucr. 1.922) , my mind deceives me.
     So, by analogy, désipiébam mentis (Pl. Epid. 138) , I was out of my head.
     aeger animí, sick at heart; cónfúsus animí, disturbed in spirit.
     sánus mentis aut animí (Pl. Trin. 454) , sound in mind or heart.


SECTION: #359. Peculiar Genitive constructions are the following:

A poetical genitive occurs rarely in exclamations, in imitation of the Greek (Genitive of Exclamation):
     dí immortálés, mercimóní lepidí; ( Pl. Most. 912), good heavens! what a charming bargain!
     foederis heu tacití; ( Prop. 4.7.21), alas for the unspoken agreement!

The genitive is often used with the ablatives causá, grátiá, for the sake of; ergó, because of; and the indeclinable ínstar, like; also with prídié, the day before; postrídié, the day after; tenus, as far as:
     honóris causá, with due respect (for the sake of honor).
     verbí grátiá, for example.
     eiius légis ergó, on account of this law.
     equus ínstar montis (Aen. 2.15) , a horse huge as a mountain (the image of a mountain).
     laterum tenus ( id. 10.210), as far as the sides.

NOTE 1.--Of these the genitive with causá is a development from the possessive genitive and resembles that in nómen ínsániae (Sect: 343.d). The others are of various origin.

NOTE 2.--In prose of the Republican Period prídié and postrídié are thus used only in the expressions prídié ( postrídié) eiius diéí, the day before (after) that (cf. "the eve, the morrow of that day). Tacitus uses the construction with other words: as,-- postrídié ínsidiárum, the day after the plot. For the accusative, see Sect: 432. a. Tenus takes also the ablative (p. 136).


SECTION: #360. The Dative is probably, like the Genitive, a grammatical case, that is, it is a form appropriated to the expression of a variety of relations other than that of the direct object. But it is held by some to be a Locative with the primary meaning of to or towards, and the poetic uses (like it clámor caeló, Aen. 5.451) are regarded as survivals of the original use.

In Latin the Dative has two classes of meanings:

1. The Dative denotes an object not as caused by the action, or directly affected by it (like the Accusative), but as reciprocally sharing in the action or receiving it consciously or actively. Thus in dedit pueró librum, he gave the boy a book, or fécit mihi iniúriam, he did me a wrong, there is an idea of the boy's receiving the book, and of my feeling the wrong. Hence expressions denoting persons, or things with personal attributes, are more likely to be in the dative than those denoting mere things. So in Spanish the dative is used whenever a person is the object of an action; yo veo al hombre, I see [to] the man. This difference between the Accusative and the Dative (i.e. between the Direct and the Indirect Object) depends upon the point of view implied in the verb or existing in the mind of the writer. Hence Latin verbs of similar meaning (to an English mind) often differ in the case of their object (see Sect: 367. a).

2. The Dative is used to express the purpose of an action or that for which it serves (see Sect: 382). This construction is especially used with abstract expressions, or those implying an action.

These two classes of Datives approach each other in some cases and are occasionally confounded, as in Sect: 383, 384.

The uses of the Dative are the following:

1. Indirect Object (general use): 1. With Transitives (Sect: 362).

2. With Intransitives (Sect: 366-372).

2. Special or Idiomatic Uses: 1. Of Possession (with esse) (Sect: 373).

2. Of Agency (with Gerundive) (Sect: 374).

3. Of Reference ( datívus commodí) (Sect: 376-381).

4. Of Purpose or End (predicate use) (Sect: 382).

5. Of Fitness etc. (with Adjectives) (Sect: 383, 384).


SECTION: #361. The Dative is used to denote the object indirectly affected by an action.

This is called the Indirect Object (Sect: 274). It is usually denoted in English by the objective with to:
     cédite temporí, yield to the occasion.
     próvincia Ciceróní obtigit, the province fell by lot to Cicero.
     inimícís nón crédimus, we do not trust [to] our enemies.


SECTION: #362. The Dative of the Indirect Object with the Accusative of the Direct may be used with any transitive verb whose meaning allows (see Sect: 274):
     dó tibi librum, I give you a book.
     illud tibi affírmó; ( Fam. 1.7.5), this I assure you.
     commendó tibi eiius omnia negótia ( id. 1.3), I put all his affairs in your hands (commit them to you).
     dabis profectó misericordiae quod írácundiae negávistí; ( Deiot. 40), you will surely grant to mercy what you refused to wrath.
     litterás á té mihi stator tuus reddidit (Fam. 2.17) , your messenger delivered to me a letter from you.

Many verbs have both a transitive and an intransitive use, and take either the Accusative with the Dative, or the Dative alone:
     mihi id aurum crédidit (cf. Plaut. Aul. 15), he trusted that gold to me.
     equó né crédite (Aen. 2.48) , put not your trust in the horse.
     concessit senátus postulátióní tuae (Mur. 47) , the senate yielded to your demand.
     concédere amícís quidquid velint (Lael. 38) , to grant to friends all they may wish.

SECTION: #363. Certain verbs implying motion vary in their construction between the Dative of the Indirect Object and the Accusative of the End of Motion (Sect: 426, 427):

1. Some verbs implying motion take the Accusative (usually with ad or in) instead of the Indirect Object, when the idea of motion prevails:
     litterás quás ad Pompeiium scrípsí; ( Att. 3.8.4), the letter which I have written [and sent] to Pompey. [Cf. nón quó habérem quod tibi scríberem ( id. 4.4A), not that I had anything to write to you]
     litterae extempló Rómam scríptae (Liv. 41.16) , a letter was immediately written [and sent] to Rome.
     hostís in fugam dat (B. G. 5.51) , he puts the enemy to flight. [Cf. ut mé dem fugae (Att. 7.23) , to take to flight.]
     omnés rem ad Pompeiium déferrí volunt (Fam. 1.1) , all wish the matter to be put in the hands of Pompey (referred to Pompey).

2. On the other hand, many verbs of motion usually followed by the Accusative with ad or in, take the Dative when the idea of motion is merged in some other idea:
     mihi litterás mittere (Fam. 7.12) , to send me a letter.
     eum librum tibi mísí; ( id. 7.19), I sent you that book.
     nec quicquam quod nón mihi Caesar détulerit ( id. 4.13), and nothing which Caesar did not communicate to me.
     cúrés ut mihi vehantur ( id. 8.4.5), take care that they be conveyed to me.
     cum alius alií subsidium ferrent (B. G. 2.26) , while one lent aid to another.

SECTION: #364. Certain verbs may take either the Dative of the person and the Accusative of the thing, or (in a different sense) the Accusative of the person and the Ablative of the thing:
     dónat corónás suís, he presents wreaths to his men; or,
     dónat suós corónís, he presents his men with wreaths.
     vincula exuere sibi (Ov. M. 7.772) , to shake off the leash (from himself).
     omnís armís exuit (B. G. 5.51) , he stripped them all of their arms.

NOTE 1.-- Interdícó, forbid, takes either (1) the Dative of the person and the Ablative of the thing, or (2) in later writers, the Dative of the person and the Accusative of the thing:
     aquá et ígní alicui interdícere, to forbid one the use of fire and water. [The regular formula for banishment.]
     interdíxit histriónibus scaenam (Suet. Dom. 7) , he forbade the actors [to appear on] the stage (he prohibited the stage to the actors).
     féminís ( dat.) purpurae úsú interdícémus (Liv. 34.7) , shall we forbid women the wearing of purple?

NOTE 2.--The Dative with the Accusative is used in poetry with many verbs of preventing, protecting, and the like, which usually take the Accusative and Ablative. Interclúdó and prohibeó sometimes take the Dative and Accusative, even in prose:
     hísce omnís aditús ad Sullam interclúdere (Rosc. Am. 110) , to shut these men off from all access to Sulla (close to them every approach). [Cf. utí commeátú Caesarem interclúderet (B. G. 1.48) , to shut Caesar off from supplies.]
     hunc ( oestrum) arcébis pecorí (Georg. 3.154) , you shall keep this away from the flock. [Cf. illum arcuit Galliá (Phil. 5.37) , he excluded him from Gaul.]
     sólstitium pecorí défendite (Ecl. 7.47) , keep the summer heat from the flock. [Cf. utí sé á contuméliís inimícórum défenderet (B. C. 1.22) , to defend himself from the slanders of his enemies.]

SECTION: #365. Verbs which in the active voice take the Accusative and Dative retain the Dative when used in the passive:
     núntiábantur haec eadem Cúrióní (B. C. 2.37) , these same things were announced to Curio. [Active: núntiábant ( quídam) haec eadem Cúrióní.]
     nec docendí Caesaris propinquís eiius spatium datur, nec tribúnís plébis suí perículí déprecandí facultás tribuitur ( id. 1.5), no time is given Caesar's relatives to inform him, and no opportunity is granted to the tribunes of the plebs to avert danger from themselves.
     próvinciae prívátís décernuntur ( id. 1.6), provinces are voted to private citizens.

1 Such are dónó, impertió, induó, exuó, adspergó, é nspergó, circumdó, and in poetry accingó, implicó, and similar verbs.


SECTION: #366. The Dative of the Indirect Object may be used with any Intransitive verb whose meaning allows:
     cédant arma togae (Phil. 2.20) , let arms give place to the gown.
     Caesarí respondet, he replies to Caesar.
     Caesarí respondétur, a reply is given to Caesar (Caesar is replied to). [Cf. Sect: 372.]
     respondí maximís críminibus (Phil. 2.36) , I have answered the heaviest charges.
     ut ita cuique éveniat ( id. 2.119), that it may so turn out to each.

NOTE 1.--Intransitive verbs have no Direct Object. The Indirect Object, therefore, in these cases stands alone as in the second example (but cf. Sect: 362. a).

NOTE 2.-- Cédó, yield, sometimes takes the Ablative of the thing along with the Dative of the person: as,-- cédere alicui possessióne hortórum (cf. Mil. 75), to give up to one the possession of a garden.

Many phrases consisting of a noun with the copula sum or a copulative verb are equivalent to an intransitive verb and take a kind of indirect object (cf. Sect: 367. a. N.2):
     auctor esse alicui, to advise or instigate one (cf. persuádeó).
     quis huic reí testis est (Quinct. 37) , who testifies (is witness) to this fact?
     is fínis populátiónibus fuit (Liv. 2.30.9) , this put an end to the raids.

The dative is sometimes used without a copulative verb in a sense approaching that of the genitive (cf. Sect: 367. d, 377):
     légátus frátrí (Mur. 32) , a lieutenant to his brother (i.e. a man assigned to his brother).
     ministrí sceleribus (Tac. Ann. 6.36) , agents of crime. [Cf. séditiónis ministrí ( id. 1.17), agents of sedition.]
     miseriís suís remedium mortem exspectáre ( Sall. Cat. 40), to look for death as a cure for their miseries. [Cf. sólus meárum miseriárumst remedium (Ter. Ad. 294) .]

NOTE.--The cases in a and b differ from the constructions of Sect: 367. a. N.2 and Sect: 377 in that the dative is more closely connected in idea with some single word to which it serves as an indirect object.

Indirect Object with Special Verbs

SECTION: #367. Many verbs signifying to favor, help, please, trust, and their contraries; also to believe, persuade, command, obey, serve, resist, envy, threaten, pardon, and spare,take the Dative:
     cúr mihi invidés, why do you envy me?
     mihi parcit atque ígnóscit, he spares and pardons me.
     ígnósce patrió dolórí (Liv. 3.48) , excuse a father's grief.
     subvení patriae, opituláre conlégae (Fam. 10.10.2) , come to the aid of your country, help your colleague.
     mihi nón displicet (Clu. 144) , it does not displease me.
     nón omnibus servió; ( Att. 13.49), I am not a servant to every man.
     nón parcam operae (Fam. 13.27) , I will spare no pains.
     síc mihi persuásí; (Cat. M. 78), so I have persuaded myself.
     mihi Fabius débébit ígnóscere sí minus eiius fámae parcere vidébor quam anteá cónsuluí; ( Tull. 3), Fabius will have to pardon me if I seem to spare his reputation less than I have heretofore regarded it.
     huic legióní Caesar cónfídébat maximé; ( B. G. 1.40.15), in this legion Caesar trusted most.

In these verbs the Latin retains an original intransitive meaning. Thus: invidére, to envy, is literally to look askance at; servíre is to be a slave to; suádére is to make a thing pleasant (sweet) to.

Some verbs apparently of the same meanings take the Accusative.

Such are iuvó, adiuvó, help; laedó, injure; iubeó, order; défició, fail; délectó, please:
     híc pulvis oculum meum laedit, this dust hurts my eye. [Cf. multa oculís nocent, many things are injurious to the eyes.]

NOTE 1.-- Fídó and cónfídó take also the Ablative (Sect: 431): as,-- multum nátúrá locí cónfídébant (B. G. 3.9) , they had great confidence in the strength of their position.

NOTE 2.--Some common phrases regularly take the dative precisely like verbs of similar meaning. Such are--praestó esse, be on hand (cf. adesse); mórem gerere, humor (cf. mórigerárí); grátum facere, do a favor (cf. grátificárí); dictó audiéns esse, be obedient (cf. oboedíre); cui fidem habébat (B. G. 1.19) , in whom he had confidence (cf. cónfídébat).

So also many phrases where no corresponding verb exists. Such are-- bene (male, pulchré, aegré, etc.) esse, be well (ill, etc.) off; iniúriam facere, do injustice to; diem dícere, bring to trial (name a day for, etc.); agere grátiás, express one's thanks; habére grátiam, feel thankful; referre grátiam, repay a favor; opus esse, be necessary; damnum dare, inflict an injury; acceptum ( expénsum) ferre ( esse), credit (charge); honórem habére, to pay honor to.

Some verbs are used transitively with the Accusative or intransitively with the Dative without perceptible difference of meaning.

Such are adúlor, aemulor, déspéró, praestólor, medeor:
     adúlátus est Antónió (Nep. Att. 8) , he flattered Antony.
     adúlárí Nerónem (Tac. Ann. 16.19) , to flatter Nero.
     pácem nón déspérás (Att. 8.15.3) , you do not despair of peace.
     salútí déspéráre vetuit (Clu. 68) , he forbade him to despair of safety.

Some verbs are used transitively with the Accusative or intransitively with the Dative with a difference of meaning:
     partí cívium cónsulunt (Off. 1.85) , they consult for a part of the citizens.
     cum té cónsuluissem (Fam. 11.29) , when I had consulted you.
     metuéns puerís (Plaut. Am. 1113), anxious for the children.
     nec metuunt deós (Ter. Hec. 772) , they fear not even the gods. [So also timeó.]
     próspicite patriae (Cat. 4.3) , have regard for the state.
     próspicere sédem senectútí; ( Liv. 4.49.14), to provide a habitation for old age. [So also próvideó.]

A few verbal nouns (as ínsidiae, ambush; obtemperátió, obedience) rarely take the dative like the corresponding verbs:
     ínsidiae cónsulí ( Sall. Cat. 32), the plot against the consul (cf. ínsidior).
     obtemperátió légibus (Legg. 1.42) , obedience to the laws (cf. obtemperó).
     sibi ipsí respónsió; (De Or. 3.207), an answer to himself (cf. respondeó).

NOTE.--In these cases the dative depends immediately upon the verbal force of the noun and not on any complex idea (cf. Sect: 366. a, b).

SECTION: #368. The Dative is used:/p>

1. With the impersonals libet (lubet), it pleases, and licet, it is allowed:
     quod mihi maximé lubet (Fam. 1.8.3) , what most pleases me.
     quasi tibi nón licéret ( id. 6.8), as if you were not permitted.

2. With verbs compounded with satis, bene, and male:
     mihi ipse numquam satisfació; ( Fam. 1.1), I never satisfy myself.
     optimó viró maledícere (Deiot. 28) , to speak ill of a most excellent man.
     pulchrum est benefacere reí públicae ( Sall. Cat. 3), it is a glorious thing to benefit the state.

NOTE.--These are not real compounds, but phrases, and were apparently felt as such by the Romans. Thus,-- satis offició meó, satis illórum voluntátí quí á mé hóc petívérunt factum esse arbitrábor (Verr. 5.130) , I shall consider that enough has been done for my duty, enough for the wishes of those who asked this of me.

3. With grátificor, grátulor, núbó, permittó, plaudó, probó, studeó, supplicó, excelló:
     Pompeiió sé grátificárí putant (Fam. 1.1) , they suppose they are doing Pompey a service.
     grátulor tibi, mí Balbe ( id. 6.12), I congratulate you, my dear Balbus.
     tibi permittó respondére (N. D. 3.4) , I give you leave to answer.
     mihi plaudó ipse domí; ( Hor. S. 1.1.66), I applaud myself at home.
     cum inimící M. Fonteií vóbís ac populó Rómánó minentur, amící ac propinquí supplicent vóbís (Font. 35) , while the enemies of Marcus Fonteius are threatening you and the Roman people too, while his friends and relatives are beseeching you.

NOTE.-- Misceó and iungó sometimes take the dative (see Sect: 413. a. N.). Haereó usually takes the ablative, with or without in, rarely the dative: as,-- haerentem capití corónam (Hor. S. 1.10.49) , a wreath clinging to the head.

The dative is often used by the poets in constructions which would in prose require a noun with a preposition. So especially with verbs of contending (Sect: 413. b):
     contendis Homéró (Prop. 1.7.3) , you vie with Homer. [In prose: cum Homéró.]
     placitóne etiam púgnábis amórí (Aen. 4.38) , will you struggle even against a love that pleases you?
     tibi certat (Ecl. 5.8) , vies with you. [técum.]
     differt sermóní (Hor. S. 1.4.48) , differs from prose. [ á sermóne, Sect: 401.]
     laterí abdidit énsem (Aen. 2.553) , buried the sword in his side. [ in latere, Sect: 430.]

For the Dative instead of ad with the Accusative, see Sect: 428. h.

SECTION: #369. Some verbs ordinarily intransitive may have an Accusative of the direct object along with the Dative of the indirect (cf. Sect: 362. a):
     cui cum réx crucem minárétur (Tusc. 1.102) , and when the king threatened him with the cross.
     Créténsibus obsidés imperávít (Manil. 35) , he exacted hostages of the Cretans.
     omnia sibi ígnóscere (Vell. 2.30) , to pardon one's self everything.
     Ascanióne pater Rómánás invidet arcés (Aen. 4.234) , does the father envy Ascanius his Roman citadels? [With invideó this construction is poetic or late.]

With the passive voice this dative may be retained:
     quí iam nunc sanguinem meum sibi indulgérí aequum cénset (Liv. 40.15.16) , who even now thinks it right that my blood should be granted to him as a favor.
     singulís cénsóribus dénárií trecentí imperátí sunt (Verr. 2.137) , three hundred denarii were exacted of each censor.
     Scaevolae concessa est fácundiae virtús (Quint. 12.3.9) , to Scaevola has been granted excellence in oratory.

1 These include, among others, the following: adversor, cédó, crédó, faveó, fídó, fgnóscó, imperó, indulgeó, invideó, íráscor, minitor, noceó, parcó, páreó, placeó, resistó, servió, studeó, suádeó ( persuádeó), suscénseó, temperó ( obtemperó).

2 See the Lexicon under caveó , convenió, cupió, ínsistó, maneó, praevertó, recipió, renúntió, solvó, succédó

Indirect Object with Compounds

SECTION: #370. Many verbs compounded with ao, ante, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pró, sub, super, and some with circum, admit the Dative of the indirect object:
     neque enim adsentior eís (Lael. 13) , for I do not agree with them.
     quantum nátúra hominis pecudibus antecédit (Off. 1.105) , so far as man's nature is superior to brutes.
     sí sibi ipse cónsentit ( id. 1.5), if he is in accord with himself.
     virtútés semper voluptátibus inhaerent (Fin. 1.68) , virtues are always connected with pleasures.
     omnibus negótiís nón interfuit sólum sed praefuit ( id. 1.6), he not only had a hand in all matters, but took the lead in them.
     tempestátí obsequí artis est (Fam. 1.9.21) , it is a point of skill to yield to the weather.
     nec umquam succumbet inimícís (Deiot. 36) , and he will never yield to his foes.
     cum et Brútus cuilibet ducum praeferendus vidérétur et Vatínius núllí nón esset postferendus (Vell. 2.69) , since Brutus seemed worthy of being put before any of the generals and Vatinius deserved to be put after all of them.

In these cases the dative depends not on the preposition, but on the compound verb in its acquired meaning. Hence, if the acquired meaning is not suited to an indirect object, the original construction of the simple verb remains.

Thus in convocat suós, he calls his men together, the idea of calling is not so modified as to make an indirect object appropriate. So hominem interficere, to make way with a man (kill him). But in praeficere imperátórem belló, to put a man as commander-in-chief in charge of a war, the idea resulting from the composition is suited to an indirect object (see also b, Sect: 371, 388. b).

NOTE 1.--Some of these verbs, being originally transitive, take also a direct object: as,-- né offerámus nós perículís (Off. 1.83) , that we may not expose ourselves to perils.

NOTE 2.--The construction of Sect: 370 is not different in its nature from that of Sect: 362, 366, and 367; but the compound verbs make a convenient group.

Some compounds of ad, ante, ob, with a few others, have acquired a transitive meaning, and take the accusative (cf. Sect: 388. b):
     nós oppúgnat (Fam. 1.1) , he opposes us.
     quis audeat bene comitátum aggredí; ( Phil. 12.25), who would dare encounter a man well attended?
     múnus obíre (Lael. 7) , to attend to a duty.

The adjective obvius and the adverb obviam with a verb take the dative:
     sí ille obvius eí futúrus nón erat (Mil. 47) , if he was not intending to get in his way.
     mihi obviam vénistí; ( Fam. 2.16.3), you came to meet me.

SECTION: #371. When place or motion is distinctly thought of, the verbs mentioned in Sect: 370 regularly take a noun with a preposition:
     inhaeret in visceribus (Tusc. 4.24) , it remains fixed in the vitals.
     homine coniúnctó mécum (Tull. 4) , a man united to me.
     cum hóc concurrit ipse Eumenés (Nep. Eum. 4.1) , with him Eumenes himself engages in combat (runs together).
     inserite oculós in cúriam (Font. 43) , fix your eyes on the senate-house.
     ígnis quí est ob ós offúsus (Tim. 14) , the fire which is diffused before the sight.
     obicitur contrá istórum impetús Macedonia (Font. 44) , Macedonia is set to withstand their attacks. [Cf. sí quis vóbís error obiectus (Caec. 5) , if any mistake has been caused you.]
     in segetem flamma incidit (Aen. 2.304) , the fire falls upon the standing corn.

NOTE.--But the usage varies in different authors, in different words, and often in the same word and the same sense. The Lexicon must be consulted for each verb.

SECTION: #372. Intransitive verbs that govern the dative are used impersonally in the passive (Sect: 208. d). The dative is retained (cf. Sect: 365):
     cui parcí potuit (Liv. 21.14) , who could be spared?
     nón modo nón invidétur illí aetátí vérum etiam favétur (Off. 2.45) , that age (youth) not only is not envied, but is even favored.
     temporí serviendum est (Fam. 9.7) , we must serve the exigency of the occasion.

NOTE.--In poetry the personal construction is sometimes found: as,-- cúr invideor (Hor. A. P. 56) , why am I envied?

1 Such verbs are aggredior, adeó, antecédó, anteeó, antegredior, convenió, ineó, obeó, offendó, oppugnó, praecédó, subeó

Dative of .Possession

SECTION: #373. The Dative is used with esse and similar words to denote Possession:
     est mihi domí pater (Ecl. 3.33) , I have a father at home (there is to me).
     hominí cum deó similitúdó est (Legg. 1.25) , man has a likeness to God.
     quibus opés núllae sunt ( Sall. Cat. 37), [those] who have no wealth.

NOTE.--The Genitive or a Possessive with esse emphasizes the possessor; the Dative, the fact of possession: as,-- liber est meus, the book is MINE (and no one's else): est mihi liber, I HAVE a book (among other things).

With nómen est, and similar expressions, the name is often put in the Dative by a kind of apposition with the person; but the Nominative is also common:
     (1) cui áfricánó fuit cógnómen (Liv. 25.2) , whose (to whom) surname was Africanus.
     pueró ab inopiá Egerió inditum nómen ( id. 1.34), the name Egerius was given the boy from his poverty.
     (2) pueró nómen est Márcus, the boy's name is Marcus (to the boy is, etc.).
     cui nómen Arethúsa (Verr. 4.118) , [a fount] called Arethusa.

NOTE.--In early Latin the dative is usual; Cicero prefers the nominative, Livy the dative; Sallust uses the dative only. In later Latin the genitive also occurs (cf. Sect: 343. d): as,--Q. Metelló Macedonicí nómen inditum est (Vell. 1.11) , to Quintus Metellus the name of Macedonicus was given.

Désum takes the dative; so occasionally absum (which regularly has the ablative):
     hóc únum Caesarí défuit (B.G. 4.26) , this only was lacking to Caesar.
     quid huic abesse poterit (De Or. 1.48) , what can be wanting to him?

Dative of the Agent

SECTION: #374. The Dative of the Agent is used with the Gerundive to denote the person on whom the necessity rests:
     haec vóbís próvincia est défendenda (Manil. 14) , this province is for you to defend (to be defended by you).
     mihi est púgnandum, I have to fight (i.e. the need of fighting is to me: cf. mihi est liber, I have a book, Sect: 373. N.).

This is the regular way of expressing the agent with the Second or Passive Periphrastic Conjugation (Sect: 196).

NOTE 1.--The Ablative of the Agent with ab (Sect: 405) is sometimes used with the Second Periphrastic Conjugation when the Dative would be ambiguous or when a stronger expression is desired:
     quibus est á vóbís cónsulendum (Manil. 6) , for whom you must consult. [Here two datives, quibus and vóbís, would have been ambiguous.]
     rem ab omnibus vóbís próvidendam (Rab. 4) , that the matter must be attended to by all of you. [The dative might mean for all of you.]

NOTE 2.--The Dative of the Agent is either a special use of the Dative of Possession or a development of the Dative of Reference (Sect: 376).

SECTION: #375. The Dative of the Agent is common with perfect participles (especially when used in an adjective sense), but rare with other parts of the verb:
     mihi délíberátum et cónstitútum est (Leg. Agr. 1.25) , I have deliberated and resolved (it has been deliberated by me).
     mihi rés próvísa est (Verr. 4.91) , the matter has been provided for by me.
     síc dissimillimís béstiolís commúniter cibus quaeritur (N. D. 2.123) , so by very different creatures food is sought in common.

The Dative of the Agent is used by the poets and later writers with almost any passive verb:
     neque cernitur úllí (Aen. 1.440) , nor is seen by any.
     félíx est dicta sorórí (Ov. Fast. 3.1.597), she was called happy by her sister.
     Aelia Paetina Narcissó fovébátur (Tac. Ann. 12.1) , Aelia Paetina was favored by Narcissus.

The dative of the person who sees or thinks is regularly used after videor, seem:
     vidétur mihi, it seems (or seems good) to me.
     dís aliter vísum [ est] (Aen. 2.428) , it seemed otherwise to the gods.
     videor mihi perspicere ipsíus animum (Fam. 4.13.5) , I seem (to myself) to see the soul of the man himself.

NOTE.--The verb probáre, approve (originally a mercantile word), takes a Dative of Reference (Sect: 376), which has become so firmly attached that it is often retained with the passive, seemingly as Dative of Agent:
     haec sententia et illí et nóbís probábátur (Fam. 1.7.5) , this view met both his approval and mine (was made acceptable both to him and to me).
     hóc cónsilium plérísque nón probábátur (B. C. 1.72) , this plan was not approved by the majority. [But also, cónsilium á cúnctís probábátur ( id. 1.74).]

Dative of .Reference

SECTION: #376. The Dative often depends, not on any particular word, but on the general meaning of the sentence (Dative of Reference).

The dative in this construction is often called the Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage,as denoting the person or thing for whose benefit or to whose prejudice the action is performed.
     tibi arás (Plaut. Merc. 71), you plough for yourself.
     tuás rés tibi habétó; (Plaut. Trin. 266), keep your goods to yourself (formula of divorce).
     laudávit mihi frátrem, he praised my brother (out of regard for me; laudávit frátrem meum would imply no such motive).
     meritós mactávit honórés, taurum Neptúnó, taurum tibi, pulcher Apolló; ( Aen. 3.118), he offered the sacrifices due, a bull to Neptune, a bull to thee, beautiful Apollo.

NOTE.--In this construction the meaning of the sentence is complete without the dative, which is not, as in the preceding constructions, closely connected with any single word. Thus the Dative of Reference is easily distinguishable in most instances even when the sentence consists of only two words, as in the first example.

SECTION: #377. The Dative of Reference is often used to qualify a whole idea, instead of the Possessive Genitive modifying a single word:
     iter Poenís vel corporibus suís obstruere (Cat. M. 75) , to block the march of the Carthaginians even with their own bodies (to block, etc., for the disadvantage of, etc.).
     sé in cónspectum nautís dedit (Verr. 5.86) , he put himself in sight of the sailors (he put himself to the sailors into sight).
     versátur mihi ante oculós ( id. 5.123), it comes before my eyes (it comes to me before the eyes).

SECTION: #378. The Dative is used of the person from whose point of view an opinion is stated or a situation or a direction is defined.

This is often called the Dative of the Person Judging,but is merely a weakened variety of the Dative of Reference. It is used:/p>

1. Of the mental point of view (in my opinion, according to me. etc.):
     Plató mihi únus ínstar est centum mílium (Brut. 191) , in my opinion (to me) Plato alone is worth a hundred thousand.
     erit ille mihi semper deus (Ecl. 1.7) , he will always be a god to me (in my regard).
     quae est ista servitús tam cláró hominí (Par. 41) , what is that slavery according to the view of this distinguished man?

2. Of the local point of view (as you go in etc.). In this use the person is commonly denoted indefinitely by a participle in the dative plural:
     oppidum prímum Thessaliae venientibus ab Epíró; ( B. C. 3.80), the first town of Thessaly as you come from Epirus (to those coming, etc.).
     laevá parte sinum intrantí (Liv. 26.26) , on the left as you sail up the gulf (to one entering).
     est urbe égressís tumulus (Aen. 2.713) , there is, as you come out of the city, a mound (to those having come out).

NOTE.--The Dative of the Person Judging is (by a Greek idiom) rarely modified by vóléns, voléns (participles of nóló, voló), or by some similar word:
     ut quibusque bellum invítís aut cupientibus erat (Tac. Ann. 1.59) , as each might receive the war reluctantly or gladly.
     ut mílitibus labós volentibus esset (Iug. 100) , that the soldiers might assume the task willingly.

SECTION: #379. The Dative of Reference is used idiomatically without any verb in colloquial questions and exclamations:
     quó mihi fortúnam (Hor. Ep. 1.5.12) , of what use to me is fortune?
     unde mihi lapidem (Hor. S. 2.7.116) , where can I get a stone?
     quó tibi, Tillí; ( id. 1.6.24), what use for you, Tillius?

The dative of reference is sometimes used after interjections:
     ei (hei) mihi (Aen. 2.274) , ah me!
     vae victís (Liv. 5.48) , woe to the conquered.
     em tibi, there, take that (there for you)! [Cf. Sect: 380.]

NOTE.--To express FOR--meaning instead of, in defence of, in behalf of--the ablative with pró is used:
     pró patriá morí; ( Hor. Od. 3.2.13), to die for one's country.
     ego íbó pró té (Plaut. Most. 1131), I will go instead of you.

1 Datívus commodí aut incommodí.

2 Datívus iúdicantis

.Ethical Dative

SECTION: #380. The Dative of the Personal Pronouns is used to show a certain interest felt by the person indicated.

This construction is called the Ethical Dative.It is really a faded variety of the Dative of Reference.
     quid mihi Celsus agit (Hor. Ep. 1.3.15) , pray what is Celsus doing?
     suó sibi servit patrí; (Plaut. Capt. 5), he serves his own father.
     at tibi repente venit mihi Canínius (Fam. 9.2) , but, look you, of a sudden comes to me Caninius.
     hem tibi talentum argentí; ( Pl. Truc. 60), hark ye, a talent of silver.
     quid tibi vís, what would you have (what do you wish for yourself)?

1 Compare "I'll rhyme you so eight years together.Shaks.--As You Like It, 3.2.

2 Datívus éthicus.

Dative of .Separation

SECTION: #381. Many verbs of taking away and the like take the Dative (especially of a person) instead of the Ablative of Separation (Sect: 401).

Such are compounds of ab, dé, ex, and a few of ad:
     aureum eí détráxit amiculum (N. D. 3.83) , he took from him his cloak of gold.
     hunc mihi terrórem éripe (Cat. 1.18) , take from me this terror.
     vítam aduléscentibus vís aufert (Cat. M. 71) , violence deprives young men of life.
     nihil enim tibi détráxit senátus ( Fam. 1.5B), for the senate has taken nothing from you.
     nec mihi hunc errórem extorquérí voló; (Cat. M. 85), nor do I wish this error wrested from me.

NOTE.--The Dative of Separation is a variety of the Dative of Reference. It represents the action as done to the person or thing, and is thus more vivid than the Ablative

The distinct idea of motion requires the ablative with a preposition--thus generally with names of things (Sect: 426. 1):
     illum ex perículó éripuit (B. G. 4.12) , he dragged him out of danger.

NOTE.--Sometimes the dative of the person and the ablative of the thing with a preposition are both used with the same verb: as,-- mihi praeda dé manibus éripitur (Verr. 2.1.142) , the booty is wrested from my hands.

Dative of the Purpose or End

SECTION: #382. The Dative is used to denote the Purpose or End, often with another Dative of the person or thing affected.

This use of the dative, once apparently general, remains in only a few constructions, as follows:

1. The dative of an abstract noun is used to show that for which a thing serves or which it accomplishes, often with another dative of the person or thing affected:
     reí públicae cládí sunt (Iug. 85.43) , they are ruin to the state (they are for a disaster to the state).
     mágnó úsuí nostrís fuit (B. G. 4.25) , it was of great service to our men (to our men for great use).
     tertiam aciem nostrís subsidió mísit ( id. 1.52), he sent the third line as a relief to our men.
     suís salútí fuit ( id. 7.50), he was the salvation of his men.
     événit facile quod dís cordí esset (Liv. 1.39) , that came to pass easily which was desired by the gods (was for a pleasure [lit. heart] to the gods).

NOTE 1.--This construction is often called the Dative of Service, or the Double Dative construction. The verb is usually sum. The noun expressing the end for which is regularly abstract and singular in number and is never modified by an adjective, except one of degree ( mágnus, minor, etc.), or by a genitive.

NOTE 2.--The word frúgí used as an adjective is a dative of this kind:
     cógis mé dícere inimícum Frúgí (Font. 39) , you compel me to call my enemy Honest.
     hominés satis fortés et pláné frúgí (Verr. 3.67) , men brave enough and thoroughly honest. Cf. eró frúgí bonae (Plaut. Pseud. 468), I will be good for something. [See Sect: 122. b.]

2. The Dative of Purpose of concrete nouns is used in prose in a few military expressions, and with freedom in poetry :
     locum castrís déligit (B. G. 7.16) , he selects a site for a camp.
     receptuí canere, to sound a retreat (for a retreat).
     receptuí sígnum (Phil. 13.15) , the signal for retreat.
     optávit locum régnó (Aen. 3.109) , he chose a place for a kingdom.
     locum ínsidiís circumspectáre (Liv. 21.53) , to look about for a place for an ambush. [Cf. locum séditiónis quaerere ( id. 3.46).]

For the Dative of the Gerundive denoting Purpose, see Sect: 505. b.

Dative with Adjectives

SECTION: #383. The Dative is used after Adjectives or Adverbs, to denote that to which the given quality is directed, for which it exists, or towards which it tends.

NOTE.--The dative with certain adjectives is in origin a Dative of Purpose or End.

SECTION: #384. The Dative is used with adjectives (and a few Adverbs) of fitness, nearness, likeness, service, inclination, and their opposites:
     nihil est tam nátúrae aptum (Lael. 17) , nothing is so fitted to nature.
     nihil difficile amantí putó; (Or. 33), I think nothing hard to a lover.
     castrís idóneum locum délégit (B. G. 1.49) , he selected a place suitable for a camp.
     tribúní nóbís sunt amící; ( Q. Fr. 1.2.16), the tribunes are friendly to us.
     esse propitius potest néminí (N. D. 1.124) , he can be gracious to nobody.
     mágnís autem virís prosperae semper omnés rés ( id. 2.167), but to great men everything is always favorable.
     sédés huic nostró nón importúna sermóní (De Or. 3.18) , a place not unsuitable for this conversation of ours.
     cui fundó erat affínis M. Tullius (Tull. 14) , to which estate Marcus Tullius was next neighbor.
     convenienter nátúrae vívere (Off. 3.13) , to live in accordance with nature ( homologoumenos te phusei).

NOTE 1.--So, also, in poetic and colloquial use, with ídem: as,-- invítum quí servat idem facit occídentí (Hor. A. P. 467) , he who saves a man against his will does the same as one who kills him.

NOTE 2.--Adjectives of likeness are often followed by atque ( ac), as. So also the adverbs aequé, pariter, similiter, etc. The pronoun ídem has regularly atque or a relative:
     sí parem sapientiam habet ac formam (Plaut. Mil. 1251), if he has sense equal to his beauty (like as his beauty).
     té suspicor eísdem rébus quibus mé ipsum commovérí; (Cat. M. 1), I suspect you are disturbed by the same things by which I am.

SECTION: #385. Other constructions are sometimes found where the dative might be expected:

Adjectives of fitness or use take oftener the Accusative with ad to denote the purpose or end; but regularly the Dative of persons:
     aptus ad rem mílitárem, fit for a soldier's duty.
     locus ad ínsidiás aptior (Mil. 53) , a place fitter for lying in wait.
     nóbís útile est ad hanc rem (cf. Ter. And. 287), it is of use to us for this thing.

Adjectives and nouns of inclination and the like may take the Accusative with in or ergá:
     cómis in uxórem (Hor. Ep. 2.2.133) , kind to his wife.
     dívína bonitás ergá hominés (N. D. 2.60) , the divine goodness towards men.
     dé benevolentiá quam quisque habeat ergá nós (Off. 1.47) , in regard to each man's good will which he has towards us.
     grátiórem mé esse in té (Fam. 11.10) , that I am more grateful to you.

Some adjectives of likeness, nearness, belonging, and a few others, ordinarily requiring the Dative, often take the Possessive Genitive:
     quod ut illí proprium ac perpetuum sit ... optáre débétis (Manil. 48) , which you ought to pray may be secure (his own) and lasting to him. [Dative.]
     fuit hóc quondam proprium populí Rómání ( id. 32), this was once the peculiar characteristic of the Roman people. [Genitive.]
     cum utríque sís maximé necessárius ( Att. 9.7A), since you are especially bound to both. [Dative.]
     prócúrátor aequé utríusque necessárius (Quinct. 86) , an agent alike closely connected with both. [Genitive.]

1. The genitive is especially used with these adjectives when they are used wholly or approximately as nouns:
     amícus Ciceróní, friendly to Cicero. But, Cicerónis amícus, a friend of Cicero; and even, Cicerónis amícissimus, a very great friend of Cicero.
     créticus et eiius aequális paean (Or. 215) , the cretic and its equivalent the p"an.
     hí erant affínés istíus (Verr. 2.36) , these were this man's fellows.

2. After similis, like, the genitive is more common in early writers. Cicero regularly uses the genitive of persons, and either the genitive or the dative of things. With personal pronouns the genitive is regular ( meí, tuí, etc.), and also in vérí similis, probable:
     dominí similis es (Ter. Eun. 496) , you're like your master (your master's like).
     ut essémus similés deórum (N. D. 1.91) , that we might be like the gods.
     est similis máiórum suom (Ter. Ad. 411) , he's like his ancestors.
     patris similis esse (Off. 1.121) , to be like his father.
     símia quam similis turpissima béstia nóbís (N. D. 1.97, quoted from Enn.), how like us is that wretched beast the ape!
     sí enim hóc illí simile sit, est illud huic ( id. 1.90), for if this is like that, that is like this.

NOTE.--The genitive in this construction is not objective like those in Sect: 349, but possessive (cf. Sect: 343).

For the Dative or Accusative with propior, proximus, propius, proximé, see Sect: 432. a.


SECTION: #386. The Accusative originally served to connect the noun more or less loosely with the verb-idea, whether expressed by a verb proper or by a verbal noun or adjective. Its earliest use was perhaps to repeat the verb-idea as in the Cognate Accusative (run a race, fight a battle, see Sect: 390). From this it would be a short step to the Factitive Accusative (denoting the result of an act, as in make a table, drill a hole, cf. Sect: 273. N.1). From this last could easily come the common accusative (of Affecting, break a table, plug a hole, see Sect: 387. a). Traces of all these uses appear in the language, and the loose connection of noun with verb-idea is seen in the use of stems in composition (cf. Sect: 265.3).). It is impossible, however, to derive the various constructions of the accusative with certainty from any single function of that case.

The uses of the accusative may be classified as follows:

I. Primary Object: 1. Directly affected by the Action ( Sect: 387. a).

2. Effect of the Action Thing produced (Sect: 387. a). Cognate Accusative (Sect: 390).

II. Two Accusatives: 1. Predicate Accusative (Of Naming etc.) (Sect: 393).

2. Of Asking or Teaching (Sect: 396).

3. Of Concealing (Sect: 396. c).

III. Idiomatic Uses: 1. Adverbial (Sect: 397. a).

2. Of Specification ( Greek Accusative) (Sect: 397. b).

3. Of Extent and Duration (Sect: 423, 425).

4. Of Exclamation (Sect: 397. d).

5. Subject of Infinitive (Sect: 397. e).

1 Adjectives of this kind are accommodátus, aptus; amícus, inimícus, ínfestus, invísus, molestus; idóneus, opportúnus, proprius; útilis, inútilis; affínis, fínitimus, propinquus, vícínus; pár, dispár, similis, dissimilis; iúcundus, grátus; nótus, ígnótus, and others.

2 Such are aequális, affínis, aliénus, amícus, cógnátus, commúnis, cónsanguineus, contrárius, dispár, familiáris, fínitimus, inimícus, necessárius, pár, pecúliáris, propinquus, proprius (regularly genitive), sacer, similis, superstes, vícínus.

3 Compare armiger, armor-bearer, with arma gerere, to bear arms; fidicen, lyre-player, with fidibus canere, to (play on) sing to the lyre. Compare also istanc táctió (Plaut.), the [act of] touching her, with istanc tangere, to touch her (Sect: 388. d. N.2).

Direct Object

SECTION: #387. The Direct Object of a transitive verb is put in the Accusative (Sect: 274).

The Accusative of the Direct Object denotes (1) that which is directly affected, or (2) that which is caused or produced by the action of the verb:
     (1) Brútus Caesarem interfécit, Brutus killed Caesar.
     (2) aedem facere, to make a temple. [Cf. proelium púgnáre, to fight a battle, Sect: 390.]

NOTE.--There is no definite line by which transitive verbs can be distinguished from intransitive. Verbs which usually take a direct object (expressed or implied) are called transitive, but many of these are often used intransitively or absolutely. Thus timeó, I fear, is transitive in the sentence inimícum timeó, I fear my enemy, but intransitive (absolute) in nólí timére, don't be afraid. Again, many verbs are transitive in one sense and intransitive in another: as,-- Helvétiós superávérunt Rómání, the Romans overcame the Helvetians; but nihil superábat, nothing remained (was left over). So also many verbs commonly intransitive may be used transitively with a slight change of meaning: as,-- rídés, you are laughing; but mé rídés, you're laughing at me.

The object of a transitive verb in the active voice becomes its subject in the passive, and is put in the nominative (Sect: 275):
     Brútus Caesarem interfécit, Brutus killed Caesar.
     Caesar á Brútó interfectus est, Caesar was killed by Brutus.
     domum aedificat, he builds a house.
     domus aedificátur, the house is building (being built).

SECTION: #388. Certain special verbs require notice.

Many verbs apparently intransitive, expressing feeling, take an accusative, and may be used in the passive:
     meum cásum lúctumque doluérunt (Sest. 145) , they grieved at my calamity and sorrow.
     sí nón Acrisium rísissent Iuppiter et Venus (Hor. Od. 3.16.5) , if Jupiter and Venus had not laughed at Acrisius.
     rídétur ab omní conventú; ( Hor. S. 1.7.22), he is laughed at by the whole assembly.

For the Cognate Accusative with verbs of taste, smell, and the like, see Sect: 390. a.

NOTE.--Some verbs commonly intransitive may be used transitively (especially in poetry) from a similarity of meaning with other verbs that take the accusative:
     geméns ígnóminiam (Georg. 3.226) , groaning at the disgrace. [Cf. doleó.]
     festínáre fugam (Aen. 4.575) , to hasten their flight. [Cf. acceleró.]
     cómptós ársit crínís (Hor. Od. 4.9.13) , she burned with love for his well-combed locks. [Cf. adamó.]

Verbs of motion, compounds of circum, tráns, and praeter, and a few others, frequently become transitive, and take the accusative (cf. Sect: 370. b):
     mortem obíre, to die (to meet death).
     cónsulátum ineunt (Liv. 2.28) , they enter upon the consulship.
     néminem convéní; ( Fam. 9.14), I met no one.
     sí ínsulam adísset (B. G. 4.20) , if he should go to the island.
     tránsíre flúmen ( id. 2.23), to cross the river (cf. Sect: 395).
     cívés quí circumstant senátum (Cat. 1.21) , the citizens who stand about the senate.

NOTE.--Among such verbs are some compounds of ad, in, per, and sub.

The accusative is used after the impersonals decet, dédecet, délectat, iuvat, oportet, fallit, fugit, praeterit:
     ita ut vós decet (Plaut. Most. 729), so as befits you.
     mé pedibus délectat claudere verba (Hor. S. 2.1.28) , my delight is (it pleases me) to arrange words in measure.
     nisi mé fallit, unless I am mistaken (unless it deceives me).
     iúvit mé tibi tuás litterás prófuisse (Fam. 5.21.3) , it pleased me that your literary studies had profited you.
     té nón praeterit (Fam. 1.8.2) , it does not escape your notice.

NOTE 1.--So after later in poetry and post-classical prose: as,-- latet plérósque (Plin. N. H. 2.82), it is unknown to most persons.

NOTE 2.--These verbs are merely ordinary transitives with an idiomatic signification. Hence most of them are also used personally.

NOTE 3.-- Decet and latet sometimes take the dative:
     ita nóbís decet (Ter. Ad. 928) , thus it befits us.
     hostí que Róma latet (Sil. It. 12.614), and Rome lies hidden from the foe.

A few verbs in isolated expressions take the accusative from a forcing of their meaning. Such expressions are:
     feríre foedus, to strike a treaty (i.e. to sanction by striking down a victim).
     vincere iúdicium ( spónsiónem, rem, hóc), to prevail on a trial, etc. [As if the case were a difficulty to overcome; cf. vincere iter, Aen. 6.688.]
     aequor návigáre (Aen. 1.67) , to sail the sea. [As if it were tránsíre, Sect: 388. b.]
     maria aspera iúró; ( id. 6.351), I swear by the rough seas (cf. id. 6.324). [The accusative with verbs of swearing is chiefly poetic.]
     noctís dormíre, to sleep [whole] nights (to spend in sleep).

NOTE 1.--These accusatives are of various kinds. The last example approaches the cognate construction (cf. the second example under Sect: 390).

NOTE 2.--In early and popular usage some nouns and adjectives derived from transitive verbs retain verbal force sufficient to govern the accusative:
     quid tibi istanc táctió est (Plaut. Poen. 1308), what business have you to touch her? [Cf. tangó.]
     mírábundí béstiam (Ap. Met. 4.16) , full of wonder at the creature. [Cf. míror.]
     vítábundus castra (Liv. 25.13) , trying to avoid the camp. [Cf. vító.]

SECTION: #389. Many verbs ordinarily transitive may be used absolutely, having their natural object in the ablative with dé (Sect: 273. N. 2):
     priusquam Pompónius dé eiius adventú cógnósceret (B. C. 3.101) , before Pomponius could learn of his coming. [Cf. eiius adventú cógnitó, his arrival being discovered.]

For Accusative and Genitive after Impersonals, see Sect: 354. b. For the Accusative after the impersonal Gerundive with esse, see Sect: 500. 3.

.Cognate Accusative

SECTION: #390. An intransitive verb often takes the Accusative of a noun of kindred meaning, usually modified by an adjective or in some other manner.

This construction is called the Cognate Accusative or Accusative of Kindred Signification:
     tútiórem vítam vívere (Verr. 2.118) , to live a safer life.
     tertiam iam aetátem hominum vívébat (Cat. M. 31) , he was now living the third generation of men.
     servitútem servíre, to be in slavery.
     coíre societátem, to [go together and] form an alliance.

Verbs of taste, smell, and the like take a cognate accusative of the quality:
     vínum redoléns (Phil. 2.63) , smelling [of] wine.
     herbam mella sapiunt (Plin. H. N. 11.18) , the honey tastes [of] grass.
     olére malitiam (Rosc. Com. 20) , to have the odor of malice.
     Cordubae nátís poétís, pingue quiddam sonantibus atque peregrínum (Arch. 26) , to poets born at Cordova, whose speech had a somewhat thick and foreign accent.

The cognate accusative is often loosely used by the poets:
     huic errórí similem [ errórem] ínsáníre (Hor. S. 2.3.62) , to suffer a delusion like this.
     saltáre Cyclópa ( id. 1.5.63), to dance the Cyclops (represent in dancing).
     Bacchánália vívere (Iuv. 2.3) , to live in revellings.
     Amaryllida resonáre (Ecl. 1.5) , to recho [the name of] Amaryllis.
     intonuit laevum (Aen. 2.693) , it thundered on the left.
     dulce rídentem, dulce loquentem (Hor. Od. 1.22.23) , sweetly smiling, sweetly prattling.
     acerba tuéns (Aen. 9.794) , looking fiercely. (Cf. Eng. "to look daggers.)
     torvum clámat ( id. 7.399), he cries harshly.

A neuter pronoun or an adjective of indefinite meaning is very common as cognate accusative (cf. Sect: 214. d, 397. a):
     Empedoclés multa alia peccat (N. D. 1.29) , Empedocles commits many other errors.
     ego illud adsentior Theophrastó; (De Or. 3.184), in this I agree with Theophrastus.
     multum té ista fefellit opínió; ( Verr. 2.1.88), you were much deceived in this expectation (this expectation deceived you much).
     plús valeó, I have more strength.
     plúrimum potest, he is strongest.
     quid mé ista laedunt (Leg. Agr. 2.32) , what harm do those things do me?
     hóc té moneó, I give you this warning (cf. d. N.1).
     id laetor, I rejoice at this (cf. d. N.1).
     quid moror, why do I delay?
     quae hominés arant, návigant, aedificant ( Sall. Cat. 2.7), what men do in ploughing, sailing, and building.

So in many common phrases:
     sí quid ille sé velit (B. G. 1.34) , if he should want anything of him (if he should want him in anything).
     numquid, Geta, aliud mé vís (Ter. Ph. 151) , can I do anything more for you, Geta (there is nothing you want of me, is there)? [A common form of leave-taking.]
     quid est quod, etc., why is it that, etc.? [Cf. hóc erat quod ( Aen. 2.664), was it for this that, etc.?]

NOTE 1.--In these cases substantives with a definite meaning would be in some other construction:
     in hóc eódem peccat, he errs in this same point.
     bonís rébus laetárí, to rejoice at prosperity. [Also: in, dé, or ex.]
     dé testámentó monére, to remind one of the will. [Later: genitive, Sect: 351.]
     officí admonére, to remind one of his duty. [Also: dé offició.]

NOTE 2.--In some of these cases the connection of the accusative with the verb has so faded out that the words have become real adverbs: as,-- multum, plús, plúrimum; plérumque, for the most part, generally; céterum, cétera, for the rest, otherwise, but; prímum, first; nihil, by no means, not at all; aliquid, somewhat; quid, why; facile, easily. So in the comparative of adverbs (Sect: 218). But the line cannot be sharply drawn, and some of the examples under b may be classed as adverbial.


SECTION: #391. Some transitive verbs take a second accusative in addition to their Direct Object.

This second accusative is either (1) a Predicate Accusative or (2) a Secondary Object.

Predicate Accusative

SECTION: #392. An accusative in the Predicate referring to the same person or thing as the Direct Object, but not in apposition with it, is called a Predicate Accusative.

SECTION: #393. Verbs of naming, choosing, appointing, making, esteeming, showing, and the like, may take a Predicate Accusative along with the direct object:
     ó Spartace, quem enim té potius appellem (Phil. 13.22) , O Spartacus, for what else shall I call you (than Spartacus)?
     Cicerónem cónsulem creáre, to elect Cicero consul.
     mé augurem nóminávérunt (Phil. 2.4) , they nominated me for augur.
     cum grátiás ageret quod sé cónsulem fécisset (De Or. 2.268) , when he thanked him because he had made him consul (supported his candidacy).
     hominem prae sé néminem putávit (Rosc. Am. 135) , he thought nobody a man in comparison with himself.
     ducem sé praebuit (Vat. 33) , he offered himself as a leader.

NOTE.--The predicate accusative may be an adjective: as,-- hominés mítís reddidit et mánsuétós (Inv. 1.2) , has made men mild and gentle.

In changing from the active voice to the passive, the Predicate Accusative becomes Predicate Nominative (Sect: 284):
     réx ab suís appellátur (B. G. 8.4) , he is called king by his subjects. [Active
    > suí eum régem appellant.]

Secondary Object

SECTION: #394. The Accusative of the Secondary Object is used (along with the direct object) to denote something more remotely affected by the action of the verb.

SECTION: #395. Transitive verbs compounded with prepositions sometimes take (in addition to the direct object) a Secondary Object, originally governed by the preposition:
     Caesar Germánós flúmen tráicit (B. C. 1.83) , Caesar throws the Germans across the river.
     idem iús iúrandum adigit Afránium ( id. 1.76), he exacts the same oath from Afranius.
     quós Pompeiius omnia sua praesidia circumdúxit ( id. 3.61), whom Pompey conducted through all his garrison.

NOTE 1.--This construction is common only with trádúcó, tráició, and tránsportó. The preposition is sometimes repeated with compounds of tráns, and usually with compounds of the other prepositions. The ablative is also used:
     dónec rés suás tráns Halyn flúmen tráicerent (Liv. 38.25) , till they should get their possessions across the river Halys.
     ( exercitus) Padó tráiectus Cremónam ( id. 21.56), the army was conveyed across the Po to Cremona (by way of the Po, Sect: 429. a).

NOTE 2.--The secondary object may be retained with a passive verb: as,-- Belgae Rhénum tráductí sunt (B. G. 2.4) , the Belgians were led over the Rhine.

NOTE 3.--The double construction indicated in Sect: 395 is possible only when the force of the preposition and the force of the verb are each distinctly felt in the compound, the verb governing the direct, and the preposition the secondary object.

But often the two parts of the compound become closely united to form a transitive verb of simple meaning. In this case the compound verb is transitive solely by virtue of its prepositional part and can have but one accusative,--the same which was formerly the secondary object, but which now becomes the direct. So tráició comes to mean either (1) to pierce (anybody) [by hurling] or (2) to cross (a river etc.):
     gladió hominem tráiécit, he pierced the man with a sword. [Here iació has lost all transitive force, and serves simply to give the force of a verb to the meaning of tráns, and to tell the manner of the act.]
     Rhodanum tráiécit, he crossed the Rhone. [Here iació has become simply a verb of motion, and tráició is hardly distinguishable from tránseó.]

In these examples hominem and Rhodanum, which would be secondary objects if tráiécit were used in its primary signification, have become the direct objects. Hence in the passive construction they become the subjects and are put in the nominative:
     homó tráiectus est gladió, the man was pierced with a sword.
     Rhodanus tráiectus est, the Rhone was crossed.

The poetical tráiectus lóra (Aen. 2.273) , pierced with thongs, comes from a mixture of two constructions: (1) eum tráiécit lóra, he rove thongs through him,and (2) eum tráiécit lórís, he pierced him with thongs. In putting the sentence into a passive form, the direct object of the former ( lóra) is irregularly kept, and the direct object of the latter ( eum) is made the subject.

SECTION: #396. Some verbs of asking and teaching may take two accusatives, one of the Person (direct object), and the other of the Thing (secondary object):
     mé sententiam rogávit, he asked me my opinion.
     ótium dívós rogat (Hor. Od. 2.16.1) , he prays the gods for rest.
     haec praetórem postulábás (Tull. 39) , you demanded this of the pr"tor.
     aedílís populum rogáre (Liv. 6.42) , to ask the people [to elect] "diles.
     docére puerós elementa, to teach children their A B C's.

NOTE.--This construction is found in classical authors with óró, poscó, reposcó, rogó, interrogó, flágitó, doceó.

Some verbs of asking take the ablative of the person with a preposition instead of the accusative. So, always, petó ( ab), quaeró ( ex, ab, dé); usually poscó ( ab), flágitó ( ab), postuló ( ab), and occasionally others:
     pácem ab Rómánís petiérunt (B. G. 2.13) , they sought peace from the Romans.
     quod quaesívit ex mé P. Apuleiius (Phil. 6.1) , what Publius Apuleius asked of me.

With the passive of some verbs of asking or teaching, the person or the thing may be used as subject (cf. c. N.2):
     Caesar sententiam rogátus est, Caesar was asked his opinion.
     id ab eó flágitábátur (B. C. 1.71) , this was urgently demanded of him.

NOTE.--The accusative of the thing may be retained with the passive of rogó, and of verbs of teaching, and occasionally with a few other verbs:
     fuerant hóc rogátí; ( Cael. 64), they had been asked this.
     poscor meum Laelapa (Ov. M. 7.771) , I am asked for my Laelaps.
     Ciceró cúncta édoctus ( Sall. Cat. 45), Cicero, being informed of everything.

But with most verbs of asking in prose the accusative of the thing becomes the subject nominative, and the accusative of the person is put in the ablative with a preposition: as,-- né postulantur quidem vírés á senectúte (Cat. M. 34) , strength is not even expected of an old man (asked from old age).

The verb céló, conceal, may take two accusatives, and the usually intransitive lateó, lie hid, an accusative of the person:
     nón té céláví sermónem T. Ampí; ( Fam. 2.16.3), I did not conceal from you the talk of Titus Ampius.
     nec latuére dolí frátrem Iúnónis (Aen. 1.130) , nor did the wiles of Juno escape the notice of her brother.

NOTE 1.--The accusative of the person with lateó is late or poetical (Sect: 388. c. N.1).

NOTE 2.--All the double constructions indicated in 396 arise from the wavering meaning of the verbs. Thus doceó means both to show a thing, and to instruct a person; céló, to keep a person in the dark, and to hide a thing; rogó, to question a person, and to ask a question or a thing. Thus either accusative may be regarded as the direct object, and so become the subject of the passive (cf. b above), but for convenience the accusative of the thing is usually called secondary.

1 Perhaps not found in the active, but cf. tráiectó fúne (Aen. 5.488) .

Idiomatic Uses

SECTION: #397. The Accusative has the following special uses:

The accusative is found in a few adverbial phrases (Adverbial Accusative):
     id temporis, at that time; id ( istuc) aetátis, at that age.
     id ( quod) genus, of that (what) sort (perhaps originally nominative).
     meam vicem, on my part.
     bonam partem, in a great measure; maximam partem, for the most part.
     viríle ( muliebre) secus, of the male (female) sex (probably originally in apposition).
     quod sí, but if (as to which, if); quod nisi, if not.

The so-called synecdochical or Greek Accusative, found in poetry and later Latin, is used to denote the part affected:
     caput nectentur (Aen. 5.309) , their heads shall be bound (they shall be bound about the head).
     árdentís oculós suffectí sanguine et ígní; ( id. 2.210), their glaring eyes bloodshot and blazing with fire (suffused as to their eyes with blood and fire).
     núda genú ( id. 1.320), with her knee bare (bare as to the knee).
     femur trágulá ictus (Liv. 21.7.10) , wounded in the thigh by a dart.

NOTE.--This construction is also called the Accusative of Specification.

In many apparently similar expressions the accusative may be regarded as the direct object of a verb in the middle voice (Sect: 156. a):
     inútile ferrum cingitur (Aen. 2.510) , he girds on the useless steel.
     nodó sinús collécta fluentís ( id. 1.320), having her flowing folds gathered in a knot.
     umerós ínsternor pelle leónis ( id. 2.722), I cover my shoulders with a lion's skin.
     prótinus induitur faciem cultum que Diánae (Ov. M. 2.425) , forthwith she assumes the shape and garb of Diana.

The Accusative is used in Exclamations:
     ó fortúnátam rem públicam, O fortunate republic! [Cf. ó fortúnáta mor<
    > ( Phil. 14.31), oh, happy death! (Sect: 339. a).]
     ó mé ínfélícem (Mil. 102) , oh, unhappy I!
     mé miserum, ah, wretched me!
     én quattuor árás (Ecl. 5.65) , lo, four altars!
     ellum (=em illum), there he is! [Cf. Sect: 146. a. N.2.]
     eccós (= ecce eós), there they are, look at them!
     pró deum fidem, good heavens (O protection of the gods)!
     hócine saeclum (Ter. Ad. 304) , O this generation!
     huncine hominem (Verr. 5.62) , this man, good heavens!

NOTE 1.--Such expressions usually depend upon some long-forgotten verb. The substantive is commonly accompanied by an adjective. The use of -ne in some cases suggests an original question, as in quid? what? why? tell me.

NOTE 2.--The omission of the verb has given rise to some other idiomatic accusatives. Such are:
     salútem (sc. dícit) (in addressing a letter), greeting.
     mé díus fidius (sc. adiuvet), so help me heaven (the god of faith).
     unde mihí lapidem (Hor. S. 2.7.116) , where can I get a stone?
     quó mihi fortúnam (Hor. Ep. 1.5.12) , of what use to me is fortune? [No verb thought of.]

The subject of an infinitive is in the accusative:
     intellegó té sapere (Fam. 7.32.3) , I perceive that you are wise.
     eás rés iactárí nólébat (B. G. 1.18) , he was unwilling that these matters should be discussed.

NOTE.--This construction is especially common with verbs of knowing, thinking, telling, and perceiving (Sect: 580).

The accusative in later writers is sometimes used in apposition with a clause:
     déserunt tribúnal ... manús intentantés, causam discordiae et initium armórum (Tac. Ann. 1.27) , they abandon the tribunal shaking their fists,-- a cause of dissension and the beginning of war.

NOTE.--This construction is an extension (under Greek influence) of a usage more nearly within the ordinary rules, such as,-- Eumenem pródidére Antiochó, pácis mercédem ( Sall. Ep. Mith. 8) , they betrayed Eumenes to Antiochus, the price of peace. [Here Eumenes may be regarded as the price, although the real price is the betrayal.]

For the Accusative of the End of Motion, see Sect: 427.2; for the Accusative of Duration of Time and Extent of Space, see Sect: 423, 425; for the Accusative with Prepositions, see Sect: 220.


SECTION: #398. Under the name Ablative are included the meanings and, in part, the forms of three cases,--the Ablative proper, expressing the relation FROM; the Locative, IN; and the Instrumental, WITH or BY. These three cases were originally not wholly distinct in meaning, and their confusion was rendered more certain (1) by the development of meanings that approached each other and (2) by phonetic decay, by means of which these cases have become largely identical in form. Compare, for the first, the phrases á parte dexterá, ON the right; quam ob causam, FROM which cause; ad fámam, AT (in consequence of) the report; and, for the second, the like forms of the dative and ablative plural, the old dative in - é of the fifth declension (Sect: 96), and the loss of the original -d of the ablative (Sect: 49. e; cf. Sect: 43. N.1, 92. f, 214. a. N.).

The relation of FROM includes separation, source, cause, agent, and comparison; that of WITH or BY, accompaniment, instrument, means, manner, quality, and price; that of IN or AT, place, time, circumstance. This classification according to the original cases (to which, however, too great a degree of certainty should not be attached)is set forth in the following table:

I. Ablative Proper (from) (Separative): 1. Of Separation, Privation, and Want (Sect: 400).

2. Of Source (participles of origin etc.) (Sect: 403).

3. Of Cause ( labóró, exsilió, etc.) (Sect: 404).

4. Of Agent (with ab after Passives) (Sect: 405).

5. Of Comparison (THAN) (Sect: 406).

II. Instrumental Ablative (with): 1. Of Manner, Means, and Instrument (Sect: 408 ff.).

2. Of Object of the Deponents útor etc. (Sect: 410).

3. Of Accompaniment (with cum) (Sect: 413).

4. Of Degree of Difference (Sect: 414).

5. Of Quality (with Adjectives) (Sect: 415).

6. Of Price and Exchange (Sect: 416).

7. Of Specification (Sect: 418).

8. Ablative Absolute (Sect: 419).

III. Locative Ablative (in, on, at): 1. Of Place where (commonly with in) (Sect: 421).

2. Of Time and Circumstance (Sect: 423).

SECTION: #399. The Ablative is used to denote the relations expressed in English by the prepositions from; in, at; with, by:
     líberáre metú, to deliver from fear.
     excultus doctríná, trained in learning.
     hóc ipsó tempore, at this very time.
     caecus aváritiá, blind with avarice.
     occísus gladió, slain by the sword.

1 Thus the Ablative of Cause may be, at least in part, of Instrumental origin, and the Ablative Absolute appears to combine the Instrumental and the Locative.


Ablative of Separation

SECTION: #400. Words signifying Separation or Privation are followed by the ablative.

SECTION: #401. Verbs meaning to remove, set free, be absent, deprive, and want, take the Ablative (sometimes with ab or ex):
     oculís sé prívávit (Fin. 5.87) , he deprived himself of eyes.
     omní Galliá Rómánís interdícit (B. G. 1.46) , he ( Ariovistus) bars the Romans from the whole of Gaul.
     eí aquá et ígní interdícitur (Vell. 2.45) , he is debarred the use of fire and water. [The regular formula of banishment.]
     voluptátibus carére (Cat. M. 7) , to lack enjoyments.
     nón egeó medicíná (Lael. 10) , I want no physic.
     levámur superstitióne, líberámur mortis metú (Fin. 1.63) , we are relieved from superstition, we are freed from fear of death.
     solútí á cupiditátibus (Leg. Agr. 1.27) , freed from desires.
     multós ex hís incommodís pecúniá sé líberásse (Verr. 5.23) , that many have freed themselves by money from these inconveniences.

For the Genitive with verbs of separation and want, see Sect: 356. N.

SECTION: #402. Verbs compounded with á, ab, dé, ex, (1) take the simple Ablative when used figuratively; but (2) when used literally to denote actual separation or motion, they usually require a preposition (Sect: 426. 1):
     (1) cónátú désistere (B. G. 1.8) , to desist from the attempt.
     désine commúnibus locís (Acad. 2.80) , quit commonplaces.
     abíre magistrátú, to leave one's office.
     abstinére iniúriá, to refrain from wrong.
     (2) á própositó aberráre (Fin. 5.83) , to wander from the point.
     dé próvinciá décédere (Verr. 2.48) , to withdraw from one's province.
     ab iúre abíre ( id. 2.114), to go outside of the law.
     ex cívitáte excessére (B. G. 6.8) , they departed from the state. [But cf. fínibus suís excesserant ( id. 4.18), they had left their own territory.]
     á mágnó démissum nómen Iúló; ( Aen. 1.288), a name descended (sent down) from great Iulus.

For the Dative used instead of the Ablative of Separation, see Sect: 381. For the Ablative of the actual place whence in idiomatic expressions, see Sect: 427. 1, 428. f.

Adjectives denoting freedom and want are followed by the ablative:
     urbs núda praesidió (Att. 7.13) , the city naked of defence.
     immúnis mílitiá (Liv. 1.43) , free of military service.
     plébs orba tribúnís (Leg. 3.9), the people deprived of tribunes.

NOTE.--A preposition sometimes occurs:
     á culpá vacuus ( Sall. Cat. 14), free from blame.
     líberí á déliciís (Leg. Agr. 1.27) , free from luxuries.
     Messána ab hís rébus vacua atque núda est (Verr. 4.3) , Messana is empty and bare of these things.

For the Genitive with adjectives of want, see Sect: 349. a.

Ablative of Source and Material

SECTION: #403. The Ablative (usually with a preposition) is used to denote the Source from which anything is derived, or the Material of which it consists:

1. Source:
     Rhénus oritur ex Lepontiís (B. G. 4.10) , the Rhine rises in (from) the country of the Lepontii.
     ab hís sermó oritur (Lael. 5) , the conversation is begun by (arises from) them.
     cúius ratiónis vim atque útilitátem ex illó caelestí Epicúrí volúmine accépimus (N. D. 1.43) , of this reasoning we have learned the power and advantage from that divine book of Epicurus.
     suávitátem odórum quí afflárentur é flóribus (Cat. M. 59) , the sweetness of the odors which breathed from the flowers.

2. Material:
     erat tótus ex fraude et mendáció factus (Clu. 72) , he was entirely made up of fraud and falsehood.
     valvás mágnificentiórés, ex auró atque ebore perfectiórés (Verr. 4.124) , more splendid doors, more finely wrought of gold and ivory.
     factum dé cautibus antrum (Ov. M. 1.575) , a cave formed of rocks.
     templum dé marmore pónam (Georg. 3.13) , I'll build a temple of marble.

NOTE 1.--In poetry the preposition is often omitted.

NOTE 2.--The Ablative of Material is a development of the Ablative of Source. For the Genitive of Material, see Sect: 344.

Participles denoting birth or origin are followed by the Abla tive of Source, generally without a preposition:
     Iove nátus et Máiá (N. D. 3.56) , son of Jupiter and Maia.
     édite régibus (Hor. Od. 1.1.1) , descendant of kings.
     quó sanguine crétus (Aen. 2.74) , born of what blood.
     genitae Pandíone (Ov. M. 6.666) , daughters of Pandion.

NOTE 1.--A preposition ( ab, dé, ex) is usually expressed with pronouns, with the name of the mother, and often with that of other ancestors:
     ex mé híc nátus nón est sed ex frátre meó; ( Ter. Ad. 40), this is not my son, but my brother's (not born from me, etc.).
     cum ex utráque [ uxóre] fílius nátus esset (De Or. 1.183) , each wife having had a son (when a son had been born of each wife).
     Bélus et omnés á Béló (Aen. 1.730) , Belus and all his descendants.

NOTE 2.--Rarely, the place of birth is expressed by the ablative of source: as,-- désíderávit C. Flegínátem Placentiá, A. Gránium Puteolís (B. C. 3.71) , he lost Caius Fleginas of Placentia, Aulus Granius of Puteoli.

NOTE 3.--The Roman tribe is regularly expressed by the ablative alone: as,-- Q. Verrem Rómiliá (Verr. 1.23) , Quintus Verres of the Romilian tribe.

Some verbs may take the Ablative of Material without a preposition. Such are cónstáre, cónsistere, and continérí.But with cónstáre, ex is more common:
     domús amoenitás nón aedifició sed silvá cónstábat (Nep. Att. 13) , the charm of the house consisted not in the buildings but in the woods.
     ex animó cónstámus et corpore (Fin. 4.19) , we consist of soul and body.
     víta corpore et spíritú continétur (Marc. 28) , life consists of body and spirit.

The Ablative of Material without a preposition is used with facere, fierí, and similar words, in the sense of do with, become of:
     quid hóc homine faciátis (Verr. 2.1.42) , what are you going to do with this man?
     quid Tulliolá meá fíet (Fam. 14.4.3) , what will become of my dear Tullia ?
     quid té futúrum est (Verr. 2.155) , what will become of you?

The Ablative of Material with ex, and in poetry without a preposition, sometimes depends directly on a noun:
     nón pauca pócula ex auró (Verr. 4.62) , not a few cups of gold.
     scopulís pendentibus antrum (Aen. 1.166) , a cave of hanging rocks.

For Ablative of .Source instead of Partitive Genitive, see Sect: 346. c.

Ablative of Cause

SECTION: #404. The Ablative (with or without a preposition) is used to express Cause:
     neglegentiá plectimur (Lael. 85) , we are chastised for negligence.
     gubernátóris ars útilitáte nón arte laudátur (Fin. 1.42) , the pilot s skill is praised for its service, not its skill.
     certís dé causís, for cogent reasons.
     ex vulnere aeger (Rep. 2.38) , disabled by (from) a wound.
     mare á sóle lucet (Acad. 2.105) , the sea gleams in the sun (from the sun).

The Ablative of Cause without a preposition is used with labóró (also with ex), exsilió, exsultó, triumphó, lacrimó, árdeó:
     doleó té aliís malís labóráre (Fam. 4.3) , I am sorry that you suffer with other ills. [Cf. ex aere aliénó labóráre (B. C. 3.22) , to labor under debt (from another's money).]
     exsultáre laetitiá, triumpháre gaudió coepit (Clu. 14) , she began to exult in gladness, and triumph in joy.
     exsiluí gaudió (Fam. 16.16) , I jumped for joy. [Cf. lacrimó gaudió (Ter. Ad. 409) , I weep for joy.]
     árdére dolóre et írá (Att. 2.19.5) , to be on fire with pain and anger.

For gaudeó and glórior, see Sect: 431.

The motive which influences the mind of the person acting is expressed by the ablative of cause; the object exciting the emotion often by obor propter with the accusative:
     nón ob praedam aut spoliandí cupídine (Tac. H. 1.63) , not for booty or through lust of plunder.
     amícitia ex sé et propter sé expetenda (Fin. 2.83) , friendship must be sought of and for itself.

NOTE.--But these constructions are often confused: as,-- párére légibus propter metum (Par. 34) , to obey the laws on account of fear. [Here metum is almost equivalent to úthe terrors of the law" and hence propter is used, though the ablative would be more natural.]

The ablatives causá and grátiá, for the sake of, are used with a genitive preceding, or with a pronoun in agreement:
     eá causá, on account of this; quá grátiá; ( Ter. Eun. 99), for what purpose?
     meá causá, for my sake; meá grátiá; (Plaut.), for my sake.
     ex meá et reí públicae causá, for my own sake and the republic's.
     praedictiónis causá; (N. D. 3.5), by way of prophecy.
     exemplí grátiá; ( verbí grátiá), for example.
     suí púrgándí grátiá, for the sake of clearing themselves.

NOTE.--But grátiá with possessives in this use is rare.

Ablative of .Agent

SECTION: #405. The Voluntary Agent after a passive verb is expressed by the Ablative with á or ab:
     laudátur ab hís, culpátur ab illís (Hor. S. 1.2.11) , he is praised by these, blamed by those.
     ab animó tuó quidquid agitur id agitur á té (Tusc. 1.52) , whatever is done by your soul is done by yourself.
     á fíliís in iúdicium vocátus est (Cat. M. 22) , he was brought to trial by his sons.
     cum á cúnctó cónsessú plausus esset multiplex datus ( id. 64), when great applause had been given by the whole audience.
     né virtús ab audáciá vincerétur (Sest. 92) , that valor might not be overborne by audacity. [ Audácia is in a manner personified.]

NOTE 1.--This construction is developed from the Ablative of Source. The agent is conceived as the source or author of the action.

NOTE 2.--The ablative of the agent (which requires á or ab) must be carefully distinguished from the ablative of instrument, which has no preposition (Sect: 409). Thus -- occísus gladió, slain by a sword; but, occísus ab hoste, slain by an enemy.

NOTE 3.--The ablative of the agent is commonest with nouns denoting persons, but it occurs also with names of things or qualities when these are conceived as performing an action and so are partly or wholly personified, as in the last example under the rule.

The ablative of the agent with ab is sometimes used after intransitive verbs that have a passive sense:
     períre ab hoste, to be slain by an enemy.

The personal agent, when considered as instrument or means, is often expressed by per with the accusative, or by operá with a genitive or possessive:
     ab explórátóribus certior factus est (B. G. 1.21) , he was informed by scouts (in person). But,--
     per explórátórés Caesar certior factus est ( id. 1.12), Caesar was informed by (means of) scouts.
     élautae operá Neptúní (Plaut. Rud. 699), washed clean by the services of Neptune.
     nón meá operá événit (Ter. Hec. 228) , it hasn't happened through me (by my exertions). [Cf. eiius operá, B. G. 5.27.]

NOTE 1.--The ablative of means or instrument is often used instead of the ablative of agent, especially in military phrases: as,-- haec excubitóribus tenébantur (B. G. 7.69) , these (redoubts) were held by means of sentinels.

NOTE 2.--An animal is sometimes regarded as the means or instrument, sometimes as the agent. Hence both the simple ablative and the ablative with ab occur:
     equó vehí, to ride on horseback (be conveyed by means of a horse). [Not ab equó.]
     clipeós á múribus esse dérósós (Div. 1.99) , that the shields were gnawed by mice.

For the Dative of the Agent with the Gerundive, see Sect: 374.

Ablative of .Comparison

SECTION: #406. The Comparative degree is often followed by the Ablativesignifying than:
     Cató est Ciceróne éloquentior, Cato is more eloquent than Cicero.
     quid nóbís duóbus labóriósius est (Mil. 5) , what more burdened with toil than we two?
     vílius argentum est auró, virtútibus aurum (Hor. Ep. 1.1.52) , silver is less precious than gold, gold than virtue.

The idiomatic ablatives opínióne, spé, solitó, dictó, aequó, crédibilí, and iústó are used after comparatives instead of a clause:
     celerius opínióne (Fam. 14.23) , faster than one would think.
     sérius spé omnium (Liv. 26.26) , later than all hoped (than the hope of all).
     amnis solitó citátior ( id. 23.19.11), a stream swifter than its wont.
     gravius aequó ( Sall. Cat. 51), more seriously than was right.

SECTION: #407. The comparative may be followed by quam, than. When quam is used, the two things compared are put in the same case<
     nón callidior es quam híc (Rosc. Am. 49) , you are not more cunning than he.
     cóntiónibus accommodátior est quam iúdiciís (Clu. 2) , fitter for popular assemblies than for courts.
     misericordiá dígnior quam contuméliá (Pison. 32) , more worthy of pity than of disgrace.

The construction with quam is required when the first of the things compared is not in the Nominative or Accusative.

NOTE 1.--There are several limitations on the use of the ablative of comparison even when the first of the things compared is in the nominative or accusative. Thus the quam construction is regularly used (1) when the comparative is in agreement with a genitive, dative, or ablative: as,-- senex est eó melióre condicióne quam aduléscéns (Cat. M. 68) , an old man is in this respect in a better position than a young man; and (2) when the second member of the comparison is modified by a clause: as,--minor fuit aliquantó is quí prímus fábulam dedit quam eí quí, etc. (Brut. 73), he who first presented a play was somewhat younger than those who, etc.

NOTE 2.--The poets sometimes use the ablative of comparison where the prose construction requires quam: as,--páne egeó iam mellítís potióre placentís (Hor. Ep. 1.10.11) , I now want bread better than honey-cakes.

NOTE 3.--Relative pronouns having a definite antecedent never take quam in this construction, but always the ablative: as,-- réx erat Aenéás nóbís, quó iústior alter nec, etc. ( Aen. 1.544), Aeeas was our king, than whom no other [was] more righteous.

In sentences expressing or implying a general negative the ablative (rather than quam) is the regular construction when the first member of the comparison is in the nominative or accusative:
     nihil détestábilius dédecore, nihil foedius servitúte (Phil. 3.36) , nothing is more dreadful than disgrace, nothing viler than slavery.
     néminem esse cáriórem té ( Att. x. 8A. 1), that no one is dearer than you.

After the comparatives plús, minus, amplius, longius, without quam, a word of measure or number is often used with no change in its case:
     plús septingentí captí; ( Liv. 41.12), more than seven hundred were taken. [Nominative.]
     plús tertiá parte interfectá; ( B. G. 3.6), more than a third part being slain. [Ablative Absolute.]
     aditus in látitúdinem nón amplius ducentórum pedum relinquébátur ( id. 2.29), an approach of not more than two hundred feet in width was left. [Genitive of Measure: Sect: 345. b.]

NOTE.--The noun takes the case required by the context, without reference to the comparative, which is in a sort of apposition: "seven hundred were taken [and] more.

Alius is sometimes followed by the ablative in poetic and colloquial use; in formal prose it is followed by ac ( atque), et, more rarely by nisi, quam:
     nec quicquam aliud líbertáte commúní; ( Fam. 11.2), nothing else than the common liberty.
     alius Lysippó (Hor. Ep. 2.1.240) , another than Lysippus.
     num aliud vidétur esse ac meórum bonórum díreptió; ( Dom. 51), does it seem anything different from the plundering of my property?
     erat historia nihil aliud nisi annálium cónfectió; (De O<
    >. 2.52), history was nothing else but a compiling of records.

The comparative of an adverb is usually followed by quam, rarely by the ablative except in poetry:
     tempus té citius quam órátió déficeret (Rosc. Am. 89) , time would fail you sooner than words. But,--
     cur olívum sanguine víperínó cautius vítat (Hor. Od. 1.8.9) , why does he shun oil more carefully than viper's blood?

NOTE.--Prepositions meaning before or beyond (as ante, prae, praeter, suprá) are sometimes used with a comparative: as,-- scelere ante aliós immánior omnís (Aen. 1.347) , more monstrous in crime than all other men.

1 As nátus, satus, éditus, genitus, ortus, prógnátus, generátus, crétus, creátus, oriundus.

2 The ablative with cónsistere and continérí is probably locative in origin (cf. Sect: 431).

3 The cause, in the ablative, is originally source, as is shown by the use of ab, dé, ex; but when the accusative with ad, ob, is used, the idea of cause arises from nearness. Occasionally it is difficult to distinguish between cause and means (which is the old Instrumental case) or circumstance (which is either the Locative or the Instrumental).

4 Originally a mercantile use: cf. ob decem minás, for the price of ten min ae.

5 This is a branch of the Ablative of Separation. The object with which anything is compared is the starting-point from which we reckon. Thus, " Cicero is eloquent; but, starting from him we come to Cato, who is "more so than he.


SECTION: #408. Means, Instrument, Manner, and Accompaniment are denoted by the Instrumental Ablative (see Sect: 398), but some of these uses more commonly require a preposition. As they all come from one source (the old Instrumental Case) no sharp line can be drawn between them, and indeed the Romans themselves can hardly have thought of any distinction. Thus, in omnibus precibus órábant, they entreated with every [kind of] prayer, the ablative, properly that of means, cannot be distinguished from that of manner.

Ablative of Means or Instrument

SECTION: #409. The Ablative is used to denote the means or instrument of an action:
     certantés púgnís, calcibus, unguibus, morsú dénique (Tusc. 5.77) , fighting with fists, heels, nails, and even teeth.
     cum púgnís et calcibus concísus esset (Verr. 3.56) , when he had been pummelled with their fists and heels.
     meís labóribus interitú rem públicam líberáví; ( Sull. 33), by my toils I have saved the state from ruin.
     multae istárum arborum meá manú sunt satae (Cat. M. 59) , many of those trees were set out with my own hands.
     ví victa vís, vel potius oppressa virtúte audácia est (Mil. 30) , violence was overcome by violence, or rather, boldness was put down by courage.

The Ablative of Means is used with verbs and adjectives of filling, abounding, and the like:
     Deus bonís omnibus explévit mundum (Tim. 3) , God has filled the world with all good things.
     aggere et crátibus fossás explent (B. G. 7.86) , they fill up the ditches with earth and fascines.
     tótum montem hominibus complévit ( id. 1.24), he filled the whole mountain with men.
     opímus praedá (Verr. 2.1.132) , rich with spoils.
     víta pléna et cónferta voluptátibus ( Sest.23), life filled and crowded with delights.
     Forum Appí differtum nautís (Hor. S. 1.5.4) , Forum Appii crammed with bargemen.

NOTE.--In poetry the Genitive is often used with these words. Compleó and impleó sometimes take the genitive in prose (cf. Sect: 356); so regularly plénus and (with personal nouns) complétus and refertus (Sect: 349. a):
     omnia pléna lúctús et maeróris fuérunt (Sest. 128) , everything was full of grief and mourning.
     óllam dénáriórum implére (Fam. 9.18) , to fill a pot with money. [Here evidently colloquial, otherwise rare in Cicero.]
     convívium vícínórum compleó; (Cat. M. 46, in the mouth of Cato), I fill up the banquet with my neighbors.
     cum complétus mercátórum carcer esset (Verr. 5.147) , when the prison was full of traders.

SECTION: #410. The deponents útor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, with several of their compounds,govern the Ablative:
     útar vestrá benígnitáte (Arch. 18) , I will avail myself of your kindness.
     ita mihi salvá ré públicá vóbíscum perfruí liceat (Cat. 4.11) , so may I enjoy with you the state secure and prosperous.
     fungí inání múnere (Aen. 6.885) , to perform an idle service.
     auró hérós potitur (Ov. M. 7.156) , the hero takes the gold.
     lacte et feríná carne vescébantur (Iug. 89) , they fed on milk and game.

NOTE.--This is properly an Ablative of Means (instrumental) and the verbs are really in the middle voice (Sect: 156. a). Thus útor with the ablative signifies I employ myself (or avail myself) by means of, etc. But these earlier meanings disappeared from the language, leaving the construction as we find it.

Potior sometimes takes the Genitive, as always in the phrase potíri rérum, to get control or be master of affairs (Sect: 357. a):
     tótíus Galliae sésé potírí posse spérant (B. G. 1.3) , they hope they can get possession of the whole of Gaul.

NOTE 1.--In early Latin, these verbs are sometimes transitive and take the accusative:
     fúnctus est officium (Ter. Ph. 281) , he performed the part, etc.
     ille patria potitur commoda (Ter. Ad. 871) , he enjoys his ancestral estate.

NOTE 2.--The Gerundive of these verbs is used personally in the passive as if the verb were transitive (but cf. Sect: 500. 3): as,-- Héraclió omnia útenda ac possidenda trádiderat (Verr. 2.46) , he had given over everything to Heraclius for his use and possession (to be used and possessed).

SECTION: #411. Opus and úsus, signifying need, take the Ablative:
     magistrátibus opus est (Leg. 3.5), there is need of magistrates.
     nunc víribus úsus (Aen. 8.441) , now there is need of strength.

NOTE.--The ablative with úsus is not common in classic prose.

With opus the ablative of a perfect participle is often found, either agreeing with a noun or used as a neuter abstract noun:
     opus est tuá exprómptá malitiá atque astútiá; ( Ter. And. 723), I must have your best cunning and cleverness set to work.
     properátó opus erat (cf. Mil. 49), there was need of haste.

NOTE 1.--So rarely with úsus in comedy: as,-- quid istís úsust cónscríptís (Pl. Bacch. 749), what's the good of having them in writing?

NOTE 2.--The omission of the noun gives rise to complex constructions: as,-- quid opus factóst (cf. B. G. 1.42), what must be done? [Cf. quid opus est fierí? with quó factó opus est?]

Opus is often found in the predicate, with the thing needed in the nominative as subject:
     dux nóbís et auctor opus est (Fam. 2.6.4) , we need a chief and responsible adviser (a chief, etc., is necessary for us).
     sí quid ipsí opus esset (B. G. 1.34) , if he himself wanted anything (if anything should be necessary for him).
     quae opus sunt ( Cato R. R. 14.3) , things which are required.

Ablative of Manner

SECTION: #412. The Manner of an action is denoted by the Ablative; usually with cum, unless a limiting adjective is used with the noun:
     cum celeritáte vénit, he came with speed. But,--
     summá celeritáte vénit, he came with the greatest speed.
     quid réfert quá mé ratióne cógátis (Lael. 26) , what difference does it make in what way you compel me?

But cum is often used even when the ablative has a limiting adjective:
     quantó id cum perículó fécerit (B. G. 1.17) , at what risk he did this.
     nón minóre cum taedió recubant (Plin. Ep. 9.17.3) , they recline with no less weariness.

With such words of manner as modó, pactó, ratióne, rítú, ví, viá, and with stock expressions which have become virtually adverbs (as silentió, iúre, iniúriá), cum is not used:
     apis Matínae móre modóque carmina fingó; ( Hor. Od. 4.2.28), in the style and manner of a Matinian bee I fashion songs.

NOTE.--So in poetry the ablative of manner often omits cum: as,-- ínsequitur cumuló aquae móns (Aen. 1.105) , a mountain of water follows in a mass. [Cf. murmure ( id. 1.124); rímís ( id. 1.123).]

Ablative of Accompaniment

SECTION: #413. Accompaniment is denoted by the Ablative, regularly with cum:
     cum coniugibus ac líberís (Att. 8.2.3) , with wives and children.
     cum funditóribus sagittáriís que flúmen tránsgressí; ( B. G. 2.19), having crossed the river with the archers and slingers.
     quae supplicátió sí cum céterís cónferátur (Cat. 3.15) , if this thanksgiving be compared with others.
     quae [ léx] esse cum téló vetat (Mil. 11) , the law which forbids [one] to go armed (be with a weapon).
     sí sécum suós édúxerit (Cat. 1.30) , if he leads out with him his associates. [For sécum, see Sect: 144. b. N.1.]

The ablative is used without cum in some military phrases, and here and there by early writers:
     subsequébátur omnibus cópiís (B. G. 2.19) , he followed close with all his forces. [But also cum omnibus cópiís, id. 1.26.]
     hóc praesidió profectus est (Verr. 2.1.86) , with this force he set out.

NOTE.-- Misceó and iungó, with some of their compounds, and cónfundó take either (1) the Ablative of Accompaniment with or without cum, or (2) sometimes the Dative (mostly poetical or late):
     mixta dolóre voluptás (B. Al. 56) , pleasure mingled with pain.
     cúius animum cum suó misceat (Lael. 81) , whose soul he may mingle with his own.
     flétumque cruórí miscuit (Ov. M. 4.140) , and mingled tears with blood.
     Caesar eás cohortís cum exercitú suó coniúnxit (B. C. 1.18) , Caesar united those cohorts with his own army.
     áér coniúnctus terrís (Lucr. 5.562) , air united with earth.
     húmánó capití cervícem equínam iungere (Hor. A. P. 1) , to join to a human head a horse's neck.

Words of Contention and the like require cum:
     armís cum hoste certáre (Off. 3.87) , to fight with the enemy in arms.
     libenter haec cum Q. Catuló disputárem (Manil. 66) , I should gladly discuss these matters with Quintus Catulus.

NOTE.--But words of contention may take the Dative in poetry (see Sect: 368. a).

Ablative of Degree of Difference

SECTION: #414. With Comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the Degree of Difference:
     quínque mílibus passuum distat, it is five miles distant.
     á mílibus passuum circiter duóbus (B. G. 5.32) , at a distance of about two miles. [For á as an adverb, see Sect: 433. 3.]
     aliquot ante annís (Tusc. 1.4) , several years before.
     aliquantó post suspexit (Rep. 6.9) , a while after, he looked up.
     multó mé vigiláre ácrius (Cat. 1.8) , that I watch much more sharply.
     nihiló erat ipse Cyclóps quam ariés prúdentior (Tusc. 5.115) , the Cyclops himself was not a whit wiser than the ram.

The ablatives quó ... eó ( hóc), and quantó ... tantó, are used correlatively with comparatives, like the English the ... the:
     quó minus cupiditátis, eó plús auctóritátis (Liv. 24.28) , the less greed, the more weight (by what the less, by that the more).
     quantó erat gravior oppúgnátió, tantó crébriórés litterae mittébantur (B. G. 5.45) , the severer the siege was, the more frequently letters were sent.

NOTE.--To this construction are doubtless to be referred all cases of quó and eó ( hóc) with a comparative, even when they have ceased to be distinctly felt as degree of difference and approach the Ablative of Cause:
     eóque mé minus paenitet (N. D. 1.8) , and for that reason I regret less, etc. (by so much the less I regret).
     haec eó facilius faciébant, quod (B. G. 3.12) , this they did the more easily for this reason, because, etc. [Cf. hóc máióre spé, quod

The Ablative of Comparison (Sect: 406) and the Ablative of Degree of Difference are sometimes used together with the same adjective:
     pauló minus ducentís (B. C. 3.28) , a little less than two hundred.
     patria, quae mihi vítá meá multó est cárior (Cat. 1.27) , my country, which is much dearer to me than life.

But the construction with quam is more common.

Ablative of Quality

SECTION: #415. The quality of a thing is denoted by the Ablative with an adjective or genitive modifier.

This is called the Descriptive Ablative or Ablative of Quality:
     animó melióre sunt gladiátórés (Cat. 2.26) , the gladiators are of a better mind.
     quae cum esset cívitás aequissimó iúre ac foedere (Arch. 6) , as this was a city with perfectly equal constitutional rights.
     mulierem eximiá pulchritúdine (Verr. 2.1.64) , a woman of rare beauty.
     Aristotelés, vir summó ingenió, scientiá, cópiá (Tusc. 1.7) , Aristotle, a man of the greatest genius, learning, and gift of expression.
     dé Domitió díxit versum Graecum eádem sententiá (Deiot. 25) , concerning Domitius he recited a Greek line of the same tenor.

NOTE.--The Ablative of Quality (like the Genitive of Quality, Sect: 345) modifies a substantive by describing it. It is therefore equivalent to an adjective, and may be either attributive or predicate. In this it differs from other ablatives, which are equivalent to adverbs.

In expressions of quality the Genitive or the Ablative may often be used indifferently; but physical qualities are oftener denoted by the Ablative (cf. Sect: 345. N.):
     capilló sunt prómissó (B. G. 5.14) , they have long hair.
     ut capite opertó sit (Cat. M. 34) , to have his head covered (to be with covered head).
     quam fuit inbécillus P. áfricání fílius, quam tenuí aut núllá potius valétúdine ( id. 35), how weak was the son of Africanus, of what feeble health, or rather none at all!

Ablative of Price

SECTION: #416. The price of a thing is put in the Ablative:
     agrum véndidit séstertium sex mílibus, he sold the land for 6000 sesterces.
     Antónius régna addíxit pecúniá (Phil. 7.15) , Antony sold thrones for money.
     logós rídiculós: quis céná poscit (Pl. Stich. 221) , jokes: who wants them for (at the price of) a dinner?
     mágnó illí ea cúnctátió stetit (Liv. 2.36) , that hesitation cost him dear.

NOTE.--To this head is to be referred the Ablative of the Penalty (Sect: 353. 1).

SECTION: #417. Certain adjectives of quantity are used in the Genitive to denote indefinite value. Such are mágní, parví, tantí, quantí, plúris, minóris:
     meá mágní interest, it is of great consequence to me.
     illud parví réfert (Manil. 18) , this is of small account.
     est mihi tantí (Cat. 2.15) , it is worth the price (it is of so much).
     Verrésne tibi tantí fuit (Verr. 2.1.77) , was Verres of so much account to you?
     tantóne minóris decumae véniérunt ( id. 3.106), were the tithes sold for so much less?
     ut té redimás captum quam queás minimó: sí nequeás paululó, at quantí queás (Ter. Eun. 74) , to ransom yourself, when captured, at the cheapest rate you can; if you can't for a small sum, then at any rate for what you can.

NOTE.--These are really Genitives of Quality (Sect: 345. b).

The genitive of certain colorless nouns is used to denote indefinite value. Such are nihilí ( nílí), nothing; assis, a farthing (rare); floccí (a lock of wool), a straw:
     nón floccí fació; ( Att. 13.50), I care not a straw. [Colloquial.]
     utinam ego istuc abs té factum nílí penderem (Ter. Eun. 94) , O that I cared nothing for this being done by you! [Colloquial.]

With verbs of exchanging, either the thing taken or the thing given in exchange may be in the Ablative of Price. Such are mútó, commútó, permútó, vertó:
     fidem suam et religiónem pecúniá commútáre (Clu. 129) , to barter his faith and conscience for money.
     exsilium patriá séde mútávit (Q. C. 3.7.11) , he exchanged his native land for exile (he took exile in exchange for his native land).
     vélóx saepe Lucrétilem mútat Lycaeó Faunus (Hor. Od. 1.17.1) , nimble Faunus often changes Lyc"us for Lucretilis. [He takes Lucretilis at the price of Lycaeus, i.e. he goes from Lycaeus to Lucretilis.]
     vertere fúneribus triumphós ( id. 1.35.4), to change the triumph to the funeral train (exchange triumphs for funerals). [Poetical.]

NOTE.--With verbs of exchanging cum is often used, perhaps with a different conception of the action: as,--ariés ... cum croceó mútábit vellera lútó (Ecl. 4.44) , the ram shall change his fleece for [one dyed with] the yellow saffron.

With verbs of buying and selling the simple Ablative of Price must be used, except in the case of tantí, quantí, plúris, minóris:
     quantí eam émit? vílí ... quot minís? quadrágintá minís (Pl. Epid. 51) , what did he buy her for? Cheap. For how many min"? Forty.

Ablative of Specification

SECTION: #418. The Ablative of Specification denotes that in respect to which anything is or is done:
     virtúte praecédunt (B. G. 1.1) , they excel in courage.
     claudus alteró pede (Nep. Ages. 8) , lame of one foot.
     linguá haesitantés, vóce absoní; (De Or. 1.115), hesitating in speech, harsh in voice.
     sunt enim hominés nón ré sed nómine (Off. 1.105) , for they are men not in fact, but in name.
     máior nátú, older; minor nátú, younger (cf. Sect: 131. c).
     paulum aetáte prógressí; (Cat. M. 33), somewhat advanced in age.
     corpore senex esse poterit, animó numquam erit ( id. 38), he may be an old man in body, he never will be [old] at heart.

To this head are to be referred many expressions where the ablative expresses that in accordance with which anything is or is done:
     meó iúre, with perfect right; but, meó modó, in my fashion.
     meá sententiá, in my opinion; but also more formally, ex meá sententiá. [Here the sense is the same, but the first ablative is specification, the second source.]
     propinquitáte coniúnctós atque nátúrá (Lael. 50) , closely allied by kindred and nature. [Here the ablative is not different in sense from those above, but no doubt is a development of means.]
     quí vincit víribus ( id. 55), who surpasses in strength. [Here it is impossible to tell whether víribus is the means of the superiority or that in respect to which one is superior.]

NOTE.--As the Romans had no such categories as we make, it is impossible to classify all uses of the ablative. The ablative of specification (originally instrumental) is closely akin to that of manner, and shows some resemblance to means and cause.

For the Supine in -ú as an Ablative of Specification, see Sect: 510.

The adjectives dígnus and indígnus take the ablative:
     vir patre, avó, máióribus suís dígnissimus (Phil. 3.25) , a man most worthy of his father, grandfather, and ancestors.
     té omní honóre indígnissimum iúdicávit (Vat. 39) , he judged you entirely unworthy of every honor.

NOTE 1.--So the verb dígnor in poetry and later prose: as,-- haud equidem tálí mé dígnor honóre (Aen. 1.335) , I do not deem myself worthy of such an honor.

NOTE 2.-- Dígnus and indígnus sometimes take the genitive in colloquial usage and in poetry:
     cúram dígnissimam tuae virtútis ( Balbus in Att. 8.15), care most worthy of your noble character.
     dígnus salútis (Plaut. Trin. 1153), worthy of safety.
     mágnórum haud umquam indígnus avórum (Aen. 12.649) , never unworthy of my great ancestors.

Ablative .Absolute

SECTION: #419. A noun or pronoun, with a participle in agreement, may be put in the Ablative to define the time or circumstances of an action. This construction is called the Ablative Absolute:
     Caesar, acceptís litterís, núntium mittit (B. G. 5.46) , having received the letter, Caesar sends a messenger (the letter having been received).
     quibus rébus cógnitís Caesar apud mílités cóntiónátur (B. C. 1.7) , having learned this, Caesar makes a speech to the soldiers.
     fugátó omní equitátú (B. G. 7.68) , all the cavalry being put to flight.
     interfectó Indútiomáró ( id. 6.2), upon the death of Indutiomarus.
     nóndum hieme cónfectá in fínís Nerviórum contendit ( id. 6.3), though the winter was not yet over, he hastened into the territory of the Nervii.
     compressí [ sunt] cónátús núlló tumultú públicé concitátó (Cat. 1.11) , the attempts were put down without exciting any general alarm.
     né vóbís quidem omnibus ré etiam tum probátá ( id. 2.4), since at that time the facts were not yet proved even to all of you.

NOTE.--The ablative absolute is an adverbial modifier of the predicate. It is, however, not grammatically dependent on any word in the sentence: hence its name absolute ( absolútus, i.e. free or unconnected). A substantive in the ablative absolute very seldom denotes a person or thing elsewhere mentioned in the same clause.

An adjective, or a second noun, may take the place of the participle in the Ablative Absolute construction:
     exiguá parte aestátis reliquá (B. G. 4.20) , when but a small part of the summer was left (a small part of the summer remaining).
     L. Domitió Ap. Claudió cónsulibus ( id. 5.1), in the consulship of Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius ( Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius [being] consuls). [The regular way of expressing a date, see Sect: 424. g.]
     níl déspérandum Teucró duce et auspice Teucró (Hor. Od. 1.7.27) , there should be no despair under Teucer's leadership and auspices ( Teucer being leader, etc.).

A phrase or clause, used substantively, sometimes occurs as ablative absolute with a participle or an adjective:
     incertó quid peterent (Liv. 28.36) , as it was uncertain what they should aim at (it being uncertain, etc.).
     compertó vánum esse formídinem (Tac. Ann. 1.66) , when it was found that the alarm was groundless.
     cúr praetereátur démónstrátó (Inv. 2.34) , when the reason for omitting it has been explained (why it is passed by being explained).

NOTE.--This construction is very rare except in later Latin.

A participle or an adjective is sometimes used adverbially in the ablative absolute without a substantive:
     cónsultó (Off. 1.27) , on purpose (the matter having been deliberated on).
     mihi optátó véneris (Att. 13.28.3) , you will come in accordance with my wish.
     serénó (Liv. 31.12) , under a clear sky (it [being] clear).
     nec auspicátó nec lítátó ( id. 5.38), with no auspices or favorable sacrifice.
     tranquilló, ut áiunt, quílibet gubernátor est (Sen. Ep. 85.34) , in good weather, as they say, any man's a pilot.

SECTION: #420. The Ablative Absolute often takes the place of a Sub ordinate Clause.

Thus it may replace:

1. A Temporal Clause (Sect: 541 ff.):
     patre interfectó, [his] father having been killed. [This corresponds to cum pater interfectus esset, when his father had been killed.]
     recentibus sceleris eiius vestígiís (Q. C. 7.1.1) , while the traces of the crime were fresh. [Cf. dum recentia sunt vestígia.]

2. A Causal Clause (Sect: 540):
     at eí quí Alesiae obsidébantur praeteritá dié quá auxilia suórum exspectáverant, cónsúmptó omní frúmentó, concilió coáctó cónsultábant (B. G. 7.77) , but those who were under siege at Alesia, since the time, etc., had expired, and their grain had been exhausted, calling a council (seebelow), consulted together. [Cf. cum diés praeterísset, etc.]
     Dáréus, déspérátá páce, ad reparandás vírís intendit animum (Q. C. 4.6.1) , Darius, since he despaired of peace, devoted his energies to recruiting his forces. [Cf. cum pácem déspéráret.]

3. A Concessive Clause (Sect: 527):
     at eó repúgnante fíébat ( cónsul), immo véró eó fíébat magis (Mil. 34) , but though he ( Clodius) opposed, he ( Milo) was likely to be elected consul; nay, rather, etc.
     turribus excitátís, tamen hás altitúdó puppium ex barbarís návibus superábat (B. G. 3.14) , although towers had been built up, still the high sterns of the enemy's ships rose above them.

4. A Conditional Clause (Sect: 521):
     occurrébat eí, mancam et débilem praetúram futúram suam, cónsule Milóne (Mil. 25) , it occurred to him that his pr"torship would be maimed and feeble, if Milo were consul. [ sí Miló cónsul esset.]
     quá ( regióne) subáctá licébit décurrere in illud mare (Q. C. 9.3.13), if this region is subdued, we shall be free to run down into that sea.
     quá quidem détráctá (Arch. 28) , if this be taken away.

5. A Clause of Accompanying Circumstance:
     ego haec á Chrysogonó meá sponte, remótó Sex. Rósció, quaeró; ( Rosc. Am. 130), of my own accord, without reference to Sextus Roscius ( Sextus Roscius being put aside), I ask these questions of Chrysogonus.
     nec imperante nec sciente nec praesente dominó (Mil. 29) , without their master's giving orders, or knowing it, or being present.

NOTE.--As the English Nominative Absolute is far less common than the Ablative Absolute in Latin, a change of form is generally required in translation. Thus the present participle is oftenest to be rendered in English by a relative clause with when or while; and the perfect passive participle by the perfect active participle. These changes may be seen in the following example:

At illí, intermissó spatió, imprúdentibus nostrís atque occupátís in múnítióne castrórum, subitó sé ex silvís éiécérunt; impetú que in eós factó quí erant in statióne pró castrís conlocátí, ácriter púgnávérunt; duábusque missís subsidió cohortibus á Caesare, cum hae ( perexiguó intermissó locé spatió inter sé) cónstitissent, novó genere púgnae perterritís nostrís, per mediós audácissimé perrúpérunt séque inde incolumís recépérunt.-- CAESAR, B. G. 5.15.

But they, having paused a space, while our men were unaware and busied in fortifying the camp, suddenly threw themselves out of the woods; then, making an attack upon those who were on guard in front of the camp, they fought fiercely; and, though two cohorts had been sent by Caesar as reinforcements, after these had taken their position (leaving very little space of ground between them), as our men were alarmed by the strange kind of fighting, they dashed most daringly through the midst of them and got off safe.

For the Ablative with Prepositions, see Sect: 220.

1 These are abútor, deútor (very rare), défungor, defruor, perfruor, perfungor.

2 This construction is properly an instrumental one, in which opus and úsus mean work and service, and the ablative expresses that with which the work is performed or the service rendered. The noun úsus follows the analogy of the verb útor, and the ablative with opus est appears to be an extension of that with úsus est.

3 In this phrase the is not the definite article but a pronominal adverb, being the Anglo- Saxon thy, the instrumental case of the pronoun thaet, that. This pronoun is used both as relative (by which, by how much) and as demonstrative (by that, by so much). Thus the ... the corresponds exactly to quó ... eó.

4 It was originally instrumental and appears to have developed from accompaniment (Sect: 413) and manner (Sect: 412).

5 The Ablative Absolute is perhaps of instrumental origin. It is, however, sometimes explained as an outgrowth of the locative, and in any event certain locative constructions (of place and time) must have contributed to its development.

6 The present participle of esse, wanting in Latin (Sect: 170. b), is used in Sanskrit and Greek as in English.


Ablative of Place

SECTION: #421. The Locative Case was originally used (literally) to denote the place where and (figuratively) to denote the time when (a development from the idea of place). But this case was preserved only in names of towns and a few other words, and the place where is usually denoted by the Ablative. In this construction the Ablative was no doubt, used at first without a preposition, but afterwards it became associated in most instances with the preposition in.

SECTION: #422. In expressions of Time and Place the Latin shows a variety of idiomatic constructions (Ablative, Accusative, and Locative), which are systematically treated in Sect: 423 ff.



SECTION: #423. Time when, or within which, is expressed by the Ablative; time how long by the Accusative.

1. Ablative:
     cónstitútá dié, on the appointed day; pré m lúce, at daybreak.
     quotá hórá, at what o'clock? tertiá vigiliá, in the third watch.
     tribus proximís annís (Iug. 11) , within the last three years.
     diébus vígintí quínque aggerem exstrúxérunt (B. G. 7.24) , within twentyfive days they finished building a mound.

2. Accusative:
     diés continuós trígintá, for thirty days together.
     cum tríduum iter fécisset (B. G. 2.16) , when he had marched three days.

NOTE.--The Ablative of Time is locative in its origin (Sect: 421); the Accusative is the same as that of the extent of space (Sect: 425).

SECTION: #424. Special constructions of time are the following:

The Ablative of time within which sometimes takes in, and the Accusative of time how long per, for greater precision:
     in diébus proximís decem (Iug. 28) , within the next ten days.
     lúdí per decem diés (Cat. 3.20) , games for ten days.

Duration of time is occasionally expressed by the Ablative:
     milités quínque hórís proelium sustinuerant (B. C. 1.47) , the men had sustained the fight five hours.

NOTE.--In this use the period of time is regarded as that within which the act is done, and it is only implied that the act lasted through the period. Cf. inter annós quattuordecim ( B. G. 1.36), for fourteen years.

Time during which or within which may be expressed by the Accusative or Ablative of a noun in the singular, with an ordinal numeral:
     quíntó dié, within [just] four days (lit. on the fifth day). [The Romans counted both ends, see Sect: 631. d.]
     régnat iam sextum annum, he has reigned going on six years.

Many expressions have in Latin the construction of time when where in English the main idea is rather of place:
     púgná Cannénsí; (or, apud Cannás), in the fight at Cann"
     lúdís Rómánís, at the Roman games.
     omnibus Gallicís bellís, in all the Gallic wars.

In many idiomatic expressions of time, the Accusative with ad, in, or sub is used. Such are the following:
     supplicátió décréta est in Kalendás Iánuáriás, a thanksgiving was voted for the first of January.
     convénérunt ad diem, they assembled on the [appointed] day.
     ad vesperum, till evening; sub vesperum, towards evening.
     sub idem tempus, about the same time; sub noctem, at nightfall.

Distance of time before or after anything is variously expressed:
     post ( ante) trés annós, post tertium annum, trés post annós, tertium post annum, tribus post annís, tertió post annó (Sect: 414), three years after.
     tribus annís ( tertió annó) post exsilium ( postquam éiectus est), three years after his exile.
     hís tribus proximís annís, within the last three years.
     paucís annís, a few years hence.
     abhinc annós trés ( tribus annís), ante hós trés annós, three years ago.
     triennium est cum ( trés anní sunt cum), it is three years since.
     octávó ménse quam, the eighth month after (see Sect: 434. N.).

In Dates the phrase ante diem (a. d.) with an ordinal, or the ordinal alone, is followed by an accusative, like a preposition; and the phrase itself may also be governed by a preposition.

The year is expressed by the names of the consuls in the ablative absolute, usually without a conjunction (Sect: 419. a):
     is diés erat a. d. v. Kal. Apr. ( quíntum Kalendás Aprílís) L. Písóne A. Gabínió cónsulibus (B. G. 1.6) , that day was the 5th before the calends of April (March 28), in the consulship of Piso and Gabinius.
     in a. d. v. Kal. Nov. (Cat. 1.7) , to the 5th day before the calends of November (Oct. 28).
     xv. Kal. Sextílís, the 15th day before the calends of August (July 18). [Full form: quíntó decimó dié ante Kalendás.]

For the Roman Calendar, see Sect: 631.

Extent of Space

SECTION: #425. Extent of Space is expressed by the Accusative:
     fossás quíndecim pedés látás (B. G. 7.72) , trenches fifteen feet broad.
     prógressus mília passuum circiter duodecim ( id. 5.9), having advanced about twelve miles.
     in omní vítá suá quemque á réctá cónscientiá tránsversum unguem nón oportet discédere (quoted in Att. 13.20), in all one's life, one should not depart a nail's breadth from straightforward conscience.

NOTE.--This Accusative denotes the object through or over which the action takes place and is kindred with the Accusative of the End of Motion (Sect: 427. 2).

Measure is often expressed by the Genitive of Quality (Sect: 345. b):
     vállum duodecim pedum (B. G. 7.72) , a rampart of twelve feet (in height).

Distance when considered as extent of space is put in the Accusative; when considered as degree of difference, in the Ablative (Sect: 414):
     mília passuum tria ab eórum castrís castra pónit (B. G. 1.22) , he pitches his camp three miles from their camp.
     quínque diérum iter abest (Liv. 30.29) , it is distant five days' march.
     trígintá mílibus passuum ínfrá eum locum (B. G. 6.35) , thirty miles below that place (below by thirty miles).

Relations of Place

SECTION: #426. Relations of Placeare expressed as follows:

1. The place from which, by the Ablative with ab, dé, or ex.

2. The place to which (or end of motion), by the Accusative with <
    >d or in.

3. The place where, by the Ablative with in (Locative Ablative).

Examples are:

1. Place from which:
     á septentrióne, from the north.
     cum á vóbís discesseró; (Cat. M. 79), when I leave you.
     dé próvinciá décédere, to come away from one's province.
     dé monte, down from the mountain.
     negótiátor ex áfricá (Verr. 2.1.14) , a merchant from Africa.
     ex Britanniá obsidés mísérunt (B. G. 4.38) , they sent hostages from Britain.
     Mósa prófluit ex monte Vosegó; ( id. 4.10), the Meuse (flows from) rises in the Vosges mountains.

2. Place to which (end of motion):
     nocte ad Nerviós pervénérunt (B. G. 2.17) , they came by night to the Nervii.
     adíbam ad istum fundum (Caec. 82) , I was going to that estate.
     in áfricam návigávit, he sailed to Africa; in Italiam profectus, gone to Italy.
     légátum in Treverós mittit (B. G. 3.11) , he sends his lieutenant into the [country of the] Treveri.

3. Place where:
     in hác urbe vítam dégit, he passed his life in this city.
     sí in Galliá remanérent (B. G. 4.8) , if they remained in Gaul.
     dum haec in Venetís geruntur ( id. 3.17), while this was going on among the Veneti.
     oppidum in ínsulá positum ( id. 7.58), a town situated on an island.

SECTION: #427. With names of towns and small islands, and with domus and rús, the Relations of Place are expressed as follows:

1. The place from which, by the Ablative without a preposition.

2. The place to which, by the Accusative without a preposition.

3. The place where, by the Locative.

Examples are:

1. Place from which:
     Rómá profectus, having set out from Rome; Rómá abesse, to be absent from Rome.
     domó abíre, to leave home; r re reversus, having returned from the country.

2. Place to which:
     cum Rómam sextó dié Mutiná vénisset (Fam. 11.6.1) , when he had come to Rome from Modena in five days (on the sixth day).
     Déló Rhodum návigáre, to sail from Delos to Rhodes.
     rús íbó, I shall go into the country.
     domum iit, he went home.[So, suás domós abíre, to go to their homes.]

3. Place where (or at which):

Rómae, at Rome ( Róma). Athénís, at Athens ( Athénae).

Rhodí, at Rhodes ( Rhodus). Lánuví, at Lanuvium.

Samí, at Samos. Cyprí, at Cyprus.

Tíburí or Tíbure, at Tibur. Cúribus, at Cures.

Philippís, at Philippi. Capreís, at Capri ( Capreae).

domí (rarely domuí), at home. rúrí, in the country.

The Locative Case is also preserved in the following nouns, which are used (like names of towns) without a preposition:

bellí, mílitiae (in contrast to domí), abroad, in military service.

humí, on the ground. vesperí (-e), in the evening.

forís, out of doors. animí (see Sect: 358).

herí (-e), yesterday. temperí, betimes.
     Cf. ínfélící arborí; ( Liv. 1.26), on the ill-omened (barren) tree; terrá maríque, by land and sea.

SECTION: #428. Special uses of place from which, to which, and where are the following:

With names of towns and small islands ab is often used to denote from the vicinity of, and ad to denote towards, to the neighborhood of:
     ut á Mutiná discéderet (Phil. 14.4) , that he should retire from Modena (which he was besieging).
     erat á Gergoviá déspectus in castra (B. G. 7.45) , there was from about Gergovia a view into the camp.
     ad Alesiam proficíscuntur ( id. 7.76), they set out for Alesia.
     ad Alesiam perveniunt ( id. 7.79), they arrive at Alesia (i.e. in the neighborhood of the town).
     D. Laelius cum classe ad Brundisium vénit (B. C. 3.100) , Decimus L"lius came to Brundisium with a fleet (arriving in the harbor).

The general words urbs, oppidum, ínsula require a preposition to express the place from which, to which, or where:

ab ( ex) urbe, from the city. in urbe, in the city.

ad urbem, to the city. Rómae in urbe, in the city of Rome.

in urbem, into the city. Rómá ex urbe, from the city of Rome.

ad urbem Rómam ( Rómam ad urbem), to the city of Rome.

With the name of a country, ad denotes to the borders; in with the accusative, into the country itself. Similarly ab denotes away from the outside; ex, out of the interior.

Thus ad Italiam pervénit would mean he came to the frontier, regardless of the destination; in Italiam, he went to Italy, i.e. to a place within it, to Rome, for instance.

So ab I taliá profectus est would mean he came away from the frontier, regardless of the original starting-point; ex I taliá, he came from Italy, from within, as from Rome, for instance.

With all names of places at, meaning near (not in), is expressed by ad or apud with the accusative.
     púgna ad Cannás, the fight at Cannae.
     conchás ad Cáiétam legunt (De Or. 2.22) , at Caieta (along the shore).
     ad ( apud) ínferós, in the world below (near, or among, those below).

ad forís, at the doors. ad iánuam, at the door.

NOTE 1.--In the neighborhood of may be expressed by circá with the accusative; among, by apud with the accusative:

apud Graecós, among the Greeks. apud mé, at my house.

apud Solénsís (Leg. 2.41), at Soli. circá Capuam, round about Capua.

N OTE 2.--In citing an author, apud is regularly used; in citing a particular work, in. Thus,-- apud Xenophóntem, in Xenophon; but, in Xenophóntis Oeconomicó, in Xenophon's 'conomicus

Large islands, and all places when thought of as a territory and not as a locality, are treated like names of countries:
     in Siciliá, in Sicily.
     in Ithacá leporés illátí moriuntur (Plin. H. N. 8.226) , in Ithaca hares, when carried there, die. [Ulysses lived at Ithaca would require Ithacae.]

The Ablative without a preposition is used to denote the place from which in certain idiomatic expressions:
     cessisset patriá (Mil. 68) , he would have left his country.
     patriá pellere, to drive out of the country.
     manú mittere, to emancipate (let go from the hand).

The poets and later writers often omit the preposition with the place from which or to which when it would be required in classical prose:
     mánís Acheronte remissós (Aen. 5.99) , the spirits returned from Acheron.
     Scythiá profectí; (Q. C. 4.12.11), setting out from Scythia.
     Italiam ... Lávíniaque vénit lítora (Aen. 1.2) , he came to Italy and the Lavinian shores.
     terram Hesperiam veniés ( id. 2.781, you shall come to the Hesperian land.
     Aegyptum proficíscitur (Tac. Ann. 2.59) , he sets out for Egypt.

In poetry the place to which is often expressed by the Dative, occasionally also in later prose:
     it clámor caeló (Aen. 5.451) , a shout goes up to the sky.
     facilis déscénsus Avernó ( id. 6.126), easy is the descent to Avernus.
     diadéma capití repónere iussit (Val. Max. 5.1.9), he ordered him to put back the diadem on his head.

The preposition is not used with the supine in -um (Sect: 509) and in the following old phrases:

exsequiás íre, to go to the funeral. ínfitiás íre, to resort to denial.

pessum íre, to go to ruin. pessum dare, to ruin (cf. perdó).
     vénum dare, to sell (give to sale). [Hence véndere.]
     vénum íre, to be sold (go to sale). [Hence véníre.]
     forás (used as adverb), out: as,-- forás égredí, to go out of doors.
     suppetiás adveníre, to come to one's assistance.

When two or more names of place are used with a verb of motion, each must be under its own construction:
     quadriduó quó haec gesta sunt rés ad Chrysogonum in castra L. Sullae Volá terrás défertur (Rosc. Am. 20) , within four days after this was done,th matter was reported TO Chrysogonus IN Sulla's camp AT Volaterr".

NOTE.--The accusative with or without a preposition is often used in Latin when motion to a place is implied but not expressed in English (see k, N.).

Domum denoting the place to which, and the locative domí, may be modified by a possessive pronoun or a genitive:
     domum régis (Deiot. 17) , to the king's house. [But also in M. Laecae domum (Cat. 1.8) , to Marcus L"ca's house.]
     domí meae, at my house; domí Caesaris, at Caesar's house.
     domí suae vel aliénae, at his own or another's house.

NOTE.--At times when thus modified, and regularly when otherwise modified, in domum or in domó is used:
     in domum prívátam conveniunt ( Tac. H. 4.55), they come to gether in a private house.
     in Márcí Crassí castissimá domó (Cael. 9) , in the chaste home of Marcus Crassus. [Cf. ex Anniáná Milónis domó, Sect: 302. e.]

SECTION: #429. The place where is denoted by the Ablative without a preposition in the following instances:

1. Often in indefinite words, such as locó, parte, etc.:
     quibus locó posití<
    > (De Or. 3.153), when these are set in position.
     quá parte bellí vícerant (Liv. 21.22) , the branch of warfare in which they were victorious.
     locís certís horrea cónstituit (B. C. 3.32) , he established granaries in particular places.

2. Frequently with nouns which are qualified by adjectives (regularly when tótus is used):
     mediá urbe (Liv. 1.33) , in the middle of the city.
     tótá Siciliá (Verr. 4.51) , throughout Sicily (in the whole of Sicily).
     tótá Tarracíná (De Or. 2.240) , in all Tarracina.
     cúnctá Asiá atque Graeciá (Manil. 12) , throughout the whole of Asia and Greece too.

3. In many idiomatic expressions which have lost the idea of place:
     pendémus animís (Tusc. 1.96) , we are in suspense of mind (in our minds).
     socius perículís vóbíscum aderó; (Iug. 85.47), I will be present with you, a companion in dangers.

4. Freely in poetry:
     lítore curvó; ( Aen. 3.16), on the winding shore.
     antró séclúsa relinquit ( id. 3.446), she leaves them shut up in the cave.
     Epíró, Hesperiá ( id. 3.503), in Epirus, in Hesperia.
     premit altum corde dolórem ( id. 1.209), he keeps down the pain deep in his heart.

The way by which is put in the Ablative without a preposition:
     viá brevióre equités praemísí; ( Fam. 10.9), I sent forward the cavalry by a shorter road.
     Aegaeó marí tráiécit (Liv. 37.14) , he crossed by way of the Aegean Sea.
     próvehimur pelagó (Aen. 3.506) , we sail forth over the sea.

NOTE.--In this use the way by which is conceived as the means of passage.

Position is frequently expressed by the Ablative with ab (rarely ex), properly meaning from:
     á tergó, in the rear; á sinistrá, on the left hand. [Cf. hinc, on this side.]
     á parte Pompeiiáná, on the side of Pompey.
     ex alterá parte, on the other side.
     mágná ex parte, in a great degree (from, i.e. in, a great part).

SECTION: #430. Verbs of placing, though implying motion, take the construction of the place where:

Such are pónó, locó, collocó, statuó, cónstituó, etc.:
     quí in séde ac domó collocávit (Par. 25) , who put [one] into his place and home.
     statuitur eques Rómánus in Apróní convívió (Verr. 3.62) , a Roman knight is brought into a banquet of Apronius.
     ínsula Délos in Aegaeó marí posita (Manil. 55) , the island of Delos, situated in the gean Sea.
     sí in únó Pompeiió omnia pónerétis ( id. 59), if you made everything depend on Pompey alone.

NOTE.--Compounds of pónó take various constructions (see the Lexicon under each word).

SECTION: #431. Several verbs are followed by the Ablative.

These are acquiéscó, délector, laetor, gaudeó, glórior, nítor, stó, maneó, fídó, cónfídó, cónsistó, contineor.
     nóminibus veterum glóriantur (Or. 169) , they glory in the names of the ancients. [Also, dé dívitiís (in virtúte, circá rem, aliquid, haec) glóriárí.]
     spé nítí; ( Att. 3.9), to rely on hope.
     prúdentiá fídéns (Off. 1.81) , trusting in prudence.

NOTE.--The ablative with these verbs sometimes takes the preposition in (but fídó in is late), and the ablative with them is probably locative. Thus,--in quibus causa nítitur (Cael. 25) , on whom the case depends.

With several of these verbs the neuter Accusative of pronouns is often found. For fídó and cónfídó with the Dative, see Sect: 367.

The verbals frétus, contentus, and laetus take the Locative Ablative:
     frétus grátiá Brútí; ( Att. 5.21.12), relying on the favor of Brutus.
     laetus praedá, rejoicing in the booty.
     contentus sorte, content with his lot. [Possibly Ablative of Cause.]
     nón fuit contentus glóriá (Dom. 101) , he was not content with the glory.

NOTE.--So intentus, rarely: as,-- aliquó negótió intentus ( Sall. Cat. 2), intent on some occupation.


1 Originally all these relations were expressed by the cases alone. The accusative, in one of its oldest functions, denoted the end of motion; the ablative, in its proper meaning of separation, denoted the place from which, and, in its locative function, the place where. The prepositions, originally adverbs, were afterwards added to define more exactly the direction of motion (as in to usward, toward us), and by long association became indispensable except as indicated below.

2 The Locative has in the singular of the first and second declensions the same form as the Genitive, in the plural and in the third declension the same form as the Dative or Ablative. (See p. 34, footnote.)

3 The English home in this construction is, like domum, an old accusative of the end of motion.

4 Apparently the direction whence the sensuous impression comes.

5 For a list of Prepositions with their ordinary uses, see Sect: 221.

Adverbs and Prepositions

SECTION: #432. Certain Adverbs and Adjectives are sometimes used as Prepositions:

The adverbs prídié, postrídié, propius, proximé, less frequently the adjectives propior and proximus, may be followed by the Accusative:
     prídié Nónás Máiás (Att. 2.11) , the day before the Nones of May (see Sect: 631).
     postrídié lúdós (Att. 16.4) , the day after the games.
     propius perículum (Liv. 21.1) , nearer to danger.
     propior montem (Iug. 49) , nearer the hill.
     proximus mare óceanum (B. G. 3.7) , nearest the ocean.

NOTE.-- Prídié and postrídié take also the Genitive (Sect: 359. b). Propior, propius, proximus, and proximé, take also the Dative, or the Ablative with ab:
     propius Tiberí quam Thermopylís (Nep. Hann. 8) , nearer to the Tiber than to Thermopylae.
     Sugambrí quí sunt proximí Rhénó (B. G. 6.35) , the Sugambri, who are nearest to the Rhine.
     proximus á postrémó (Or. 217) , next to the last.

sque sometimes takes the Accusative, but úsque ad is much more common:
     terminós úsque Libyae (Iust. 1.1.5), to the bounds of Libya.
     úsque ad castra hostium (B. G. 1.51) , to the enemy's camp.

The adverbs palam, procul, simul, may be used as prepositions and take the Ablative:
     rem créditórí palam populó solvit (Liv. 6.14) , he paid the debt to his creditor in the presence of the people.
     haud procul castrís in modum múnicipí exstrúcta (Tac. H. 4.22) , not far from the camp, built up like a town.
     simul nóbís habitat barbarus (Ov. Tr. 5.10.29), close among us dwells the barbarian.

NOTE.--But simul regularly takes cum; procul is usually followed by ab in classic writers; and the use of palam as a preposition is comparatively late.

The adverb clam is found in early Latin with the Accusative, also once with the Genitive and once in classical Latin with the Ablative:
     clam mátrem suam (Pl. Mil. 112), unknown to his mother.
     clam patris ( id. Merc. 43), without his father's knowledge.
     clam vóbís ( B. C. 2.32.8), without your knowledge.

SECTION: #433. Prepositions often retain their original meaning as Adverbs:

1. Ante and post in relations of time:
     quós pauló ante díximus (Brut. 32) , whom I mentioned a little while ago.
     post tribus diébus, three days after (cf. Sect: 424. f).

2. Adversus, circiter, prope:
     némó adversus íbat (Liv. 37.13.8) , no one went out in opposition.
     circiter pars quárta ( Sall. Cat. 56), about the fourth part.
     prope exanimátus, nearly lifeless.

3. á or ab, off, in expressions of distance, with the Ablative of Degree of Difference (Sect: 414):
     á mílibus passuum circiter duóbus Rómánórum adventum exspectábant (B. G. 5.32) , at a distance of about two miles (about two miles off) they awaited the approach of the Romans.

4. In general, prepositions ending in -á:
     Aeolus haec contrá (Aen. 1.76) , thus Aeolus in reply.
     forte fuit iúxtá tumulus ( id. 3.22), there happened to be a mound close by.

SECTION: #434. Some Prepositions and Adverbs which imply comparison are followed, like comparatives, by quam, which may be separated by several words, or even clauses.

Such words are ante, prius, post, posteá, prídié, postrídié; also magis and prae in compounds:
     neque ante dímísit eum quam fidem dedit (Liv. 39.10) , nor did he let him go until he gave a pledge.
     post diem tertium quam díxerat (Mil. 44) , the third day after he said it.
     Cató ipse iam servíre quam púgnáre mávult (Att. 7.15) , Cato himself by this time had rather be a slave than fight.
     Gallórum quam Rómánórum imperia praeferre (B. G. 1.17) , [they] prefer the rule of Gauls to that of Romans.

NOTE.--The ablative of time is sometimes followed by quam in the same way (Sect: 424. f): as,--octávó ménse quam (Liv. 21.15) , within eight months after, etc.

SECTION: #435. The following Prepositions sometimes come after their nouns: ad, citrá, circum, contrá, dé, é ( ex), inter, iúxtá, penes, propter, ultrá; so regularly tenus and versus, and occasionally others:
     [ úsus] quem penes arbitrium est et iús et norma loquendí; ( Hor. A. P. 72), custom, under whose control is the choice, right, and rule of speech.
     cúius á mé corpus est cremátum, quod contrá decuit ab illó meum (Cat. M. 84) , whose body I burned [on the funeral pile], while on the contrary (contrary to which) mine should have been burned by him.



SECTION: #436. The Syntax of the Verb relates chiefly to the use of the Moods (which express the manner in which the action is conceived) and the Tenses (which express the time of the action). There is no difference in origin between mood and tense; and hence the uses of mood and tense frequently cross each other. Thus the tenses sometimes have modal significations (compare indicative in apodosis, Sect: 517. c; future for imperative, Sect: 449. b); and the moods sometimes express time (compare subjunctive in future conditions, Sect: 516. b, and notice the want of a future subjunctive).

The parent language had, besides the Imperative mood, two or more forms with modal signification. Of these, the Subjunctive appears with two sets of terminations, -á-m, -á-s, in the present tense ( moneam, dícam), and -é-m, - é-s, in the present ( amem) or other tenses ( essem, díxissem). The Optative was formed by ié-, í-, with the present stem (sim, duim) or the perfect ( díxerim). (See details in Sect: Sect: 168, 169.)

Each mood has two general classes or ranges of meaning. The uses of the Subjunctive may all be classed under the general ideas of will or desire and of action vividly conceived; and the uses of the Optative under the general ideas of wish and of action vaguely conceived.

It must not be supposed, however, that in any given construction either the subjunctive or the optative was deliberately used because it denoted conception or possibility. On the contrary, each construction has had its own line of development from more tangible and literal forms of thought to more vague and ideal; and by this process the mood used came to have in each case a special meaning, which was afterwards habitually associated with it in that construction. Similar developments have taken place in English. Thus, the expression I would do this has become equivalent to a mild command, while by analysis it is seen to be the apodosis of a present condition contrary to fact (Sect: 517): if I were you, etc. By further analysis, I would do is seen to have meant, originally, I should have wished (or I did wish) to do.

In Latin, the original Subjunctive and the Optative became confounded in meaning and in form, and were merged in the Subjunctive, at first in the present tense. Then new tense-forms of the subjunctive were formed,and to these the original as well as the derived meanings of both moods became attached (see Sect: 438). All the independent uses of the Latin subjunctive are thus to be accounted for.

The dependent uses of the subjunctive have arisen from the employment of some independent subjunctive construction in connection with a main statement. Most frequently the main statement is prefixed to a sentence containing a subjunctive, as a more complete expression of a complex idea (Sect: 268). Thus a question implying a general negative ( quín rogem? why should n't I ask?) might have the general negative expressed in a prefixed statement ( núlla causa est, there is no reason); or abeat, let him go away, may be expanded into sine abeat. When such a combination comes into habitual use, the original meaning of the subjunctive partially or wholly disappears and a new meaning arises by implication. Thus, in mísit légátós quí dícerent, he sent ambassadors to say (i.e. who should say), the original hortatory sense of the subjunctive is partially lost, and the mood becomes in part an expression of purpose. Similar processes may be seen in the growth of Apodosis. Thus, tolle hanc opíniónem, lúctum sustuleris, remove this notion, you will have done away with grief (i.e. if you remove, etc.).

The Infinitive is originally a verbal noun (Sect: 451), modifying a verb like other nouns: voló vidére, lit. "I wish for-seeing: compare English "what went ye out for to see?"But in Latin it has been surprisingly developed, so as to have forms for tense, and some proper modal characteristics, and to be used as a substitute for finite moods.

The other noun and adjective forms of the verb have been developed in various ways, which are treated under their respective heads below.

The proper Verbal Constructions may be thus classified:

I. Indicative: Direct Assertion or Question (Sect: 437).

II. Subjunctive: a. Independent Uses: 1. Exhortation or Command (Sect: 439).

2. Concession (Sect: 440).

3. Wish (Sect: 441).

4. Question of Doubt etc. (Sect: 444).

5. Possibility or Contingency (Sect: 446).

b. Dependent Uses: 1. Conditions Future (less vivid) (Sect: 516. b, c). Contrary to Fact (Sect: 517).

2. Purpose (with ut, né) (Sect: 531).

3. Characteristic (Relative Clause) (Sect: 535).

4. Result (with ut, ut nón) (Sect: 537).

5. Time (with cum) (Sect: 546).

6. Intermediate (Indirect Discourse) (Sect: 592).

7. Indirect Questions or Commands (Sect: 574, 588).

III. Imperative: 1. Direct Commands (often Subjunctive) (Sect: 448).

2. Statutes, Laws, and Wills (Sect: 449. 2).

3. Prohibitions (early or poetic use) (Sect: 450. a).

IV. Infinitive: a. Subject of esse and Impersonal Verbs (Sect: 452, 454).

b. Objective Constructions: 1. Complementary Infinitive (Sect: 456).

2. Indirect Discourse (with Subject Accusative) (Sect: 580).

c. Idiomatic Uses: 1. Purpose (poetic or Greek use) (Sect: 460).

2. Exclamation (with Subject Accusative) (Sect: 462).

3. Historical Infinitive (Sect: 463).


For the signification of the tense-endings, see Sect: 168, 169.

SECTION: #437. The Indicative is the mood of direct assertions or questions when there is no modification of the verbal idea except that of time.

The Indicative is sometimes used where the English idiom would suggest the Subjunctive:
     longum est, it would be tedious [if, etc.]; satius erat, it would have been better [if, etc.]; persequí possum, I might follow up [in detail].

NOTE.--Substitutes for the Indicative are (1) the Historical Infinitive (Sect: 463), and (2) the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse (Sect: 580).

For the Indicative in Conditions, see Sect: 515, 516; for the Indicative in implied Commands, see Sect: 449. b.

1 For the signification of the tense-endings, see Sect: 168, 169.


SECTION: #438. The Subjunctive in general expresses the verbal idea with some modificationsuch as is expressed in English by auxiliaries, by the infinitive, or by the rare subjunctive (Sect: 157. b).

The Subjunctive is used independently to express:/p>

1. An Exhortation or Command (Hortatory Subjunctive: Sect: 439).

2. A Concession (Concessive Subjunctive: Sect: 440).

3. A Wish (Optative Subjunctive: Sect: 441).

4. A Question of Doubt etc. (Deliberative Subjunctive: Sect: 444).

5. A Possibility or Contingency (Potential Subjunctive: Sect: 446).

For the special idiomatic uses of the Subjunctive in Apodosis, see Sect: 514.

The Subjunctive is used in dependent clauses to express:/p>

1. Condition: future or contrary to fact (Sect: 516. b, c, 517).

2. Purpose (Final, Sect: 531).

3. Characteristic (Sect: 535).

4. Result (Consecutive, Sect: 537).

5. Time (Temporal, Sect: 546).

6. Indirect Question (Sect: 574).

The Subjunctive is also used with Conditional Particles of Comparison (Sect: 524), and in subordinate clauses in the Indirect Discourse (Sect: 580).


.Hortatory Subjunctive

SECTION: #439. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used in the present tense to express an exhortation or a command. The negative is né.
     hós latrónés interficiámus (B. G. 7.38) , let us kill these robbers.
     caveant intemperantiam, meminerint verécundiae (Off. 1.122) , let them shun excess and cherish modesty.

NOTE 1.--The hortatory subjunctive occurs rarely in the perfect (except in prohibitions: Sect: 450): as,-- Epicúrus hóc víderit (Acad. 2.19) , let Epicurus look to this.

NOTE 2.--The term hortatory subjunctive is sometimes restricted to the first person plural, the second and third persons being designated as the jussive subjunctive; but the constructions are substantially identical.

NOTE 3.--Once in Cicero and occasionally in the poets and later writers the negative with the hortatory subjunctive is nón: as,--á légibus nón recédámus (Clu. 155) , let us not abandon the laws.

The Second Person of the hortatory subjunctive is used only of an indefinite subject, except in prohibitions, in early Latin, and in poetry:
     iniúriás fortúnae, quás ferre nequeás, défugiendó relinquás (Tusc. 5.118) , the wrongs of fortune, which you cannot bear, leave behind by flight.
     exoriáre aliquis ultor (Aen. 4.625) , rise, some avenger.
     istó bonó útáre dum adsit, cum absit né requírás (Cat. M. 33) , use this blessing while it is present; when it is wanting do not regret it.
     doceás iter et sacra óstia pandás (Aen. 6.109) , show us the way and lay open the sacred portals.

For Negative Commands (prohibitions), see Sect: 450.

The Imperfect and Pluperfect of the hortatory subjunctive denote an unfulfilled obligation in past time:
     morerétur, inquiés (Rab. Post. 29) , he should have died, you will say.
     potius docéret (Off. 3.88) , he should rather have taught.
     né poposcissés (Att. 2.1.3) , you should not have asked.
     saltem aliquid dé pondere détráxisset (Fin. 4.57) , at least he should have taken something from the weight.

NOTE 1.--In this construction the Pluperfect usually differs from the Imperfect only in more clearly representing the time for action as momentary or as past.

NOTE 2.--This use of the subjunctive is carefully to be distinguished from the potential use (Sect: 446). The difference is indicated by the translation, should or ought (not would or might).

SECTION: #440. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used to express a concession.The Present is used for present time, the Perfect for past. The negative is né.
     sit fúr, sit sacrilegus: at est bonus imperátor (Verr. 5.4) , grant he is a thief, a godless wretch: yet he is a good general.
     fuerit aliís; tibi quandó esse coepit (Verr. 2.1.37) , suppose he was [so] to others; when did he begin to be to you?
     némó is umquam fuit: né fuerit (Or. 101) , there never was such a one [you will say]: granted (let there not have been).
     né sit summum malum dolor, malum certé est (Tusc. 2.14) , granted that pain is not the greatest evil, at least it is an evil.

NOTE.--The concessive subjunctive with quamvís and licet is originally hortatory ( Sect: 527. a, b).

For other methods of expressing Concession, see Sect: 527.

For the Hortatory Subjunctive denoting a Proviso, see Sect: 528. a.

Optative Subjunctive

SECTION: #441. The Optative Subjunctive is used to express a Wish. The present tense denotes the wish as possible, the imperfect as unaccomplished in present time, the pluperfect as unaccomplished in past time. The negative is né:
     ita vívam (Att. 5.15) , as true as I live, so may I live.
     ne vívam sí sció; ( id. 4.16.8), I wish I may not live if I know.
     dí té perduint (Deiot. 21) , the gods confound thee!
     valeant, valeant cívés meí; sint incolumés (Mil. 93) , farewell, farewell to my fellow-citizens; may they be secure from harm.
     dí facerent sine patre forem (Ov. M. 8.72) , would that the gods allowed me to be without a father (but they do not)!

The perfect subjunctive in a wish is archaic:
     dí faxint (Fam. 14.3.3) , may the gods grant.
     quod dí ómen áverterint ( Phil. 12.14, in a religious formula), and may the gods avert this omen.

SECTION: #442. The Optative Subjunctive is often preceded by the particle utinam; so regularly in the imperfect and pluperfect:
     falsus utinam vátés sim (Liv. 21.10.10) , I wish I may be a false prophet.
     utinam Clódius víveret (Mil. 103) , would that Clodius were now alive.
     utinam mé mortuum vídissés (Q. Fr. 1.3.1) , would you had seen me dead.
     utinam né véré scríberem (Fam. 5.17.3) , would that I were not writing the truth.

NOTE.-- Utinam nón is occasionally used instead of utinam né: as,-- utinam susceptus nón essem (Att. 9.9.3) , would that I had not been born.

In poetry and old Latin utí or ut often introduces the optative subjunctive; and in poetry sí or ó sí with the subjunctive sometimes expresses a wish:
     ut pereat positum róbígine télum (Hor. S. 2.1.43) , may the weapon unused perish with rust.
     ó sí angulus ille accédat ( id. 2.6.8), O if that corner might only be added!
     sí nunc sé nóbís ille aureus rámus ostendat (Aen. 6.187) , if now that golden branch would only show itself to us!

NOTE 1.--The subjunctive with utí ( ut) or utinam was originally deliberative, meaning how may I, etc. (Sect: 444). The subjunctive with sí or ó sí is a protasis (Sect: 512. a), the apodosis not being expressed.

NOTE 2.--The subjunctive of wish without a particle is seldom found in the imperfect or pluperfect except by sequence of tenses in Indirect Discourse (Sect: 585): as,-- ac veneráta Cerés, ita culmó surgeret altó ( Hor. S. 2.2.124), and Ceres worshipped [with libations] that so she might rise with tall stalk. [I<
    > addressing the goddess directly the prayer would be: ita surgás.]

Velim and vellem, and their compounds, with a subjunctive or infinitive, are often equivalent to an optative subjunctive:
     velim tibi persuádeás (Fam. 9.13.2) , I should like to have you believe (I should wish that you would persuade yourself).
     dé Menedémó vellem vérum fuisset, dé régíná velim vérum sit (Att. 15.4.4) , about Menedemus I wish it had been true; about the queen I wish it may be.
     nóllem accidisset tempus (Fam. 3.10.2) , I wish the time never had come.
     mállem Cerberum metuerés (Tusc. 1.12) , I had rather have had you afraid of Cerberus (I should have preferred that you feared Cerberus).

NOTE.-- Velim etc., in this use, are either potential subjunctives, or apodoses with the protasis omitted (Sect: 447. 1. N.). The thing wished may be regarded as a substantive clause used as object of the verb of wishing (Sect: 565. N.1).

Deliberative Subjunctive

SECTION: #443. The Subjunctive was used in sentences of interrogative form, at first when the speaker wished information in regard to the will or desire of the person addressed. The mood was therefore hortatory in origin. But such questions when addressed by the speaker to himself, as if asking his own advice, become deliberative or, not infrequently, merely exclamatory. In such cases the mood often approaches the meaning of the Potential (see Sect: 445). In these uses the subjunctive is often called Deliberative or Dubitative.

SECTION: #444. The Subjunctive is used in questions implying (1) doubt, indignation, or (2) an impossibility of the thing's being done. The negative is nón.
     quid agam, iúdicés? quó mé vertam (Verr. 5.2) , what am I to do, judges ? whither shall I turn?
     etiamne eam salútem (Pl. Rud. 1275) , shall I greet her?
     quid hóc homine faciás? quod supplicium dígnum libídiní eiius inveniás (Verr. 2.40) , what are you to do with this man? what fit penalty can you devise for his wantonness?
     an ego nón venírem (Phil. 2.3) , what, should I not have come?
     quid dícerem (Att. 6.3.9) , what was I to say?
     quis enim céláverit ígnem (Ov. H. 15.7) , who could conceal the flame?

NOTE.--The hortatory origin of some of these questions is obvious. Thus,-- quid faciámus?= faciámus [ aliquid], quid? let us do--what? (Compare the expanded form quid vís faciámus? what do you wish us to do?) Once established, it was readily transferred to the past: quid faciam? what AM I to do? quid facerem? what WAS I to do? Questions implying impossibility, however, cannot be distinguished from Apodosis (cf. Sect: 517).

In many cases the question has become a mere exclamation, rejecting a suggested possibility:
     mihi umquam bonórum praesidium défutúrum putárem (Mil. 94) , could think that the defence of good men would ever fail me!

NOTE.--The indicative is sometimes used in deliberative questions: as,-- quid agó, what am I to do?

Potential Subjunctive

SECTION: #445. Of the two principal uses of the Subjunctive in independent sentences (cf. Sect: 436), the second, or Potential Subjunctive,is found in a variety of sentence-forms having as their common element the fact that the mood represents the action as merely conceived or possible, not as desired (hortatory, optative) or real (indicative). Some of these uses are very old and may go back to the Indo-European parent speech, but no satisfactory connection between the Potential and the Hortatory and Optative Subjunctive has been traced. There is no single English equivalent for the Potential Subjunctive; the mood must be rendered, according to circumstances, by the auxiliaries would, should, may, might, can, could.

SECTION: #446. The Potential Subjunctive is used to suggest an action as possible or conceivable. The negative is nón.

In this use the Present and the Perfect refer without distinction to the immediate future; the Imperfect (occasionally the Perfect) to past time; the Pluperfect (which is rare) to what might have happened.

SECTION: #447. The Potential Subjunctive has the following uses:

1. In cautious or modest assertions in the first person singular of expressions of saying, thinking, or wishing (present or perfect):
     páce tuá díxerim (Mil. 103) , I would say by your leave.
     haud sciam an (Lael. 51) , I should incline to think.
     tú velim síc exístimés (Fam. 12.6) , I should like you to think so.
     certum affímáre nón ausim (Liv. 3.23) , I should not dare to assert as sure.

NOTE.-- Vellem, nóllem, or mállem expressing an unfulfilled wish in present time may be classed as independent potential subjunctive or as the apodosis of an unexpressed condition (Sect: 521): as-- vellem adesset M. Antónius (Phil. 1.16) , I could wish Antony were here.

2. In the indefinite second person singular of verbs of saying, thinking, and the like (present or imperfect):
     crédás nón dé pueró scríptum sed á pueró; (Plin. Ep. 4.7.7), you would think that it was written not about a boy but by a boy.
     créderés victós (Liv. 2.43.9) , you would have thought them conquered.
     reós dícerés ( id. 2.35.5), you would have said they were culprits.
     vidérés susurrós (Hor. S. 2.8.77) , you might have seen them whispering (lit. whispers).
     fretó assimiláre possís (Ov. M. 5.6) , you might compare it to a sea.

3. With other verbs, in all persons, when some word or phrase in the context implies that the action is expressed as merely possible or conceivable:
     níl ego contulerim iúcundó sánus amícó; ( Hor. S. 1.5.44), when in my senses I should compare nothing with an interesting friend.
     fortúnam citius reperiás quam retineás (Pub. Syr. 168) , you may sooner find fortune than keep it.
     aliquis dícat (Ter. And. 640) , somebody may say.

NOTE.--In this use the subjunctive may be regarded as the apodosis of an undeveloped protasis. When the conditional idea becomes clearer, it finds expression in a formal protasis, and a conditional sentence is developed.

Forsitan, perhaps, regularly takes the Potential Subjunctive except in later Latin and in poetry, where the Indicative is also common:
     forsitan quaerátis quí iste terror sit (Rosc. Am. 5) , you may perhaps inquire what this alarm is.
     forsitan temeré fécerim ( id. 31), perhaps I have acted rashly.

NOTE.--The subjunctive clause with forsitan (= fors sit an) was originally an Indirect Question: it would be a chance whether, etc.

Fortasse, perhaps, is regularly followed by the Indicative; sometimes, however, by the Subjunctive, but chiefly in later Latin:
     quaerés fortasse (Fam. 15.4.13) , perhaps you will ask.

NOTE.--Other expressions for perhaps are (1) forsan (chiefly poetical; construed with the indicative or the subjunctive, more commonly the indicative), fors (rare and poetical; construed with either the indicative or the subjunctive). Forsit (or fors sit) occurs once ( Hor. S. 1.6.49) and takes the subjunctive. Fortasse is sometimes followed by the infinitive with subject accusative in Plautus and Terence. Fortassis (rare; construed like fortasse) and fortasse an (very rare; construed with the subjunctive) are also found.

1 These modifications are of various kinds, each of which has had its own special development (cf. Sect: 436). The subjunctive in Latin has also many idiomatic uses (as in clauses of Result and Time) where the English does not modify the verbal idea at all, but expresses it directly. In such cases the Latin merely takes a different view of the action and has developed the construction differently from the English.

2 Many scholars regard the concessive subjunctive as a development of the Optative Subjunctive in a wish.

3 The name Potential Subjunctive is not precisely descriptive, but is fixed in grammatical usage.


SECTION: #448. The Imperative is used in Commands and Entreaties:
     cónsulite vóbís, próspicite patriae, cónserváte vós (Cat. 4.3) , have a care for yourselves, guard the country, preserve yourselves.
     díc, Márce Tullí, sententiam, Marcus Tullius, state your opinion.
     té ipsum concute (Hor. S. 1.3.35) , examine yourself.
     víve, valé que ( id. 2.5.110), farewell, bless you (live and be well)!
     miserére animí nón dígna ferentis (Aen. 2.144) , pity a soul bearing undeserved misfortune.

The third person of the imperative is antiquated or poetic:
     ollís salús populí supréma léx estó (Legg. 3.8) , the safety of the people shall be their first law.
     iústa imperia suntó, eísque cívés modesté párentó ( id. 3.6), let there be lawful authorities, and let the citizens strictly obey them.

NOTE.--In prose the Hortatory Subjunctive is commonly used instead (Sect: 439).

SECTION: #449. The Future Imperative is used in commands, etc., where there is a distinct reference to future time:

1. In connection with some adverb or other expression that indicates at what time in the future the action of the imperative shall take place. So especially with a future, a future perfect indicative, or (in poetry and early Latin) with a present imperative:
     crás petitó, dabitur (Pl. Merc. 769) , ask to-morrow [and] it shall be given.
     cum valétúdiní cónsulueris, tum cónsulitó návigátióní; ( Fam. 16.4.3), when you have attended to your health, then look to your sailing.
     Phyllida mitte mihí, meus est nátális, Iollá; cum faciam vitulá pró frúgibus, ipse venító (Ecl. 3.76) , send Phyllis to me, it is my birthday, Iollas; when I [shall] sacrifice a heifer for the harvest, come yourself.
     díc quibus in terrís, etc., et Phyllida sólus habétó ( id. 3.107), tell in what lands, etc., and have Phyllis for yourself.

2. In general directions serving for all time, as Precepts, Statutes, and Wills:
     is iúris cívílis cústós estó (Legg. 3.8) , let him (the praetor) be the guardian of civil right.
     Boreá flante, né arátó, sémen né iacitó (Plin. H. N. 18.334) , when the north wind blows, plough not nor sow your seed.

The verbs sció, meminí, and habeó (in the sense of consider) regularly use the Future Imperative instead of the Present:
     fílioló mé auctum scító (Att. 1.2) , learn that I am blessed with a little boy.
     síc habétó, mí Tiró; ( Fam. 16.4.4), so understand it, my good Tiro.
     dé pallá mementó, amábó; ( Pl. Asin. 939), remember, dear, about the gown.

The Future Indicative is sometimes used for the imperative; and quín (why not?) with the Present Indicative may have the force of a command:
     sí quid acciderit noví, faciés ut sciam (Fam. 14.8) , you will let me know if anything new happens.
     quín accipis (Ter. Haut. 832) , here, take it (why not take it?).

Instead of the simple Imperative, cúrá ut, fac ( fac ut), or velim, followed by the subjunctive (Sect: 565), is often used, especially in colloquial language:
     cúrá ut Rómae sís (Att. 1.2) , take care to be at Rome.
     fac ut valétúdinem cúrés (Fam. 14.17) , see that you take care of your health
     domí adsítis facite (Ter. Eun. 506) , be at home, do.
     eum mihi velim mittás (Att. 8.11) , I wish you would send it to me.

For commands in Indirect Discourse, see Sect: 588.

For the Imperative with the force of a Conditional Clause, see Sect: 521. b.

Prohibition (Negative Command)

SECTION: #450. Prohibition is regularly expressed in classic prose (1) by nólí with the Infinitive, (2) by cavé with the Present Subjunctive, or (3) by né with the Perfect Subjunctive:
     (1) nólí putáre (Lig. 33) , do not suppose (be unwilling to suppose).
     nólí impudéns esse (Fam. 12.30.1) , don't be shameless.
     nólíte cógere sociós (Verr. 2.1.82) , do not compel the allies.
     (2) cavé putés (Att. 7.20) , don't suppose (take care lest you suppose).
     cavé ígnóscás (Lig. 14) , do not pardon.
     cavé festínés (Fam. 16.12.6) , do not be in haste.
     (3) né necesse habueris (Att. 16.2.5) , do not regard it as necessary.
     né sís admírátus (Fam. 7.18.3) , do not be surprised.
     hóc facitó; hóc né féceris (Div. 2.127) , thou shalt do this, thou shalt not do that.
     né Apellae quidem díxeris (Fam. 7.25.2) , do not tell Apella even.
     né vós quidem mortem timueritis (Tusc. 1.98) , nor must you fear death.

All three of these constructions are well established in classic prose. The first, which is the most ceremonious, occurs oftenest; the third, though not discourteous, is usually less formal and more peremptory than the others.

NOTE 1.--Instead of nólí the poets sometimes use other imperatives of similar meaning (cf. Sect: 457. a):
     parce piás sceleráre manús (Aen. 3.42) , forbear to defile your pious hands.
     cétera mitte loquí; (Hor. Epod. 13.7), forbear to say the rest.
     fuge quaerere (Hor. Od. 1.9.13) , do not inquire.

NOTE 2.-- Cavé né is sometimes used in prohibitions; also vidé né and (colloquially) fac né: as,-- fac né quid aliud cúrés ( Fam. 16.11), see that you attend to nothing else.

NOTE 3.--The present subjunctive with né and the perfect with cave are found in old writers; né with the present is common in poetry at all periods:
     né exspectétis (Pl. Ps. 1234) , do not wait.
     né metuás (Mart. Ep. 1.70.13) , do not fear.
     cave quicquam responderis (Pl. Am. 608) , do not make any reply.

NOTE 4.--Other negatives sometimes take the place of né:
     nihil ígnóveris (Mur. 65) , grant no pardon (pardon nothing).
     nec mihi illud díxeris (Fin. 1.25) , and do not say this to me.

NOTE 5.--The regular connective, and do not, is néve.

The Present Imperative with né is used in prohibitions by early writers and the poets:
     né timé (Pl. Curc. 520) , don't be afraid.
     nimium né créde colórí; ( Ecl. 2.17), trust not too much to complexion.
     equó né crédite (Aen. 2.48) , trust not the horse.

The Future Imperative with né is used in prohibitions in laws and formal precepts (see Sect: 449. 2).

1 In prohibitions the subjunctive with né is hortatory; that with cav é is an object clause (cf. Sect: 450. N.2, 565. N.1).


SECTION: #451. The Infinitive is properly a noun denoting the action of the verb abstractly. It differs, however, from other abstract nouns in the following points: (1) it often admits the distinction of tense; (2) it is modified by adverbs, not by adjectives; (3) it governs the same case as its verb; (4) it is limited to special constructions.

The Latin Infinitive is the dative or locative case of such a nounand was originally used to denote Purpose; but it has in many constructions developed into a substitute for a finite verb. Hence the variety of its use.

In its use as a verb, the Infinitive may take a Subject Accusative (Sect: 397. e), originally the object of another verb on which the Infinitive depended. Thus iubeó té valére is literally I command you for being well (cf. substantive clauses, Sect: 562. N.).

Infinitive as Noun

SECTION: #452. The Infinitive, with or without a subject accusative, may be used with est and similar verbs (1) as the Subject, (2) in Apposition with the subject, or (3) as a Predicate Nominative.

1. As Subject:
     dolére malum est (Fin. 5.84) , to suffer pain is an evil.
     bellum est sua vitia nósse (Att. 2.17) , it's a fine thing to know one's own faults.
     praestat compónere fluctús (Aen. 1.135) , it is better to calm the waves.

2. In Apposition with the Subject:
     proinde quasi iniúriam facere id démum esset imperió útí; ( Sall. Cat. 12), just as if this and this alone, to commit injustice, were to use power. [Here facere is in apposition with id.]

3. As Predicate Nominative:
     id est convenienter nátúrae vívere (Fin. 4.41) , that is to live in conformity with nature. [Cf. útí in the last example.]

NOTE 1.--An infinitive may be used as Direct Object in connection with a Predicate Accusative (Sect: 393), or as Appositive with such Direct Object:
     istuc ipsum nón esse cum fueris miserrimum putó; (Tusc. 1.12), for I think this very thing most wretched, not to be when one has been. [Here istuc ipsum belongs to the noun nón esse.]
     miserárí, invidére, gestíre, laetárí, haec omnia morbós Graecí appellant ( id. 3.7), to feel pity, envy, desire, joy,--all these things the Greeks call diseases. [Here the infinitives are in apposition with haec.]

NOTE 2.--An Appositive or Predicate noun or adjective used with an infinitive in any of these constructions is put in the Accusative, whether the infinitive has a subject expressed or not. Thus,-- nón esse cupidum pecúnia est (Par. 51) , to be free from desires (not to be desirous) is money in hand. [No Subject Accusative.]

The infinitive as subject is not common except with est and similar verbs. But sometimes, especially in poetry, it is used as the subject of verbs which are apparently more active in meaning:
     quós omnís eadem cupere, eadem ódisse, eadem metuere, in únum coégit (Iug. 31) , all of whom the fact of desiring, hating, and fearing the same things has united into one.
     ingenuás didicisse fidéliter artís émollit mórés (Ov. P. 2.9.48), faithfully to have learned liberal arts softens the manners.
     posse loquí éripitur (Ov. M. 2.483) , the power of speech is taken away.

SECTION: #453. Rarely the Infinitive is used exactly like the Accusative of a noun:
     beáté vívere alií in alió, vós in voluptáte pónitis (Fin. 2.86) , a happy life different [philosophers] base on different things, you on pleasure.
     quam multa ... facimus causá amícórum, precárí ab indígnó, supplicáre, etc. (Lael. 57) , how many things we do for our friends' sake, ask favors from an unworthy person, resort to entreaty, etc.
     nihil explórátum habeás, né amáre quidem aut amárí ( id. 97), you have nothing assured, not even loving and being loved.

NOTE.--Many complementary and other constructions approach a proper accusative use of the infinitive, but their development has been different from that of the examples above. Thus,-- aváritia ... superbiam, crúdélitátem, deós neglegere, omnia vénália habére édocuit ( Sall. Cat. 10), avarice taught pride, cruelty, to neglect the gods, and to hold everything at a price.

Infinitive as Apparent Subject of Impersonals

SECTION: #454. The Infinitive is used as the apparent Subject with many impersonal verbs and expressions:

Such are libet, licet, oportet, decet, placet, vísum est, pudet, piget, necesse est, opus est, etc.:
     libet mihi cónsíderáre (Quinct. 48) , it suits me to consider.
     necesse est morí (Tusc. 2.2) , it is necessary to die.
     quid attinet glóriósé loquí nisi cónstanter loquáre (Fin. 2.89) , what good does it do to talk boastfully unless you speak consistently?
     neque mé víxisse paenitet ( id. 84), I do not feel sorry to have lived.
     gubernáre mé taedébat (Att. 2.7.4) , I was tired of being pilot.

NOTE.--This use is a development of the Complementary Infinitive (Sect: 456); but the infinitives approach the subject construction and may be con veniently regarded as the subjects of the impersonals.

SECTION: #455. With impersonal verbs and expressions that take the Infinitive as an apparent subject, the personal subject of the action may be expressed:/p>

1. By a Dative, depending on the verb or verbal phrase:
     rogant ut id sibi facere liceat (B. G. 1.7) , they ask that it be allowed them to do this.
     nón lubet enim mihi déplóráre vítam (Cat. M. 84) , for it does not please me to lament my life.
     vísum est mihi dé senectúte aliquid cónscríbere ( id. 1), it seemed good to me to write something about old age.
     quid est tam secundum nátúram quam senibus émorí; ( id. 71), what is so much in accordance with nature as for old men to die?
     exstinguí hominí suó tempore optábile est ( id. 85), for a man to die at the appointed time is desirable.

2. By an Accusative expressed as the subject of the infinitive or the object of the impersonal:
     sí licet vívere eum quem Sex. Naevius nón volt (Quinct. 94) , if it is allowed a man to live against the will of Sextus N"vius.
     nónne oportuit praescísse mé ante (Ter. And. 239) , ought I not to have known beforehand?
     órátórem íráscí minimé decet (Tusc. 4.54) , it is particularly unbecoming for an orator to lose his temper.
     pudéret mé dícere (N. D. 1.109) , I should be ashamed to say.
     cónsilia ineunt quórum eós in vestígió paenitére necesse est (B. G. 4.5) , they form plans for which they must at once be sorry.

NOTE.-- Libet, placet, and vísum est take the dative only; oportet, pudet, piget, and generally decet, the accusative only; licet and necesse est take either case.

A predicate noun or adjective is commonly in the Accusative; but with licet regularly, and with other verbs occasionally, the Dative is used:
     expedit bonás esse vóbís (Ter. Haut. 388) , it is for your advantage to be good.
     licuit esse ótiósó Themistoclí; (Tusc. 1.33), Themistocles might have been inactive (it was allowed to Themistocles to be inactive).
     mihi neglegentí esse nón licet (Att. 1.17.6) , I must not be negligent. [But also neglegentem.]
     cúr hís esse líberós nón licet (Flacc. 71) , why is it not allowed these men to be free?
     nón est omnibus stantibus necesse dícere (Marc. 33) , it is not necessary for all to speak standing.

NOTE.--When the subject is not expressed, as being indefinite (one, anybody), a predicate noun or adjective is regularly in the accusative (cf. Sect: 452. 3. N.2): as,-- vel páce vel belló clárum fierí licet ( Sall. Cat. 3), one can become illustrious either in peace or in war


Complementary Infinitive

SECTION: #456. Verbs which imply another action of the same subject to complete their meaning take the Infinitive without a subject accusative.

Such are verbs denoting to be able, dare, undertake, remember, forget, be accustomed, begin, continue, cease, hesitate, learn, know how, fear, and the like:
     hóc queó dícere (Cat. M. 32) , this I can say.
     mittó quaerere (Rosc. Am. 53) , I omit to ask.
     vereor laudáre praesentem (N. D. 1.58) , I fear to praise a man to his face.
     óró ut mátúrés veníre (Att. 4.1) , I beg you will make haste to come.
     oblívíscí nón possum quae voló; (Fin. 2.104), I cannot forget that which I wish.
     désine id mé docére (Tusc. 2.29) , cease to teach me that.
     dícere solébat, he used to say.
     audeó dícere, I venture to say.
     loquí posse coepí, I began to be able to speak.

NOTE.--The peculiarity of the Complementary Infinitive construction is that no Subject Accusative is in general admissible or conceivable. But some infinitives usually regarded as objects can hardly be distinguished from this construction when they have no subject expressed. Thus voló dícere and voló mé dícere mean the same thing, I wish to speak, but the latter is object-infinitive, while the former is not apparently different in origin and construction from queó dícere (complementary infinitive), and again voló eum dícere, I wish him to speak, is essentially different from either (cf. Sect: 563. b).

SECTION: #457. Many verbs take either a Subjunctive Clause or a Complementary Infinitive, without difference of meaning.

Such are verbs signifying willingness, necessity, propriety, resolve, command, prohibition, effort, and the like (cf. Sect: 563):
     décernere optábat (Q. C. 3.11.1) , he was eager to decide.
     optávit ut tollerétur (Off. 3.94) , he was eager to be taken up.
     oppúgnáre contendit (B. G. 5.21) , he strove to take by storm.
     contendit ut caperet ( id. 5.8), he strove to take.
     bellum gerere cónstituit ( id. 4.6), he decided to carry on war.
     cónstitueram ut manérem (Att. 16.10.1) , I had decided to remain.

NOTE 1.--For the infinitive with subject accusative used with some of these verbs instead of a complementary infinitive, see Sect: 563.

NOTE 2.--Some verbs of these classes never take the subjunctive, but are identical in meaning with others which do:
     eós quós tútárí débent déserunt (Off. 1.28) , they forsake those whom they ought to protect.
     aveó púgnáre (Att. 2.18.3) , I'm anxious to fight.

In poetry and later writers many verbs may have the infinitive, after the analogy of verbs of more literal meaning that take it in prose:
     furit té reperíre (Hor. Od. 1.15.27) , he rages to find thee. [A forcible way of saying cupit (Sect: 457, 563. b).]
     saevit exstinguere nómen (Ov. M. 1.200) , he rages to blot out the name.
     fuge quaerere (Hor. Od. 1.9.13) , forbear to ask (cf. Sect: 450. N. 1).
     parce piás sceleráre manús (Aen. 3.42) , forbear to defile your pious hands.

SECTION: #458. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after a complementary infinitive takes the case of the subject of the main verb:
     fieríque studébam eiius prúdentiá doctior (Lael. 1) , I was eager to become more wise through his wisdom.
     sció quam soleás esse occupátus (Fam. 16.21.7) , I know how busy you usually are (are wont to be).
     brovis esse labóró, obscúrus fíó; ( Hor. A. P. 25), I struggle to be brief, I become obscure.

Infinitive with Subject Accusative

SECTION: #459. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is used with verbs and other expressions of knowing, thinking, telling, and perceiving (Indirect Discourse, Sect: 579):
     dícit montem ab hostibus tenérí (B. G. 1.22) , he says that the hill is held by the enemy. [Direct: móns ab hostibus tenétur.]

Infinitive of Purpose

SECTION: #460. In a few cases the Infinitive retains its original meaning of Purpose.

The infinitive is used in isolated passages instead of a subjunctive clause after habeó, dó, ministró:
     tantum habeó pollicérí ( Fam. 1.5A. 3), so much I have to promise. [Here the more formal construction would be quod pollicear.]
     ut Ioví bibere ministráret (Tusc. 1.65) , to serve Jove with wine (to drink).
     merídié bibere dató; ( Cato R. R. 89), give (to) drink at noonday.

Parátus, suétus, and their compounds, and a few other participles (used as adjectives), take the infinitive like the verbs from which they come:
     id quod parátí sunt facere (Quint. 8) , that which they are ready to do.
     adsuéfactí superárí (B. G. 6.24) , used to being conquered.
     currú succédere suétí; ( Aen. 3.541), used to being harnessed to the chariot
     cópiás belláre cónsuétás (B. Afr. 73), forces accustomed to fighting.

NOTE.--In prose these words more commonly take the Gerund or Gerundive construction (Sect: 503 ff.) either in the genitive, the dative, or the accusative with ad:
     ínsuétus návigandí (B. G. 5.6) , unused to making voyages.
     alendís líberís suéti (Tac. Ann. 14.27) , accustomed to supporting children.
     corpora ínsuéta ad onera portanda (B. C. 1.78) , bodies unused to carry burdens.

The poets and early writers often use the infinitive to express purpose when there is no analogy with any prose construction:
     fílius intró iit vidére quid agat (Ter. Hec. 345) , your son has gone in to see what he is doing. [In prose: the supine vísum.]
     nón ferró Libycós populáre Penátís vénimus (Aen. 1.527) , we have not come to lay waste with the sword the Libyan homes.
     lórícam dónat habére viró; ( id. 5.262), he gives the hero a breastplate to wear. [In prose: habendam.]

NOTE.--So rarely in prose writers of the classic period.

For the Infinitive used instead of a Substantive Clause of Purpose, see Sect: 457.

For tempus est abíre, see Sect: 504. N. 2.

Peculiar Infinitives

SECTION: #461. Many Adjectives take the Infinitive in poetry, following a Greek idiom:
     dúrus compónere versús (Hor. S. 1.4.8) , harsh in composing verse.
     cantárí dígnus (Ecl. 5.54) , worthy to be sung. [In prose: quí cantétur.]
     fortis tráctáre serpentís (Hor. Od. 1.37.26) , brave to handle serpents.
     cantáre perítí; ( Ecl. 10.32), skilled in song.
     facilés aurem praebére (Prop. 3.14.15) , ready to lend an ear.
     nescia vincí pectora (Aen. 12.527) , hearts not knowing how to yield.
     té vidére aegrótí; (Plaut. Trin. 75), sick of seeing you.

Rarely in poetry the infinitive is used to express result:
     fingit equum docilem magister íre viam quá mónstret eques (Hor. Ep. 1.2.64) , the trainer makes the horse gentle so as to go in the road the rider points out.
     híc leváre ... pauperem labóribus vocátus audit (Hor. Od. 2.18.38) , he, when called, hears, so as to relieve the poor man of his troubles.

NOTE.--These poetic constructions were originally regular and belong to the Infinitive as a noun in the Dative or Locative case (Sect: 451). They had been supplanted, however, by other more formal constructions, and were afterwards restored in part through Greek influence.

The infinitive occasionally occurs as a pure noun limited by a demonstrative, a possessive, or some other adjective:
     hóc nón dolére (Fin. 2.18) , this freedom from pain. [Cf. tótum hóc beáté vívere (Tusc. 5.33) , this whole matter of the happy life.]
     nostrum vívere (Per. 1.9), our life (to live).
     scire tuum ( id. 1.27), your knowledge (to know).

Exclamatory Infinitive

SECTION: #462. The Infinitive, with Subject Accusative,may be used in Exclamations (cf. Sect: 397. d):
     té in tantás aerumnás propter mé incidisse (Fam. 14.1) , alas, that you should have fallen into such grief for me!
     méne inceptó désistere victam (Aen. 1.37) , what! I beaten desist from my purpose?

NOTE 1.--The interrogative particle - ne is often attached to the emphatic word (as in the second example).

NOTE 2.--The Present and the Perfect Infinitive are used in this construction with their ordinary distinction of time (Sect: 486).

A subjunctive clause, with or without ut, is often used elliptically in exclamatory questions. The question may be introduced by the interrogative - ne:
     quamquam quid loquor? té ut úlla rés frangat (Cat. 1.22) , yet why do I speak? [the idea] that anything should bend you!
     egone ut té interpellem (Tusc. 2.42) , what, I interrupt you?
     ego tibi íráscerer (Q. Fr. 1.3) , I angry with you?

NOTE.--The Infinitive in exclamations usually refers to something actually occurring; the Subjunctive, to something contemplated.

Historical Infinitive

SECTION: #463. The Infinitive is often used for the Imperfect Indicative in narration, and takes a subject in the Nominative:
     tum Catilína pollicérí novás tabulás ( Sall. Cat. 21), then Catiline promised abolition of debts (clean ledgers).
     ego ínstáre ut mihi respondéret (Verr. 2.188) , I kept urging him to answer me.
     pars cédere, alií ínsequí; neque sígna neque órdinés observáre; ubi quemque perículum céperat, ibi resistere ac própulsáre; arma, téla, equí, virí, hostés atque cívés permixtí; nihil cónsilió neque imperió agí; fors omnia regere (Iug. 51) , a part give way, others press on; they hold neither to standards nor ranks; where danger overtook them, there each would stand and fight; arms, weapons, horses, men, foe and friend, mingled in confusion; nothing went by counsel or command; chance ruled all.

NOTE.--This construction is not strictly historical, but rather descriptive, and is never used to state a mere historical fact. It is rarely found in subordinate clauses. Though occurring in most of the writers of all periods, it is most frequent in the historians Sallust, Livy, Tacitus. It does not occur in Suetonius.


SECTION: #464. The number of possible Tenses is very great. For in each of the three times, Present, Past, and Future, an action may be represented as going on, completed, or beginning; as habitual or isolated; as defined in time or indefinite (aoristic); as determined with reference to the time of the speaker, or as not itself so determined but as relative to some time which is determined; and the past and future times may be near or remote. Thus a scheme of thirty or more tenses might be devised.

But, in the development of forms, which always takes place gradually, no language finds occasion for more than a small part of these. The most obvious distinctions, according to our habits of thought, appear in the following scheme:

1. Definite (fixing the time of the action) 2. Indefinite


Present: a. I am writing.---- d. I have written.---- g. I write.

Past: b. I was writing.---- e. I had written. ----h. I wrote.

Future: c. I shall be writing. ----f. I shall have written. ----i. I shall write.

Most languages disregard some of these distinctions, and some make other distinctions not here given. The Indo-European parent speech had a Present tense to express a and g, a Perfect to express d, an Aorist to express h, a Future to express c and i, and an Imperfect to express b. The Latin, however, confounded the Perfect and Aorist in a single form (the Perfect scrípsí), thus losing all distinction of form between d and h, and probably in a great degree the distinction of meaning. The nature of this confusion may be seen by comparing díxí, dicáví, and didicí (all Perfects derived from the same root, DIC), with edeixa, Skr. adiksham, dedeicha, Skr. dides'a. Latin also developed two new forms, those for e ( scrípseram) and f ( scrípseró), and thus possessed six tenses, as seen in Sect: 154. c.

The lines between these six tenses in Latin are not hard and fast, nor are they precisely the same that we draw in English. Thus in many verbs the form corresponding to I have written (d) is used for those corresponding to I am writing (a) and I write (g) in a slightly different sense, and the form corresponding to I had written (e) is used in like manner for that corresponding to I was writing (b). Again, the Latin often uses the form for I shall have written (f) instead of that for I shall write (i). Thus, nóví, I have learned, is used for I know; cónstiterat, he had taken his position, for he stood; cógnóveró, I shall have learned, for I shall be aware. In general a writer may take his own point of view.

1 The ending -e( amáre, monére, regere, audíre) was apparently locative, the ending - í ( amárí, monérí, regí, audírí) apparently dative; but this difference of case had no significance for Latin syntax. The general Latin restriction of the é -infinitives to the passive was not a primitive distinction, but grew up in the course of time.

2 In these constructions the abstract idea expressed by the infinitive is represented as having some quality or belonging to some thing.

3 This construction is elliptical; that is, the thought is quoted in Indirect Discourse, though no verb of saying etc. is expressed or even, perhaps, implied (compare the French dire que). Passages like hancine ego ad rem nátam miseram mé memorábó? (Plaut. Rud. 188) point to the origin of the construction.



SECTION: #465. The Present Tense denotes an action or state (1) as now taking place or existing, and so (2) as incomplete in present time, or (3) as indefinite, referring to no particular time, but denoting a general truth:
     senátus haec intellegit, cónsul videt, híc tamen vívit (Cat. 1.2) , the senate knows this, the consul sees it, yet this man lives.
     tibi concédó meás sédís (Div. 1.104) , I give you my seat (an offer which may or may not be accepted).
     exspectó quid velís (Ter. And. 34) , I await your pleasure (what you wish).
     tú áctiónem ínstituis, ille aciem ínstruit (Mur. 22) , you arrange a case, he arrays an army. [The present is here used of regular employment.]
     minóra dí neglegunt (N. D. 3.86) , the gods disregard trifles. [General truth.]
     obsequium amícós, véritás odium parit (Ter. And. 68) , flattery gains friends, truth hatred. [General truth.]

NOTE.--The present of a general truth is sometimes called the Gnomic Present.

The present is regularly used in quoting writers whose works are extant:
     Epicúrus véró ea dícit (Tusc. 2.17) , but Epicurus says such things.
     apud illum Ulixés lámentátur in volnere ( id. 2.49), in him ( Sophocles) Ulysses laments over his wound.
     Polyphémum Homérus cum ariete colloquentem facit ( id. 5.115), Homer brings in (makes) Polyphemus talking with his ram.

Present with iam diú etc.

SECTION: #466. The Present with expressions of duration of time (especially iam diú, iam dúdum) denotes an action continuing in the present, but begun in the past (cf. Sect: 471. b).

In this use the present is commonly to be rendered by the perfect in English:
     iam diú ígnóró quid agás (Fam. 7.9) , for a long time I have not known what you were doing.
     té iam dúdum hortor (Cat. 1.12) , I have long been urging you.
     patimur multós iam annós (Verr. 5.126) , we suffer now these many years. [The Latin perfect would imply that we no longer suffer.]
     anní sunt octó cum ista causa versátur (cf. Clu. 82), it is now eight years that this case has been in hand.
     annum iam audís Cratippum (Off. 1.1) , for a year you have been a hearer of Cratippus.
     adhúc Plancius mé retinet (Fam. 14.1.3) , so far Plancius has kept me here.

NOTE 1.--The difference in the two idioms is that the English states the beginning and leaves the continuance to be inferred, while the Latin states the continuance and leaves the beginning to be inferred. Compare he has long suffered (and still suffers) with he still suffers (and has suffered long).

NOTE 2.--Similarly the Present Imperative with iam dúdum indicates that the action commanded ought to have been done or was wished for long ago (cf. the Perfect Imperative in Greek): as,-- iam dúdum súmite poenás (Aen. 2.103) , exact the penalty long delayed.

Conative Present

SECTION: #467. The Present sometimes denotes an action attempted or begun in present time, but never completed at all (Conative Present, cf. Sect: 471. c):
     iam iamque manú tenet (Aen. 2.530) , and now, even now, he attempts to grasp him.
     dénsós fertur in hostís ( id. 2.511), he starts to rush into the thickest of the foe.
     décernó quínquágintá diérum supplicátiónés (Phil. 14.29) , I move for fifty days' thanksgiving. [Cf. senátus décrévit, the senate ordained.]

Present for Future

SECTION: #468. The Present, especially in colloquial language and poetry, is often used for the Future:
     ímusne sessum (De Or. 3.17) , shall we take a seat? (are we going to sit?)
     hodié uxórem dúcis (Ter. And. 321) , are you to be married to-day?
     quod sí fit, pereó funditus ( id. 244), if this happens, I am utterly undone.
     ecquid mé adiuvás (Clu. 71) , won't you give me a little help?
     in iús vocó té. nón eó. nón ís (Pl. Asin. 480) , I summon you to the court. I won't go. You won't?

NOTE.-- Eó and its compounds are especially frequent in this use (cf. where are you going to-morrow? and the Greek eimi in a future sense). Verbs of necessity, possibility, wish, and the like (as possum, voló, etc.) also have reference to the future.

For other uses of the Present in a future sense, see under Conditions (Sect: 516. a. N.), antequam and priusquam (Sect: 551. c), dum (Sect: 553. N. 2), and Sect: 444. a. N.

Historical Present

SECTION: #469. The Present in lively narrative is often used for the Historical Perfect:
     affertur núntius Syrácúsás; curritur ad praetórium; Cleomenés in público esse nón audet; inclúdit sé domí; ( Verr. 5.92), the news is brought to Syracuse; they run to headquarters; Cleomenes does not venture to be abroad; he shuts himself up at home.

NOTE.--This usage, common in all languages, comes from imagining past events as going on before our eyes ( repraesentátió, Sect: 585. b. N.).

For the Present Indicative with dum, while, see Sect: 556.

The present may be used for the perfect in a summary enumeration of past events (Annalistic Present):
     Róma interim créscit Albae ruínís: duplicátur cívium numerus; Caelius additur urbí móns (Liv. 1.30) , Rome meanwhile grows as a result of the fall of Alba: the number of citizens is doubled; the C"lian hill is added to the town


SECTION: #470. The Imperfect denotes an action or a state as continued or repeated in past time:
     hunc audiébant anteá; ( Manil. 13), they used to hear of him before.
     [ Sócratés] ita cénsébat itaque disseruit (Tusc. 1.72) , Socrates thought so (habitually), and so he spoke (then).
     prúdéns esse putábátur (Lael. 6) , he was (generally) thought wise. [The perfect would refer to some particular case, and not to a state of things.]
     iamque rubéscébat Auróra (Aen. 3.521) , and now the dawn was blushing.
     ára vetus stábat (Ov. M. 6.326) , an old altar stood there.

NOTE.--The Imperfect is a descriptive tense and denotes an action conceived as in progress or a state of things as actually observed. Hence in many verbs it does not differ in meaning from the Perfect. Thus réx erat and réx fuit may often be used indifferently; but the former describes the condition while the latter only states it. The English is less exact in distinguishing these two modes of statement. Hence the Latin Imperfect is often translated by the English Preterite:
     Haeduí graviter ferébant, neque légátós ad Caesarem mittere audébant (B. G. 5.6) , the Haedui were displeased, and did not dare to send envoys to Caesar. [Here the Imperfects describe the state of things.] But,--
     id tulit factum graviter Indútiomárus ( id. 5.4), Indutiomarus was displeased at this action. [Here the Perfect merely states the fact.]
     aedificia vícósque habébant ( id. 4.4), they had buildings and villages.

SECTION: #471. The Imperfect represents a present tense transferred to past time. Hence all the meanings which the Present has derived from the continuance of the action belong also to the Imperfect in reference to past time.

The Imperfect is used in descriptions:
     erant omnínó itinera duo ... móns altissimus impendébat (B. G. 1.6) , there were in all two ways ... a very high mountain overhung.

With iam diú, iam dúdum, and other expressions of duration of time, the Imperfect denotes an action continuing in the past but begun at some previous time (cf. Sect: 466).

In this construction the Imperfect is rendered by the English Pluperfect:
     iam dúdum flébam (Ov. M. 3.656) , I had been weeping for a long time.
     cópiás quás diú comparábant (Fam. 11.13.5) , the forces which they had long been getting ready.

The Imperfect sometimes denotes an action as begun ( Inceptive Imperfect), or as attempted or only intended (Conative Imperfect; cf Sect: 467):
     in exsilium éioiébam quem iam ingressum esse in bellum vidébam (Cat. 2.14) , was I trying to send into exile one who I saw had already gone into war?
     hunc igitur diem sibi própónéns Miló, cruentís manibus ad illa augusta centuriárum auspicia veniébat (Mil. 43) , was Milo coming (i.e. was it likely that he would come), etc.?
     sí licitum esset veniébant (Verr. 5.129) , they were coming if it had been allowed (they were on the point of coming, and would have done so if, etc.).

NOTE.--To this head may be referred the imperfect with iam, denoting the beginning of an action or state: as,-- iam que arva tenébant ultima (Aen. 6.477) , and now they were just getting to the farthest fields.

The Imperfect is sometimes used to express a surprise at the resent discovery of a fact already existing:
     ó tú quoque aderás (Ter. Ph. 858) , oh, you are here too!
     ehem, tún híc erás, mí Phaedria (Ter. Eun. 86) , what! you here, Ph"dria?
     á miser! quantá labórábás Charybdí; ( Hor. Od. 1.27.19), unhappy boy, what a whirlpool you are struggling in [and I never knew it]!

The Imperfect is often used in dialogue by the comic poets where later writers would employ the Perfect:
     ad amícum Calliclem quoi rem aíbat mandásse híc suam (Pl. Trin. 956) , to his friend Callicles, to whom, he said, he had intrusted his property.
     praeságíbat mí animus frústrá mé íre quom exíbam domó; ( Pl. Aul. 178), my mind mistrusted when I went from home that I went in vain.

NOTE.--So, in conversation the imperfect of verbs of saying (cf. as I was a-saying) is common in classic prose:
     at medicí quoque, ita enim dícébás, saepe falluntur (N. D. 3.15) , but physicians also,--for that is what you were saying just now,--are often mistaken.
     haec mihi feré in mentem veniébant ( id. 2.67, 168), this is about what occurred to me, etc. [In a straightforward narration this would be vénérunt.]

The Imperfect with negative words often has the force of the English auxiliary could or would:
     itaque ( Dámoclés) nec pulchrós iliós ministrátórés aspiciébat (Tusc. 5.62) , therefore he could not look upon those beautiful slaves. [In this case did not would not express the idea of continued prevention of enjoyment by the overhanging sword.]
     nec enim dum eram vóbíscum animum meum vidébátis (Cat. M. 79) , for, you know, while I was with you, you could not see my soul. [Here the Perfect would refer only to one moment.]
     Lentulus satis erat fortis órátór, sed cógitandí nón ferébat labórem (Brut 268), Lentulus was bold enough as an orator, but could not endure the exertion of thinking hard.

For the Epistolary Imperfect, see Sect: 479; for the Imperfect Indicative in apodosis contrary to fa<
     see Sect: 517. b. c.


SECTION: #472. The Future denotes an action or state that will occur hereafter.

The Future may have the force of an Imperative (Sect: 449. b).

The Future is often required in a subordinate clause in Latin where in English futurity is sufficiently expressed by the main clause:
     cum aderit vidébit, when he is there he will see (cf. Sect: 547).
     sánábimur sí volémus (Tusc. 3.13) , we shall be healed if we wish (cf. Sect: 516. a).

NOTE.--But the Present is common in future protases (Sect: 516. a N.).


Perfect Definite and Historical Perfect

SECTION: #473. The Perfect denotes an action either as now completed (Perfect Definite), or as having taken place at some undefined point of past time (Historical or Aoristic Perfect).

The Perfect Definite corresponds in general to the English Perfect with have; the Historical Perfect to the English Preterite (or Past):
     (1) ut ego fécí, quí Graecás litterás senex didicí (Cat. M. 26) , as I have done, who have learned Greek in my old age.
     diúturní silentí fínem hodiernus diés attulit (Marc. 1) , this day has put an end to my long-continued silence.
     (2) tantum bellum extrémá hieme apparávit, ineunte vére suscépit, mediá aestáte cónfécit (Manil. 35) , so great a war he made ready for at the end of winter, undertook in early spring, and finished by midsummer.

NOTE.--The distinction between these two uses is represented by two forms in most other Indo-European languages, but was almost if not wholly lost to the minds of the Romans. It must be noticed, however, on account of the marked distinction in English and also because of certain differences in the sequence of tenses.

The Indefinite Present, denoting a customary action or a general truth (Sect: 465), often has the Perfect in a subordinate clause referring to time antecedent to that of the main clause:
     quí in compedibus corporis semper fuérunt, etiam cum solútí sunt tardius ingrediuntur (Tusc. 1.75) , they who have always been in the fetters of the body, even when released move more slowly.
     simul ac mihi collibitum est, praestó est imágó; (N. D. 1.108), as soon as I have taken a fancy, the image is before my eyes.
     haec morte effugiuntur, etiam sí nón événérunt, tamen quia possunt éveníre (Tusc. 1.86) , these things are escaped by death even if they have not [yet] happened, because they still may happen.

NOTE.--This use of the perfect is especially common in the protasis of General Conditions in present time (Sect: 518. b).

SECTION: #474. The Perfect is sometimes used emphatically to denote that a thing or condition of things that once existed no longer exists:
     fuit ista quondam in hác ré públicá virtús (Cat. 1.3) , there was once such virtue in this commonwealth.
     habuit, nón habet (Tusc. 1.87) , he had, he has no longer.
     fílium habeó ... immo habuí; nunc habeam necne incertumst ( Ter. Haut. 93), I have a son, no, I had one; whether I have now or not is uncertain.
     fuimus Tróes, fuit Ilium (Aen. 2.325) , we have ceased to be Trojans, Troy is no more.

Special Uses of the Perfect

SECTION: #475. The Perfect is sometimes used of a general truth, especially with negatives (Gnomic Perfect):
     quí studet contingere métam multa tulit fécit que (Hor. A. P. 412) , he who aims to reach the goal, first bears and does many things.
     nón aeris acervus et aurí dédúxit corpore febrís ( id. Ep. 1.2.47), the pile of brass and gold removes not fever from the frame.

NOTE.--The gnomic perfect strictly refers to past time; but its use implies that something which never did happen in any known case never does happen, and never will (cf. the English "Faint heart never won fair lady); or, without a negative that what has once happened will always happen under similar circumstances.

The Perfect is often used in expressions containing or implying a negation, where in affirmation the Imperfect would be preferred:
     dícébat melius quam scrípsit Horténsius (Or. 132) , Hortensius spoke better than he wrote. [Here the negative is implied in the comparison: compare the use of quisquam, úllus, etc. (Sect: 311, 312), and the French ne after comparatives and superlatives.]

SECTION: #476. The completed tenses of some verbs are equivalent to the incomplete tenses of verbs of kindred meaning.

Such are the preteritive verbs ódí, I hate; meminí, I remember; nóví, I know; cónsuéví, I am accustomed,with others used preteritively, as vénerat (= aderat, he was at hand, etc.), cónstitérunt, they stand firm (have taken their stand), and many inceptives (see Sect: 263. 1):
     quí diés aestús maximós efficere cónsuévit (B. G. 4.29) , which day generally makes the highest tides (is accustomed to make).
     cúius splendor obsolévit (Quinct. 59) , whose splendor is now all faded.

NOTE.--Many other verbs are occasionally so used: as,-- dum oculós certámen áverterat (Liv. 32.24) , while the contest had turned their eyes (kept them turned). [Here áverterat= tenébat.]


SECTION: #477. The Pluperfect is used (1) to denote an action or state completed in past time; or (2) sometimes to denote an action in indefinite time, but prior to some past time referred to:
     (1) locí nátúra erat haec, quem locum nostrí castrís délégerant (B. G. 2.18) , this was the nature of the ground which our men had chosen for a camp.
     Viridovíx summam imperí tenébat eárum omnium cívitátum quae défécerant ( id. 3.17), Viridovix held the chief command of all those tribes which had revolted.
     (2) neque véró cum aliquid mandáverat cónfectum putábat (Cat. 3.16) , but when he had given a thing in charge he did not look on it as done.
     quae sí quandó adepta est id quod eí fuerat concupítum, tum fert alacritátem (Tusc. 4.15) , if it (desire) ever has gained what it had [previously] desired, then it produces joy.

For the Epistolary Pluperfect, see Sect: 479.


SECTION: #478. The Future Perfect denotes an action as completed in the future:
     ut sémentem féceris, ita metés (De Or. 2.261) , as you sow (shall have sown), so shall you reap.
     carmina tum melius, cum vénerit ipse, canémus (Ecl. 9.67) , then shall we sing our songs better, when he himself has come (shall have come).
     sí illíus ínsidiae cláriórés hác lúce fuerint, tum dénique obsecrábó; ( Mil. 6), when the plots of that man have been shown to be as clear as daylight, then, and not till then, shall I conjure you.
     ego certé meum officium praestiteró (B. G. 4.25) , I at least shall have done my duty (i.e. when the time comes to reckon up the matter, I shall be found to have done it, whatever the event).

NOTE.--Latin is far more exact than English in distinguishing between mere future action and action completed in the future. Hence the Future Perfect is much commoner in Latin than in English. It may even be used instead of the Future, from the fondness of the Romans for representing an action as completed:
     quid inventum sit pauló post víderó (Acad. 2.76) , what has been found out I shall see presently.
     quí Antónium oppresserit bellum taeterrimum cónfécerit (Fam. 10.19) , whoever crushes (shall have crushed) Antony will finish (will have finished) a most loathsome war.


SECTION: #479. In Letters, the Perfect Historical or the Imperfect may be used for the present, and the Pluperfect for any past tense, as if the letter were dated at the time it is supposed to be received:
     neque tamen, haec cum scríbébam, eram nescius quantís oneribus premerére (Fam. 5.12.2) , nor while I write this am I ignorant under what burdens you are weighed down.
     ad tuás omnís [ epistulás] rescrípseram prídié; ( Att. 9.10.1), I answered all your letters yesterday.
     cum quod scríberem ad té nihil habérem, tamen hás dedí litterás (Att. 9.16) , though I have nothing to write to you, still I write this letter.

NOTE.--In this use these tenses are called the Epistolary Perfect, Imperfect, and Pluperfect. The epistolary tenses are not employed with any uniformity, but only when attention is particularly directed to the time of writing (so especially scríbébam, dabam, etc.).

1 Cf. détestor, reminíscor, sció, soleó.


SECTION: #480. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Independent Clauses denote time in relation to the time of the speaker.

The Present always refers to future (or indefinite) time, the Imperfect to either past or present, the Perfect to either future or past, the Pluperfect always to past.

SECTION: #481. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses were habitually used in certain fixed connections with the tenses of the main verb.

These connections were determined by the time of the main verb and the time of the dependent verb together. They are known, collectively, as the Sequence of Tenses.

NOTE.--The so-called Sequence of Tenses is not a mechanical law. Each tense of the subjunctive in dependent clauses (as in independent) originally denoted its own time in relation to the time of the speaker, though less definitely than the corresponding tenses of the indicative. Gradually, however, as the complex sentence was more strongly felt as a unit, certain types in which the tenses of the dependent clause seemed to accord with those of the main clause were almost unconsciously regarded as regular, and others, in which there was no such agreement, as exceptional. Thus a pretty definite system of correspondences grew up, which is codified in the rules for the Sequence of Tenses. These, however, are by no means rigid. They do not apply with equal stringency to all dependent constructions, and they were frequently disregarded, not only when their strict observance would have obscured the sense, but for the sake of emphasis and variety, or merely from carelessness.

.Sequence of Tenses

SECTION: #482. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses follow special rules for the Sequence of Tenses.

With reference to these rules all tenses when used in independent clauses are divided into two classes,--Primary and Secondary.

1. PRIMARY.--The Primary Tenses include all forms that express present or future time. These are the Present, Future, and Future Perfect Indicative, the Present and Perfect Subjunctive, and the Present and Future Imperative.

2. SECONDARY.--The Secondary Tenses include all forms that refer to past time. These are the Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect Indicative, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, and the Historical Infinitive.

NOTE.--To these may be added certain forms less commonly used in independent clauses: (1) Primary: Present Infinitive in Exclamations; (2) Secondary: Perfect Infinitive in Exclamations (see Sect: 462, 485. a N.).

The Perfect Definite is sometimes treated as primary (see Sect: 485. a).

For the Historical Present, see Sect: 485. e; for the Imperfect Subjunctive in Apodosis, see Sect: 485. h.

SECTION: #483. The following is the general rule for the Sequence of Tenses:

In complex sentences a Primary tense in the main clause is followed by the Present or Perfect in the dependent clause, and a Secondary tense by the Imperfect or Pluperfect:


rogó, I ask, am asking quid faciás, what you are doing.

rogábó, I shall ask quid féceris, what you did, were doing, have done, have been doing.

rogáví (sometimes), I have asked

rogáveró, I shall have asked quid factúrus sís, what you will do.

scríbit, he writes ut nós moneat, to warn us.

scríbet, he will write

scrí be ( scríbitó), write ut nós moneás, to warn us.

scríbit, he writes quasi oblítus sit, as if he had forgotten.


rogábam, I asked, was asking quid facerés, what you were doing.

rogáví, I asked, have asked quid fécissés, what you had done, had been doing.

rogáveram, I had asked quid factúrus essés, what you would do.

scrípsit, he wrote ut nós monéret, to warn us.

scrípsit, he wrote quasi oblítus esset, as if he had forgotten.

SECTION: #484. In applying the rule for the Sequence of Tenses, observe:/p>

(1) Whether the main verb is (a) primary or (b) secondary.

(2) Whether the dependent verb is to denote completed action (i.e. past with reference to the main verb) or incomplete action (i.e. present or future with reference to the main verb). Then:/p>

If the leading verb is primary, the dependent verb must be in the Present if it denotes incomplete action, in the Perfect if it denotes completed action.

If the leading verb is secondary, the dependent verb must be in the Imperfect if it denotes incomplete action, in the Pluperfect if it denotes completed action:
     (1) He writes [primary] to warn [incomplete action] us, scríbit ut nós moneat.
     I ask [primary] what you were doing [now past], rogó quid féceris.
     (2) He wrote [secondary] to warn [incomplete] us, scrípsit ut nós monéret.
     I asked [secondary] what you were doing [incomplete], rogáví quid facerés.

Notice that the Future Perfect denotes action completed (at the time referred to), and hence is represented in the Subjunctive by the Perfect or Pluperfect:
     He shows that if they come (shall have come), many will perish, démónstrat, sí vénerint, multós interitúrós.
     He showed that if they should come (should have come), many would perish, démónstrávit, sí vénissent, multós interitúrós.

SECTION: #485. In the Sequence of Tenses the following special points are to be noted:

The Perfect Indicative is ordinarily a secondary tense, but allows the primary sequence when the present time is clearly in the writer's mind:
     ut satis esset praesidí próvísum est (Cat. 2.26) , provision has been made that there should be ample guard. [Secondary sequence.]
     addúxí hominem in quó satisfacere exterís nátiónibus possétis (Verr. 1.2) , I have brought a man in whose person you can make satisfaction to foreign nations. [Secondary sequence.]
     est enim rés iam in eum locum adducta, ut quamquam multum intersit inter eórum causás quí dímicant, tamen inter victóriás nón multum interfutúrum putem (Fam. 5.21.3) , for affairs have been brought to such a pass that, though there is a great difference between the causes of those who are fighting, still I do not think there will be much difference between their victories. [Primary sequence.]
     ea adhibita doctrína est quae vel vitiósissimam nátúram excolere possit (Q. Fr. 1.1.7) , such instruction has been given as can train even the faultiest nature. [Primary sequence.]

NOTE.--The Perfect Infinitive in exclamations follows the same rule:
     quemquamne fuisse tam scelerátum quí hóc fingeret (Phil. 14.14) , was any one so abandoned as to imagine this? [Secondary.]
     adeón rem redísse patrem ut extiméscam (Ter. Ph. 153) , to think that things have come to such a pass that I should dread my father! [Primary.]

After a primary tense the Perfect Subjunctive is regularly used to denote any past action. This the Perfect Subjunctive may represent:/p>

1. A Perfect Definite:
     nón dubitó quín omnés tuí scrípserint (Fam. 5.8) , I do not doubt that all your friends have written. [Direct statement: scrípsérunt.]
     quá ré nón ígnóró quid accidat in ultimís terrís, cum audierim in I taliá querellás cívium (Q. Fr. 1.1.33) , therefore I know well what happens at the ends of the earth, when I have heard in Italy the complaints of citizens. [Direct statement: audíví.]

2. A Perfect Historical:
     mé autem híc laudat quod rettulerim, nón quod patefécerim (Att. 12.21) , me he praises because I brought the matter [before the senate], not because I brought it to light. [Direct statement: rettulit.]

3. An Imperfect:
     sí forte cecidérunt, tum intellegitur quam fuerint inopés amícórum (Lael. 53) , if perchance they fall (have fallen), then one can see how poor they were in friends. [Direct question: quam inopés erant?]
     quí status rérum fuerit cum hás litterás dedí, scíre poteris ex C. Titió Strabóne (Fam. 12.6) , what the condition of affairs was when I wrote this letter, you can learn from Strabo. [Direct question: quí status erat?]
     quam cívitátí cárus fuerit maeróre fúneris indicátum est (Lael. 11) , how dear he was to the state has been shown by the grief at his funeral. [Direct question: quam cárus erat?]
     ex epistulís intellegí licet quam frequéns fuerit Platónis audítor (Or. 15) , it may be understood from his letters how constant a hearer he was of Plato. [Direct question: quam frequéns erat?]

NOTE.--Thus the Perfect Subjunctive may represent, not only a Perfect Definite or a Perfect Historical of a direct statement or question, but an Imperfect as well. This comes from the want of any special tense of the subjunctive for continued past action after a primary tense. Thus, míror quid fécerit may mean (1) I wonder what he has done, (2) I wonder what he did (hist. perf.), or (3) I wonder what he was doing.

In clauses of Result, the Perfect Subjunctive is regularly (the Present rarely) used after secondary tenses:
     Horténsius árdébat dícendí cupiditáte síc ut in núlló umquam flagrantius studium víderim (Brut. 302) , Hortensius was so hot with desire of speaking that I have never seen a more burning ardor in any man.
     [ Siciliam Verrés] per triennium ita vexávit ac perdidit ut ea restituí in antíquum statum núlló modó possit (Verr. 1.12) , for three years Verres so racked and ruined Sicily that she can in no way be restored to her former state. [Here the Present describes a state of things actually existing.]
     videor esse cónsecútus ut nón possit Dolábella in Italiam perveníre (Fam. 12.14.2) , I seem to have brought it about that Dolabella cannot come into Italy.

NOTE 1.--This construction emphasizes the result; the regular sequence of tenses would subordinate it.

NOTE 2.--There is a special fondness for the Perfect Subjunctive to represent a Perfect Indicative:
     Thorius erat ita nón superstitiósus ut illa plúrima in suá et sacrificia et fána contemneret; ita nón timidus ad mortem ut in acié sit ob rem públicam interfectus (Fin. 2.63) , Thorius was so little superstitious that he despised [ contemnébat] the many sacrifices and shrines in his country; so little timorous about death that he was killed [ interfectus est] in battle, in defence of the state.

A general truth after a past tense follows the sequence of tenses:
     ex hís quae tribuisset, sibi quam mútábilis esset reputábat (Q. C. 3.8.20) , from what she (Fortune) had bestowed on him, he reflected how inconstant she is. [Direct: mútábilis est.]
     ibi quantam vim ad stimulandós animós íra habéret appáruit (Liv. 33.37) , here it appeared what power anger has to goad the mind. [Direct: habet.]

NOTE.--In English the original tense is more commonly kept.

The Historical Present (Sect: 469) is sometimes felt as a primary, ometimes as a secondary tense, and accordingly it takes either the primary or the secondary sequence:
     rogat ut cúret quod díxisset (Quinct. 18) , he asks him to attend to the thing he had spoken of. [Both primary and secondary sequence.]

NOTE.--After the historical present, the subjunctive with cum temporal must follow the secondary sequence:
     quó cum vénisset cógnóscit (B. C. 1.34) , when he had come there he learns.
     cum esset púgnátum hórís quínque, nostríque gravius premerentur, impetum in cohortís faciunt ( id. 1.46), when they had fought for five hours, and our men were pretty hard pressed, they make an attack on the cohorts.

The Historical Infinitive regularly takes the secondary sequence:
     interim cotídié Caesar Haeduós frúmentum, quod essent pollicití, flágitáre (B. G. 1.16) . meanwhile Caesar demanded of the Haedui every day the grain which they had promised.

The Imperfect and Pluperfect in conditions contrary to fact (Sect: 517) and in the Deliberative Subjunctive (Sect: 444) are not affected by the sequence of tenses:
     quia tále sit, ut vel sí ígnórárent id hominés vel sí obmutuissent (Fin. 2.49) , because it is such that even if men WERE ignorant of it, or HAD BEEN silent about it.
     quaeró á té cúr C. Cornélium nón défenderem (Vat. 5) , I ask you why I was not to defend Caius Cornelius? [Direct: cúr nón défenderem?]

The Imperfect Subjunctive in present conditions contrary to fact (Sect: 517) is regularly followed by the secondary sequence:
     sí alií cónsulés essent, ad té potissimum, Paule, mitterem, ut eós mihi quam amícissimós redderés (Fam. 15.13.3) , if there were other consuls, I should send to you, Paulus, in preference to all, that you might make them as friendly to me as possible.
     sí sólós eós dícerés miserós quibus moriendum esset, néminem exciperés (Tusc. 1.9) , if you were to call only those wretched who must d<
    > you would except no one.

The Present is sometimes followed by a secondary sequence, seemingly because the writer is thinking of past time:
     sed sí rés cóget, est quiddam tertium, quod neque Selició nec mihi displicé bat: ut neque iacére rem paterémur, etc. ( Fam. 1.5A. 3), but if the case shall demand, there is a third [course] which neither Selicius nor myself disapproved, that we should not allow, etc. [Here Cicero is led by the time of displicébat.]
     sed tamen ut scírés, haec tibi scríbó (Fam. 13.47) , but yet that you may know, I write thus. [As if he had used the epistolary imperfect scríbébam (Sect: 479).]
     cúius praeceptí tanta vís est ut ea nón hominí cuipiam sed Delphicó deó tribuerétur (Legg. 1.58) , such is the force of this precept, that it was ascribed not to any man, but to the Delphic god. [The precept was an old one.]

When a clause depends upon one already dependent, its sequence may be secondary if the verb of that clause expresses past time, even if the main verb is in a primary tense:
     sed tamen quá ré acciderit ut ex meís superióribus litterís id suspicárére nesció; ( Fam. 2.16), but yet how it happened that you suspected this from my previous letter, I don't know.
     tantum prófécisse vidémur ut á Graecís né verbórum quidem cópiá vincerémur (N. D. 1.8) , we seem to have advanced so far that even in abundance of words we ARE not surpassed by the Greeks.

NOTE.--So regularly after a Perfect Infinitive which depends on a primary tense (Sect: 585. a).

1 The term is sometimes extended to certain relations between the tenses of subordinate verbs in the indicative and those of the main verb. These relations do not differ in principle from those which we are considering; but for convenience the term Sequence of Tenses is in this book restricted to subjunctives, in accordance with the usual practice.


SECTION: #486. Except in Indirect Discourse, only the Present and Perfect Infinitives are used.

The Present represents the action of the verb as in progress without distinct reference to time, the Perfect as completed.

For the Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse see Sect: 584.

With past tenses of verbs of necessity, propriety, and possibility (as débuí, oportuit, potuí), the Present Infinitive is often used in Latin where the English idiom prefers the Perfect Infinitive:
     numne, sí Coriolánus habuit amícós, ferre contrá patriam arma illí cum Coriolánó débuérunt (Lael. 36) , if Coriolanus had friends, ought they to have borne arms with him against their fatherland?
     pecúnia, quam hís oportuit cívitátibus pró frúmentó darí (Verr. 3.174) , money which ought to have been paid to these states for grain.
     cónsul esse quí potuí, nisi eum vítae cursum tenuissem á pueritiá; ( Rep. 1.10), how could I have become consul had I not from boyhood followed that course of life?

With verbs of necessity, propriety, and possibility, the Perfect Infinitive may be used to emphasize the idea of completed action:
     tametsí statim vícisse débeó; ( Rosc. Am. 73), although I ought to win my case at once (to be regarded as having won it).
     bellum quod possumus ante hiemem perfécisse (Liv. 37.19.5) , a war which we can have completed before winter.
     níl ego, sí peccem, possum nescísse (Ov. H. 16.47) , if I should go wrong, I cannot have done it in ignorance (am not able not to have known).

NOTE.--With the past tenses of these verbs the perfect infinitive is apparently due to attraction:
     quod iam prídem factum esse oportuit (Cat. 1.5) , (a thing) which ought to have been done long ago.
     haec facta ab illó oportébat (Ter. Haut. 536) , this ought to have been done by him.
     tum decuit metuisse (Aen. 10.94) , then was the time to fear (then you should have feared).

In archaic Latin and in legal formulas the Perfect Active Infinitive is often used with nóló or voló in prohibitions:
     Chaldaeum néquem cónsuluisse velit ( Cato R. R. 5.4) , let him not venture to have consulted a soothsayer.
     nólító devellisse (Pl. Poen. 872) , do not have them plucked.
     néquis humásse velit Aiácem (Hor. S. 2.3.187) , let no one venture to have buried Ajax.
     NEIQVIS EORVM BACANAL HABVISE VELET (S. C. de Bac. 1), let no one of them venture to have had a place for Bacchanalian worship.

With verbs of wishingthe Perfect Passive Infinitive (commonly without esse) is often used emphatically instead of the Present:
     domesticá cúrá té levátum voló; ( Q. Fr. 3.9.3), I wish you relieved of private care.
     illós monitós voló; ( Cat. 2.27), I wish them thoroughly warned.
     quí illam [ patriam] exstínctam cupit (Fin. 4.66) , who is eager for her utter destruction.
     illud té esse admonitum voló; ( Cael. 8), I wish you to be well advised of this.
     quí sé ab omnibus désertós potius quam abs té défénsós esse málunt (Caecil. 21) , who prefer to be deserted by all rather than to be defended by you.

NOTE.--The participle in this case is rather in predicate agreement (with or without esse) than used to form a strict perfect infinitive, though the full form can hardly be distinguished from that construction.

In late Latin, and in poetry (often for metrical convenience), rarely in good prose, the Perfect Active Infinitive is used emphatically instead of the Present, and even after other verbs than those of wishing:
     némó eórum est quí nón perísse té cupiat (Verr. 2.149) , there is no one of them who is not eager for your death.
     haud equidem premendó alium mé extulisse velim (Liv. 22.59.10) , I would not by crushing another exalt myself.
     sunt quí nólint tetigisse (Hor. S. 1.2.28) , there are those who would not touch.
     commísisse cavet (Hor. A. P. 168) , he is cautious of doing.
     nunc quem tetigisse timérent, anguis erás (Ov. M. 8.733) , again you became a serpent which they dreaded to touch.
     frátrésque tendentés opácó Pélion imposuisse Olympó; ( Hor. Od. 3.4.51), and the brothers striving to set Pelion on dark Olympus.

After verbs of feeling the Perfect Infinitive is used, especially by the poets, to denote a completed action.

So also with satis est, satis habeó, melius est, contentus sum, and in a few other cases where the distinction of time is important:
     nón paenitébat intercapédinem scríbendí fécisse (Fam. 16.21) , I was not sorry to have made a respite of writing.
     pudet mé nón praestitisse ( id. 14.3), I am ashamed not to have shown.
     sunt quós pulverem Olympicum collégisse iuvat (Hor. Od. 1.1.3) , some delight to have stirred up the dust at Olympia.
     quiesse erit melius (Liv. 3.48) , it will be better to have kept quiet.
     ac sí quis amet scrípsisse (Hor. S. 1.10.60) , than if one should choose to have written.
     id sólum díxisse satis habeó; (Vell. 2.124), I am content to have said only this.

1 Voló, and less frequently nóló, máló, and cupió.


SECTION: #487. The several Noun and Adjective forms associated with the verb are employed as follows:

I. Participles: a. Present and Perfect: 1. Attributive ( Sect: 494).

2. Simple Predicate (Sect: 495).

3. Periphrastic Perfect (passive) (Sect: 495. N.).

4. Predicate of Circumstance (Sect: 496).

5. Descriptive (Indirect Discourse) (Sect: 497 d).

b. Future 1. Periphrastic with esse (Sect: 498. a).

2. Periphrastic with fuí (=Pluperfect Subjunctive) (Sect: 498. b).

c. Gerundive 1. As Descriptive Adjective (Sect: 500. 1).

2. Periphrastic with esse (Sect: 500. 2).

3. Of Purpose with certain verbs (Sect: 500. 4).

II. Gerund or Gerundive: 1. Genitive as Subjective or Objective Genitive (Sect: 504).

2. Dative, with Adjectives (of Fitness), Nouns, Verbs ( 505).

3. Accusative, with certain Prepositions (Sect: 506).

4. Ablative, of Means, Comparison, or with Prepositions (Sect: 507).

III. Supine: 1. Accusative Supine (in -um), with Verbs of Motion (Sect: 509).

Ablative Supine (in - ), chiefly with Adjectives (Sect: 510).

For the Syntax of the Infinitive, see Sect: 451 ff. 486.


SECTION: #488. The Participle expresses the action of the verb in the form of an Adjective, but has a partial distinction of tense and may govern a case.

NOTE.--Thus the participle combines all the functions of an adjective with some of the functions of a verb. As an Adjective, it limits substantives and agrees with them in gender, number, and case (Sect: 286). As a Verb, it has distinctions of time (Sect: 489) and often takes an object.

Distinctions of Tense in Participles

SECTION: #489. Participles denote time as present, past, or future with respect to the time of the verb in their clause.

Thus the Present Participle represents the action as in progress at the time indicated by the tense of the verb, the Perfect as completed, and the Future as still to take place.

SECTION: #490. The Present Participle has several of the special uses of the Present Indicative. Thus it may denote:/p>

1. An action continued in the present but begun in the past (Sect: 466):
     quaerentí mihi iam diú certa rés núlla veniébat in mentem (Fam. 4.13) . though I had long sought, no certain thing came to my mind.

2. Attempted action (Sect: 467):
     C. Fláminió restitit agrum Pícentem dívidentí (Cat. M. 11) , he resisted Flaminius when attempting to divide the Picene territory.

3. Rarely (in poetry and later Latin) futurity or purpose, with a verb of motion:
     Eurypylum scítantem órácula mittimus (Aen. 2.114) , we send Eurypylus to consult the oracle. [Cf. Sect: 468.]

SECTION: #491. The Perfect Participle of a few deponent verbs is used nearly in the sense of a Present.

Such are, regularly, ratus, solitus, veritus; commonly, arbitrátus, físus, ausus, secútus, and occasionally others, especially in later writers:
     rem incrédibilem ratí ( Sall. Cat. 48), thinking the thing incredible.
     ínsidiás veritus (B. G. 2.11) , fearing an ambuscade.
     cohortátus mílités docuit (B. C. 3.80) , encouraging the men, he showed.
     írátus díxistí; ( Mur. 62), you spoke in a passion.
     ad púgnam congressí (Liv. 4.10) , meeting in fight.

SECTION: #492. The Latin has no Present Participle in the passive.

The place of such a form is supplied usually by a clause with dum or cum:
     obiére dum calciantur mátútínó duo Caesarés (Plin. N. H. 7.181), two Caesars died while having their shoes put on in the morning.
     méque ista délectant cum Latíné dícuntur (Acad. 1.18) , those things please me when they are spoken in Latin.

NOTE.--These constructions are often used when a participle might be employed:
     díc, hospes, Spartae nós té híc vídisse iacentís, dum sánctís patriae légibus obsequimur (Tusc. 1.101) , tell it, stranger, at Sparta, that you saw us lying here obedient to our country's sacred laws. [Here dum obsequimur is a translation of the Greek present participle peithomenoi.]
     dum [ Ulixés] sibi, dum sociís reditum parat (Hor. Ep. 1.2.21) , Ulysses, while securing the return of himself and his companions. [In Greek: arnumenos.]

SECTION: #493. The Latin has no Perfect Participle in the active voice. The deficiency is supplied:/p>

1. In deponents by the perfect passive form with its regular active meaning:
     nam singulás [ návís] nostrí cónsectátí expúgnávérunt (B. G. 3.15) , for our men, having overtaken them one by one, captured them by boarding.

NOTE.--The perfect participle of several deponent verbs may be either active or passive in meaning (Sect: 190. b).

2. In other verbs, either by the perfect passive participle in the ablative absolute (Sect: 420. N.) or by a temporal clause (especially with cum or postquam):
     itaque convocátís centuriónibus mílités certiórés facit (B. G. 3.5) , and so, having called the centurions together, he informs the soldiers (the centurions having been called together).
     cum vénisset animadvertit collem ( id. 7.44), having come (when he had come), he noticed a hill.
     postquam id animum advertit cópiás suás Caesar in proximum collem subdúcit (B. G. 1.24) , having observed this (after he had observed this) Caesar led his troops to the nearest hill.

Uses of Participles

SECTION: #494. The Present and Perfect Participles are sometimes used as attributives, nearly like adjectives:
     aeger et flagráns animus (Tac. Ann. 3.54) , his sick and passionate mind.
     cum antíquissimam sententiam tum comprobátam (Div. 1.11) , a view at once most ancient and well approved.
     sígna numquam feré mentientia ( id. 1.15), signs hardly ever deceitful.
     auspiciís útuntur coáctís ( id. 1.27), they use forced auspices.

Participles often become complete adjectives, and may be compared, or used as nouns:
     quó mulierí esset rés cautior (Caec. 11) , that the matter might be more secure for the woman.
     in illís artibus praestantissimus (De Or. 1.217) , pre-eminent in those arts.
     sibi indulgentés et corporí déservientés (Legg. 1.39) , the self-indulgent, and slaves to the body (indulging themselves and serving the body).
     récté facta paria esse débent (Par. 22) , right deeds (things rightly done) ought to be like in value (see Sect: 321. b).
     male parta male dílábuntur (Phil. 2.65) , ill got, ill spent (things ill acquired are ill spent).
     cónsuétúdó valentis (De Or. 2.186) , the habit of a man in health.

SECTION: #495. Participles are often used as Predicate Adjectives. As such they may be joined to the subject by esse or a copulative verb (see 283):
     Gallia est dívísa (B. G. 1.1) , Gaul is divided.
     locus quí nunc saeptus est (Liv. 1.8) , the place which is now enclosed.
     vidétis ut senectús sit operósa et semper agéns aliquid et móliéns (Cat. M. 26) , you see how busy old age is, always aiming and trying at something.
     némó adhúc conveníre mé voluit cui fuerim occupátus ( id. 32), nobody hitherto has [ever] wished to converse with me, to whom I have been "engaged."

NOTE.--From this predicate use arise the compound tenses of the passive,--the participle of completed action with the incomplete tenses of esse developing the idea of past time: as, interfectus est, he was (or has been) killed, lit. he is having-been-killed (i.e. already slain).

The perfect participle used with fuí etc. was perhaps originally an intensified expression in the popular language for the perfect, pluperfect, etc.

At times these forms indicate a state of affairs no longer existing:
     cótem quoque eódem locó sitam fuisse memorant (Liv. 1.36.5) , they say that a whetstone was (once) deposited in this same place. [At the time of writing it was no longer there.]
     arma quae fíxa in parietibus fuerant, humí inventa sunt (Div. 1.74) , the arms which had been fastened on the walls were found upon the ground.

But more frequently they are not to be distinguished from the forms with sum etc.

The construction is found occasionally at all periods, but is most common in Livy and later writers.

SECTION: #496. The Present and Perfect Participles are often used as a predicate, where in English a phrase or a subordinate clause would be more natural.

In this use the participles express time, cause, occasion, condition, concession, characteristic (or description), manner, means, attendant circumstances:
     volventés hostília cadávera amícum reperiébant ( Sall. Cat. 61), while rolling over the corpses of the enemy they found a friend. [Time.]
     paululum commorátus, sígna canere iubet ( id. 59), after delaying a little while, he orders them to give the signal. [Time.]
     longius prósequí veritus, ad Cicerónem pervénit (B. G. 5.52) , because he feared to follow further, he came to Cicero. [Cause.]
     quí scíret laxás dare iussus habénás (Aen. 1.63) , who might know how to give them loose rein when bidden. [Occasion.]
     damnátum poenam sequí oportébat (B. G. 1.4) , if condemned, punishment must overtake him. [Condition.]
     salútem ínspérantibus reddidistí; ( Marc. 21), you have restored a safety for which we did not hope (to [us] not hoping). [Concession.]
     Dardanius caput ecce puer détéctus (Aen. 10.133) , the Trojan boy with his head uncovered. [Description.]
     nec trepidés in úsum poscentis aeví pauca (Hor. Od. 2.11.5) , be not anxious for the needs of age that demands little. [Characteristic.]
     incitátí fugá montís altissimós petébant (B. C. 3.93) , in headlong flight they made for the highest mountains. [Manner.]
     mílités sublevátí alií ab aliís mágnam partem itineris cónficerent ( id. 1.68), the soldiers, helped up by each other, accomplished a considerable part of the route. [Means.]
     hóc laudáns, Pompeiius idem iúrávit ( id. 3.87), approving this, Pompey took the same oath. [Attendant Circumstance.]
     aut sedéns aut ambuláns disputábam (Tusc. 1.7) , I conducted the discussion either sitting or walking. [Attendant Circumstance.]

NOTE 1.--These uses are especially frequent in the Ablative Absolute (Sect: 420).

NOTE 2.--A coordinate clause is sometimes compressed into a perfect participle:
     ínstrúctós órdinés in locum aequum dédúcit ( Sall. Cat. 59), he draws up the lines, and leads them to level ground.
     ut hós tráductós necáret (B. G. 5.6) , that he might carry them over and put them to death.

NOTE 3.--A participle with a negative often expresses the same idea which in English is given by without and a verbal noun: as,-- miserum est nihil próficientem angí (N. D. 3.14) , it is wretched to vex oneself without effecting anything.

NOTE 4.-- Acceptum and expénsum as predicates with ferre and referre are bookkeeping terms: as,--quás pecúniás ferébat eís expénsás (Verr. 2.170) , what sums he charged to them.

SECTION: #497. A noun and a passive participle are often so united that the participle and not the noun contains the main idea:
     ante conditam condendam ve urbem (Liv. Pref.), before the city was built or building.
     illí líbertátem imminútam cívium Rómánórum nón tulérunt; vós éreptam vítam neglegétis (Manil. 11) , they did not endure the infringement of the citizens' liberty; will you disregard the destruction of their lives?
     post nátós hominés (Brut. 224) , since the creation of man.
     iam á conditá urbe (Phil. 3.9) , even from the founding of the city.

The perfect participle with a noun in agreement, or in the neuter as an abstract noun, is used in the ablative with opus, need (cf. Sect: 411. a):
     opus factó est viáticó (Pl. Trin. 887) , there is need of laying in provision.
     mátúrátó opus est (Liv. 8.13.17) , there is need of haste.

The perfect participle with habeó (rarely with other verbs) has almost the same meaning as a perfect active, but denotes the continued effect of the action of the verb:
     fidem quam habent spectátam iam et diú cógnitam (Caecil. 11) , my fidelity, which they have proved and long known.
     cohortís in acié LXXX cónstitútás habébat (B. C. 3.89) , he had eighty cohorts stationed in line of battle.
     nefáriós ducés captós iam et comprehénsós tenétis (Cat. 3.16) , you have now captured the infamous leaders and hold them in custody.

A verb of effecting or the like may be used in combination with the perfect participle of a transitive verb to express the action of that verb more forcibly:
     praefectós suós multí missós fécérunt (Verr. 3.134) , many discharged their officers (made dismissed).
     híc tránsáctum reddet omne (Pl. Capt. 345) , he will get it all done (restore it finished).
     adémptum tibi iam faxó omnem metum (Ter. Haut. 341) , I will relieve you of all fear (make it taken away).
     illam tibi incénsam dabó (Ter. Ph. 974) , I will make her angry with you.

NOTE.--Similarly voló (with its compounds) and cupió, with a perfect participle without esse (cf. Sect: 486. d).

After verbs denoting an action of the senses the present participle in agreement with the object is nearly equivalent to the infinitive of indirect discourse (Sect: 580), but expresses the action more vividly:
     ut eum némó umquam in equó sedentem víderit (Verr. 5.27) , so that no one ever saw him sitting on a horse. [Cf. Tusc. 3.31.]

NOTE.--The same construction is used after fació, indúcó, and the like, with the name of an author as subject: as,-- Xenophón facit Sócratem disputantem (N. D. 1.31) , Xenophon represents Socrates disputing.

Future Participle (Active)

SECTION: #498. The Future Participle (except futúrus and ventúrus) is rarely used in simple agreement with a noun, except by poets and later writers.

The future participle is chiefly used with the forms of esse (often omitted in the infinitive) in the Active Periphrastic Conjugation (see Sect: 195):
     morere, Diagorá, nón enim in caelum adscénsúrus es (Tusc. 1.111) , die, Diagoras, for you are not likely to rise to heaven.
     spérat aduléscéns diú sé víctúrum (Cat. M. 68) , the young man hopes to live long (that he shall live long).
     neque petítúrus umquam cónsulátum vidérétur (Off. 3.79) , and did not seem likely ever to be a candidate for the consulship.

With the past tenses of esse in the indicative, the future participle is often equivalent to the pluperfect subjunctive (Sect: 517. d). For futúrum fuisse, see Sect: 589. b.

SECTION: #499. By later writers and the poets the Future Participle is often used in simple agreement with a substantive to express:/p>

1. Likelihood or certainty:
     rem ausus plús fámae habitúram (Liv. 2.10) , having dared a thing which would have more repute.

2. Purpose, intention, or readiness:
     égreditur castrís Rómánus vállum invásúrus (Liv. 3.60.8) , the Roman comes out of the camp with the intention of attacking the rampart.
     dispersós per agrós mílités equitibus invásúrís ( id. 31.36), while the horse were ready to attack the soldiers scattered through the fields.
     sí peritúrus abís (Aen. 2.675) , if you are going away to perish.

3. Apodosis:
     dedit mihi quantum maximum potuit, datúrus amplius sí potuisset (Plin. Ep. 3.21.6) , he gave me as much as he could, ready to give me more if he had been able. [Here datúrus is equivalent to dedisset.]

Gerundive (Future Passive Participle)

NOTE.--The participle in -dus, commonly called the Gerundive, has two distinct uses:

(1) Its predicate and attribute use as Participle or Adjective (Sect: 500).

(2) Its use with the meaning of the Gerund (Sect: 503). This may be called its gerundive use.


SECTION: #500. The Gerundive when used as a Participle or an Adjective is always passive, denoting necessity, obligation, or propriety.

In this use of the Gerundive the following points are to be observed:

1. The gerundive is sometimes used, like the present and perfect participles, in simple agreement with a noun:
     fortem et cónservandum virum (Mil. 104) , a brave man, and worthy to be preserved.
     gravis iniúria facta est et nón ferenda (Flacc. 84) , a grave and intolerable wrong has been done.

2. The most frequent use of the gerundive is with the forms of esse in the Second (or passive) Periphrastic Conjugation (see Sect: 196):
     nón agitanda rés erit (Verr. 5.179) , will not the thing have to be agitated?

3. The neuter gerundive of both transitive and intransitive verbs may be used impersonally in the second periphrastic conjugation.

With verbs that take the dative or ablative, an object may be expressed in the appropriate case; with transitive verbs, an object in the accusative is sometimes found:
     temporí serviendum est (Fam. 9.7.2) , one must obey the time.
     légibus párendum est, the laws must be obeyed.
     útendum exercitátiónibus modicís (Cat. M. 36) , we must use moderate exercise
     agitandumst vigiliás (Pl. Trin. 869) , I have got to stand guard.
     via quam nóbís ingrediendum sit (Cat. M. 6) , the way we have to enter.

4. After verbs signifying to give, deliver, agree for, have, receive, undertake, demand,a gerundive in agreement with the object is used to express purpose:
     redémptor quí columnam illam condúxerat faciendam (Div. 2.47) , the contractor who had undertaken to make that column. [The regular construction with this class of verbs.]
     aedem Castoris habuit tuendam (Verr. 2.1.150) , he had the temple of Castor to take care of.
     návís atque onera adservanda cúrábat ( id. 5.146), he took care that the ships and cargoes should be kept.


SECTION: #501. The Gerund is the neuter of the Gerundive, used substantively in the Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative.

SECTION: #502. The Gerund expresses an action of the verb in the form of a verbal noun.

As a noun the gerund is itself governed by other words; as a verb it may take an object in the proper case:
     ars bene disserendí et véra ac falsa díiúdicandí (De Or. 2.157) , the art of discoursing well, and distinguishing the true and the false.

NOTE.--The Nominative of the gerund is supplied by the Infinitive. Thus in the example above, the verbal nouns discoursing and distinguishing, if used in the nominative, would be expressed by the infinitives disserere and díiúdicáre.

The Gerund is the neuter of the gerundive used impersonally, but retaining the verbal idea sufficiently to govern an object. It may therefore be regarded as a noun (cf. mátúrátó opus est, Sect: 497. a) with a verbal force (cf. istanc táctió, p. 240, footnote).

1 Compare the participle in indirect discourse in Greek (Goodwin's Greek Grammar, Sect: 1588); and the English "'T was at the royal feast for Persia won"(Dryden), i.e. for the conquest of Persia.

2 The perfect with have, in modern languages of Latin stock, has grown out of this use of habeó.

3 Such verbs are accipió, adnótó, attribuó, condúcó, cúró, dénótó, déposcó,dó, dívidó, dónó, édícó, é doceó, feró, habeó, locó, mandó, obició, permittó, petó, pónó, praebeó, própónó, relinquó, rogó, suscipió, trádó, voveó.


SECTION: #503. When the Gerund would have an object in the Accusative, the Gerundiveis generally used instead. The gerundive agrees with its noun, which takes the case that the gerund would have had:
     parátiórés ad omnia perícula subeunda (B. G. 1.5) , readier to undergo all dangers. [Here subeunda agrees with perícula, which is itself governed by ad. The (inadmissible) construction with the gerund would be ad subeundum perícula; ad governing the gerund, and the gerund governing the accusative perícula.] For details, see Sect: 504-507.

NOTE 1.--In this use the gerund and the gerundive are translated in the same way, but have really a different construction. The gerundive is a passive participle, and agrees with its noun, though in translation we change the voice, just as we may translate vigiliae agitandae sunt (guard must be kept) by I must stand guard.

NOTE 2.--In the gerundive construction the verbs útor, fruor, etc., are treated like transitive verbs governing the accusative, as they do in early Latin (Sect: 410. a. N. 1): as, -- ad perfruendás voluptátés (Off. 1.25) , for enjoying pleasures.

The following examples illustrate the parallel constructions of Gerund and Gerundive:
     GEN. cónsilium urbem capiendí urbis capiendae a design of taking the city.
     DAT. dat operam agrós colendó agrís colendís he attends to tilling the fields.
     ACC. veniunt ad mihi párendum pácem petendam they come to obey me. to seek peace.
     ABL. terit tempus scríbendó epistulás scríbendís epistulís he spends time in writing letters.

NOTE 1.--The gerund with a direct object is practically limited to the Genitive and the Ablative (without a preposition); even in these cases the gerundive is commoner.

NOTE 2.--The gerund or gerundive is often found coordinated with nominal constructions, and sometimes even in apposition with a noun:
     (1) in foró, in cúriá, in amícórum perículís própulsandís (Phil. 7.7) , in the forum, in the senate-house, in defending my friends in jeopardy.
     (2) ad rés díversissimás, párendum atque imperandum (Liv. 21.4) , for the most widely different things, obeying and commanding.

Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive

SECTION: #504. The Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive is used after nouns or adjectives, either as subjective or objective genitive:
     vívendé fínis est optimus (Cat. M. 72) , it is the best end of living. [Subjective.]
     neque cónsilí habendí neque arma capiendí spatió dató; ( B. G. 4.14), time being given neither for forming plans nor for taking arms. [Objective.]
     nón tam commútandárum quam évertendárum rérum cupidós (Off. 2.3) , desirous not so much of changing as of destroying the state. [Objective.]

NOTE 1.--In these uses the gerund and the gerundive are about equally common.

NOTE 2.--In a few phrases the Infinitive is used with nouns which ordinarily have the genitive of the gerund or gerundive: as,-- tempus est abíre, it is time to go.

The genitive of the gerund sometimes takes a direct object, especially a neuter pronoun or a neuter adjective used substantively:
     núlla causa iústa cuiquam esse potest contrá patriam arma capiendí; ( Phil. 2.53), no one can have a just cause for taking up arms against his country.
     artem véra ac falsa díiúdicandí; (De Or. 2.157), the art of distinguishing true from false.

NOTE 1.--The genitive of the gerund or gerundive is used (especially in later Latin) as a predicate genitive. When so used it often expresses purpose:
     quae postquam glóriósa modo neque bellí patrandí cógnóvit (Iug. 88) , when he perceived that these were only brilliant deeds and not likely to end the war.
     Aegyptum proficíscitur cógnóscendae antíquitátis (Tac. Ann. 2.59) , he sets out for Egypt to study old times.

The genitive of the gerund or gerundive with causá or gratiá expresses purpose (Sect: 533. b):
     pábulandí aut frúmentandí causá prógressí; ( B. C. 1.48), having advanced for the purpose of collecting fodder or supplies.
     vítandae suspícionis causá; ( Cat. 1.19), in order to avoid suspicion.
     simulandí grátiá; (Iug. 37), in order to deceive.
     exercendae memóriae grátiá; (Cat. M. 38), for the sake of training the memory.

The genitive of the gerund is occasionally limited by a noun or pronoun (especially a personal pronoun in the plural) in the objective genitive instead of taking a direct object:
     reiiciendí trium iúdicum potestás (Verr. 2.77) , the power of challenging three jurors (of the rejecting of three jurors).
     suí colligendí facultás (B. G. 3.6) , the opportunity to recover themselves.

Dative of the Gerund and Gerundive

SECTION: #505. The Dative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used in a few expressions after verbs:
     diem praestitit operí faciendó (Verr. 2.1.148) , he appointed a day for doing the work.
     praeesse agró colendó (Rosc. Am. 50) , to take charge of cultivating the land.
     esse solvendó, to be able to pay (to be for paying).

NOTE.--The dative of the gerund with a direct object is never found in classic Latin, but occurs twice in Plautus.

The dative of the gerund and gerundive is used after adjectives,especially those which denote fitness or adaptability:
     genus armórum aptum tegendís corporibus (Liv. 32.10) , a sort of armor suited to the defence of the body.
     reliqua tempora démetendís frúctibus et percipiendís accommodáta sunt (Cat. M. 70) , the other seasons are fitted to reap and gather in the harvest.
     perferendís mílitum mandátís idóneus (Tac. Ann. 1.23) , suitable for carrying out the instructions of the soldiers.

NOTE.--This construction is very common in Livy and later writers, infrequent in classical prose.

The dative of the gerund and gerundive is used in certain legal phrases after nouns meaning officers, offices, elections, etc., to indicate the function or scope of the office etc.:
     comitia cónsulibus rogandís (Div. 1.33) , elections for nominating consuls.
     triumvir colóniís dédúcundís (Iug. 42) , a triumvir for planting colonies.
     triumvirí reí públicae cónstituendae (title of the Triumvirate), triumvirs (a commission of three) for settling the government.


Accusative of the Gerund and Gerundive

SECTION: #506. The Accusative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used after the preposition ad, to denote Purpose (cf. Sect: 533):
     mé vocás ad scríbendum (Or. 34) , you summon me to write.
     vívis nón ad dépónendam sed ad cónfírmandam audáciam (Cat. 1.4) , you live not to put off but to confirm your daring.
     nactus aditús ad ea cónanda (B. C. 1.31) , having found means to undertake these things.

NOTE 1.--Other prepositions appear in this construction; inter and ob a few times, circá, in, ante, and a few others very rarely: as, inter agendum (Ecl. 9.24) , while driving.

NOTE 2.--The Accusative of the gerund with a preposition never takes a direct object in classic Latin.

Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive

SECTION: #507. The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used (1) to express manner,means, cause, etc.; (2) after Comparatives; and (3) after the propositions ab, dé, ex, in, and (rarely) pró:
     (1) multa pollicendó persuádet (Iug. 46) , he persuades by large promises.
     Latíné loquendó cuivís pár (Brut. 128) , equal to any man in speaking Latin.
     hís ipsís legendís (Cat. M. 21) , by reading these very things.
     obscúram atque humilem conciendó ad sé multitúdinem (Liv. 1.8) , calling to them a mean and obscure multitude.
     (2) núllum officium referendá grátiá magis necessárium est (Off. 1.47) , no duty is more important than repaying favors.
     (3) in ré gerendá versárí (Cat. M. 17) , to be employed in conducting affairs.

NOTE 1.--The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is also very rarely used with verbs and adjectives: as,-- nec continuandó abstitit magistrátú (Liv. 9.34) , he did not desist from continuing his magistracy.

NOTE 2.--The ablative of the gerund rarely takes a direct object in classic prose.


SECTION: #508. The Supine is a verbal abstract of the fourth declension (Sect: 94. b), having no distinction of tense or person, and limited to two uses. (1) The form in -um is the Accusative of the end of motion (Sect: 428. i). (2) The form in -ú is usually Dative of purpose (Sect: 382), but the Ablative was early confused with it.

SECTION: #509. The Supine in -um is used after verbs of motion to express purpose. It may take an object in the proper case:
     quid est, ímusne sessum? etsí admonitum vénimus té, nón flágitátum (De Or. 3.17) , how now, shall we be seated? though we have come to remind, not to entreat you.
     núptum dare ( collocáre), to give in marriage.
     vénérunt questum iniúriás (Liv. 3.25) , they came to complain of wrongs.

NOTE 1.--The supine in -um is especially common with eó, and with the passive infinitive írí forms the future infinitive passive:
     fuére cívés quí rem públicam perditum írent ( Sall. Cat. 36), there were citizens who went about to ruin the republic.
     sí scíret sé trucídátum írí (Div. 2.22) , if he ( Pompey) had known that he was going to be murdered. [Rare except in Cicero. For the more usual way of expressing the future passive infinitive, see Sect: 569. 3. a.]

NOTE 2.--The supine in -um is occasionally used when motion is merely implied.

SECTION: #510. The Supine in -úis used with a few adjectives and with the nouns fás, nefás, and opus, to denote an action in reference to which the quality is asserted:
     rem nón modo vísú foedam, sed etiam audítú (Phil. 2.63) , a thing not only shocking to see, but even to hear of.
     quaerunt quid optimum factú sit (Verr. 2.1.68) , they ask what is best to do.
     sí hóc fás est dictú (Tusc. 5.38) , if this is lawful to say.
     vidétis nefás esse dictú miseram fuisse tálem senectútem (Cat. M. 13) , you see it is a sin to say that such an old age was wretched.

NOTE 1.--The supine in -ú is thus in appearance an Ablative of Specification (Sect: 418).

NOTE 2.--The supine in -ú is found especially with such adjectives as indicate an effect on the senses or the feelings, and those which denote ease, difficulty, and the like. But with facilis, difficilis, and iúcundus, ad with the gerund is more common:
     nec vísú facilis nec dictú adfábilis úllí; ( Aen. 3.621), he is not pleasant for any man to look at or address.
     difficilis ad distinguendum similitúdó; (De Or. 2.212), a likeness difficult to distinguish.

NOTE 3.--With all these adjectives the poets often use the Infinitive in the same sense: as,--facilés aurem praebére (Prop. 2.21.15) , indulgent to lend an ear.

NOTE 4.--The supine in -ú with a verb is extremely rare: as,-- pudet dictú (Tac. Agr. 32) , it is a shame to tell. [On the analogy of pudendum dictú.]


SECTION: #511. The Conditional Sentence differs from other complex sentences in this, that the form of the main clause (APODOSIS) is determined in some degree by the nature of the subordinate clause (PROTASIS) upon the truth of which the whole statement depends. Like all complex sentences, however, the Conditional Sentence has arisen from the use of two independent sentence-forms to express the parts of a thought which was too complicated to be fully expressed by a simple sentence. But because the thoughts thus expressed are in reality closely related, as parts of a single whole, the sentences which represent them are also felt to be mutually dependent, even though the relation is not expressed by any connecting word. Thus, Speak the word: my servant shall be healed is a simpler and an earlier form of expression than If thou speak the word, etc.

The Conditional Particles were originally pronouns without conditional meaning: thus, sí, if, is a weak demonstrative of the same origin as síc, so (sí-ce like hí-ce, see Sect: 215. 5), and had originally the meaning of in that way, or in some way. Its relative sense (if) seems to have come from its use with síc to make a pair of correlatives: thus ... thus (see Sect: 512. b).

In its origin the Conditional Sentence assumed one of two forms. The condition was from the first felt to be a condition, not a fact or a command; but, as no special sentence-form for a condition was in use, it employed for its expression either a statement of fact (with the Indicative) or a form of mild command (the Subjunctive). From the former have come all the uses of the Indicative in protasis; from the latter all the uses of the Subjunctive in protasis. The Apodosis has either (1) the Indicative, expressing the conclusion as a fact, and the Present and Perfect Subjunctive, expressing it originally as future--and hence more or less doubtful--or (2) the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive expressing it as futúrum in praeteritó,and so unfulfilled in the present or past. Thus,-- rídés, máióre cachinnó concutitur, you laugh, he shakes with more boisterous laughter, is the original form for the Indicative in protasis and apodosis; sí rídés originally means merely you laugh in some way or other, and so, later, IF you laugh. So rogés Aristónem, neget, ask Aristo, he would say no, is the original form of the subjunctive in protasis and apodosis; sí rogés would mean ask in some way or other. In sí rogáres, negáret, the Imperfect rogárés transfers the command of rogés to past time,with the meaning suppose you had asked, and sí would have the same meaning as before; while negáret transfers the future idea of neget to past time, and means he was going to deny. Now the stating of this supposition at all gives rise to the implication that it is untrue in point of fact,--because, if it were true, there would ordinarily be no need to state it as a supposition: for it would then be a simple fact, and as such would be put in the indicative.Such a condition or conclusion

was originally past, meaning suppose you had asked [yesterday], he was going to deny) it came to express an unfulfilled condition in the present: suppose (or if) you were now asking, he would [now] deny--just as in English ought, which originally meant owed,has come to express a present obligation.

For the classification of Conditional Sentences, see Sect: 513.

1 The gerundive construction is probably the original one.

2 Such are praeesse, operam dare, diem dícere, locum capere.

3 Such are accommodátus, aptus, ineptus, bonus, habilis, idóneus, pár, útilis, inútilis. But the accusative with ad is common with most of these (cf. Sect: 385. a).

4 In this use the ablative of the gerund is, in later writers nearly, and in medieval writers entirely, equivalent to a present participle: as,-- cum úná diérum FLENDO sédisset, quídam míles generósus iúxtá eam EQUITANDO vénit (Gesta Romanorum, 66 [), as one day she sat weeping, a certain knight came riding by (compare Sect: 507, fourth example). Hence come the Italian and Spanish forms of the present participle (as mandando, esperando), the true participial form becoming an adjective in those languages.

5 The only common supines in -ú are auditú, dictú, factú, inventú, memorátú, nátú, vísú. In classic use this supine is found in comparatively few verbs. It is never followed by an object-case.

6 The futúrum in praeteritó is a tense future relatively to a time absolutely past. It denotes a future act transferred to the point of view of past time, and hence is naturally expressed by a past tense of the Subjunctive: thus díxisset, he would have said= dictúrus fuit, he was about to say [but did not]. As that which looks towards the future from some point in the past has a natural limit in present time, such a tense (the imperfect subjunctive) came naturally to be used to express a present condition purely ideal, that is to say, contrary to fact.

7 Compare potius díceret, he should rather have said (Sect: 439. b).

8 There are, however, some cases in which this implication does not arise: as,-- deciéns centéna dedissés, níl erat in loculís (Hor. S. 1.3.15) , if you'd given him a million, there was nothing in his coffers.

9 "There was a certain lender which ought him five hundred pieces.--Tyndale's New Testament.


SECTION: #512. A complete Conditional Sentence consists of two clauses the Protasis and the Apodosis.

The clause containing the condition is called the PROTASIS the clause containing the conclusion is called the APODOSIS:
     sí quí exíre volunt [ PROTASIS], cónívére possum [ APODOSIS] (Cat. 2.27) , if any wish to depart, I can keep my eyes shut.
     sí est in exsilió [ PROTASIS], quid amplius postulátis [ APODOSIS] (Lig. 13) , if he is in exile, what more do you ask?

It should be carefully noted that the Apodosis is the main clause and the Protasis the dependent clause.

The Protasis is regularly introduced by the conditional particle sí, if, or one of its compounds.

NOTE.--These compounds are sín, nisi, etiam sí, etsí, tametsí, tamenetsí (see Conditional and Concessive Particles, p. 138). An Indefinite Relative, or any relative or concessive word, may also serve to introduce a conditional clause: see Conditional Relative Clauses (Sect: 519, 542); Concessive Clauses ( Sect: 527).

The Apodosis is often introduced by some correlative word or phrase: as, ita, tum (rarely síc), or eá condicióne etc.:
     ita enim senectús honesta est, sí sé ipsa défendit (Cat. M. 38) , on this condition is old age honorable, if it defends itself.
     sí quidem mé amáret, tum istuc pródesset (Ter. Eun. 446) , if he loved me, then this would be profitable.
     síc scríbés aliquid, sí vacábis (Att. 12.38.2) , if you are (shall be) at leisure, then you will write something.

The Apodosis is the principal clause of the conditional sentence, but may at the same time be subordinate to some other clause, and so appear in the form of a Participle, an Infinitive, or a Phrase:
     sepultúrá quoque prohibitúrí, ní réx humárí iussisset (Q. C. 8.2.12) , intending also to deprive him of burial, unless the king had ordered him to be interred.
     quod sí praetereá némó sequátur, tamen sé cum sólá decimá legióne itúrum [ esse] (B. G. 1.40.14) , but if no one else should follow, he would go with the tenth legion alone.
     sí quós adversum proelium commovéret, hós reperíre posse ( id. 40.8), if the loss of a battle alarmed any, they might find, etc.

NOTE.--When the Apodosis itself is in Indirect Discourse, or in any other dependent construction, the verb of the Protasis is regularly in the Subjunctive (as in the above examples, see Sect: 589).


SECTION: #513. Conditions are either (1) Particular or (2) General.

1. A Particular Condition refers to a definite act or series of acts occurring at some definite time.

2. A General Condition refers to any one of a class of acts which may occur (or may have occurred) at any time.

SECTION: #514. The principal or typical forms of Conditional Sentences may be exhibited as follows:


A. SIMPLE CONDITIONS (nothing implied as to fulfilment)

1. Present Time

Present Indicative in both clauses:
     sí adest, bene est, if he is [now] here, it is well.

2. Past Time

Imperfect or Perfect Indicative in both clauses:
     sí aderat, bene erat, if he was [then] here, it was well.
     sí adfuit, bene fuit, if he has been [was] here, it has been [was] well.

B. FUTURE CONDITIONS (as yet unfulfilled)

1. .More .Vivid

a. Future Indicative in both clauses:
     sí aderit, bene erit, if he is (shall be) here, it will be well.

b. Future Perfect Indicative in protasis, Future Indicative in apodosis:
     sí adfuerit, bene erit, if he is (shall have been) here, it will [then] be well

2. .Less .Vivid

a. Present Subjunctive in both clauses:
     sí adsit, bene sit, if he should be (or were to be) here, it would be well.

b. Perfect Subjunctive in protasis, Present Subjunctive in apod osis:
     sí adfuerit, bene sit, if he should be (should have been) here, it would [then] be well.


1. Present Time

Imperfect Subjunctive in both clauses:
     sí adesset, bene esset, if he were [now] here, it would be well (but he is NOT here).

2. Past Time

Pluperfect Subjunctive in both clauses:
     sí adfuisset, bene fuisset, if he had [then] been here, it would have been well (but he was NOT here).

NOTE.--The use of tenses in Protasis is very loose in English. Thus if he is alive now is a PRESENT condition, to be expressed in Latin by the Present Indicative; if he is alive next year is a FUTURE condition, expressed in Latin by the Future Indicative. Again, if he were here now is a PRESENT condition contrary to fact, and would be expressed by the Imperfect Subjunctive; if he were to see me thus is a FUTURE condition less vivid, to be expressed by the Present Subjunctive; and so <
    >o, if you advised him, he would attend may be future less vivid.


General Conditions do not usually differ in form from Particular Conditions (A, B, and C), but are sometimes distinguished in the cases following:

1. Present General Condition (Indefinite Time)

a. Present Subjunctive second person singular (Indefinite Subject) in protasis, Present Indicative in apodosis:
     sí hóc dícás, créditur, if any one [ever] says this, it is [always] believed.

b. Perfect Indicative in protasis, Present Indicative in apodosis:
     sí quid díxit, créditur, if he [ever] says anything, it is [always] believed.

2. Past General Condition (Repeated Action in Past Time)

a. Pluperfect Indicative in protasis, Imperfect Indicative in apodosis:
     sí quid díxerat, crédébátur, if he [ever] said anything, it was [always] believed.

b. Imperfect Subjunctive in protasis, Imperfect Indicative in apodosis:
     sí quid díceret, crédébátur, if he [ever] said anything, it was [always] believed (= whatever he said was always believed).

Cf. the Greek forms corresponding to the various types of conditions:

A. 1. ei prassei touto, kal?s echei. 2. ei eprasse touto, kal?s eichen.

B. 1. ean prassei touto, kal?s hexei. 2. ei prassoi touto, kal?s an echoi.

C. 1. ei eprasse touto, kal?s an eichen. 2. ei epraxe touto, kal?s an eschen.

D. 1. ean tis klept

1 In most English verbs the Preterite (or Past) Subjunctive is identical in form with the Preterite Indicative. Thus in such a sentence as if he loved his father, he would not say this, the verb loved is really a Preterite Subjunctive, though this does not appear from the inflection. In the verb to be, however, the Subjunctive were has been preserved and differs in form from the indicative was.


Simple Present and Past Conditions--Nothing Implied

SECTION: #515. In the statement of Present and Past conditions whose falsity is NOT implied, the Present and Past tenses of the Indicative are used in both Protasis and Apodosis:
     sí tú exercitusque valétis, bene est (Fam. 5.2) , if you and the army are well, it is well. [Present Condition.]
     haec igitur, sí Rómae es; sín ades, aut etiam sí ades, haec negótia síc sé habent (Att. 5.18) , this, then, if you are at Rome; but if you are away--or even if you are there--these matters are as follows. [Present Condition.]
     sí Caesarem probátis, in mé offenditis ( B. C. 2.32.10), if you favor Caesar, you find fault with me. [Present Condition.]
     sí quí mágnís in eó genere exstitérunt, nón satis Graecórum glóriae respondérunt (Tusc. 1.3) , if any have shown themselves of great genius in that department, they have failed to compete with the glory of the Greeks. [Past General Condition, not distinguished in form from Particular.]
     accépí Rómá sine epistulá tuá fasciculum litterárum in quó, sí modo valuistí et Rómae fuistí, Philotímí dúcó esse culpam nón tuam (Att. 5.17) , I have received from Rome a bundle of letters without any from you, which, provided you have been well and at Rome, I take to be the fault of Philotimus, not yours. [Mixed: Past condition and Present conclusion.]
     quás litterás, sí Rómae es, vidébis putésne reddendás ( id. 5.18), as to this letter, if you are at Rome, you will see whether in your opinion it ought to be delivered. [Mixed: Present and Future.]
     sí némó impetrávit, adroganter rogó (Lig. 30) , if no one has succeeded in obtaining it, my request is presumptuous. [Past and Present.]

In these conditions the apodosis need not always be in the Indicative, but may assume any form, according to the sense:
     sí placet ... videámus (Cat. M. 15) , if you please, let us see. [Hortatory Subjunctive, Sect: 439.]
     sí nóndum satis cernitis, recordáminí (Mil. 61) , if you do not yet see clearly, recollect. [Imperative.]
     sí quid habés certius, velim scíre (Att. 4.10) , if you have any trustworthy information, I should like to know it. [Subjunctive of Modesty, Sect: 447. 1.]

NOTE.--Although the form of these conditions does not imply anything as to the truth of the supposition, the sense or the context may of course have some such implication:
     nólíte, sí in nostró omnium flétú núllam lacrimam aspexistis Milónis, hóc minus ei parcere (Mil. 92) , do not, if amid the weeping of us all you have seen no tear [in the eyes] of Milo, spare him the less for that.
     petimus á vóbís, iúdicés, sí qua dívína in tantís ingeniís commendátió débet esse, ut eum in vestram accipiátis fidem (Arch. 31) , we ask you, judges, if there ought to be anything in such genius to recommend it to us as by a recommendation of the gods, that you receive him under your protection.

In these two passages, the protasis really expresses cause: but the cause is put by the speaker in the form of a non-committal condition. His hearers are to draw the inference for themselves. In this way the desired impression is made on their minds more effectively than if an outspoken causal clause had been used.

Future Conditions

SECTION: #516. Future Conditions may be more vivid or less vivid.

1. In a more vivid future condition the protasis makes a distinct supposition of a future case, the apodosis expressing what will be the logical result.

2. In a less vivid future condition, the supposition is less distinct, the apodosis expressing what would be the result in the case supposed.

In the more vivid future condition the Future Indicative is used in both protasis and apodosis:
     sánábimur, sí volémus (Tusc. 3.13) , we shall be healed if we wish.
     quod sí legere aut audíre volétis, ... reperiétis (Cat. M. 20) , if you will [shall wish to] read or hear, you will find.

NOTE.--In English the protasis is usually expressed by the Present Indicative, rarely by the Future with SHALL. Often in Latin the Present Indicative is found in the protasis of a condition of this kind (cf. Sect: 468):
     sí vincimus, omnia nóbís túta erunt; sín metú cesserimus, eadem illa advorsa fíent ( Sall. Cat. 58), if we conquer, all things will be safe for us; but if we yield through fear, those same things will become hostile.
     sí pereó, hominum manibus perlisse iuvábit (Aen. 3.606) , if I perish, it will be pleasant to have perished at the hands of men.

In the less vivid future condition the Present Subjunctive is used in both protasis and apodosis:
     haec sí técum patria loquátur, nónne impetráre débeat (Cat. 1.19) , if your country should thus speak with you, ought she not to prevail?
     quod sí quis deus mihi largiátur, ... valdé recúsem (Cat. M. 83) , but if some god were to grant me this, I should stoutly refuse.

NOTE.--The Present Subjunctive sometimes stands in protasis with the Future (or the Present) Indicative in apodosis from a change in the point of view:
     sí díligenter attendámus, intellegémus (Inv. 2.44) , if we attend (should attend) carefully, we shall understand.
     nisi hóc dícat, " iúre fécí" nón habet défénsiónem ( id. 1.18), unless he should say this, "I acted justifiably" he has no defence.

If the conditional act is regarded as completed before that of the apodosis begins, the Future Perfect is substituted for the Future Indicative in protasis, and the Perfect Subjunctive for the Present Subjunctive:
     sín cum potueró nón véneró, tum erit inimícus ( Att. 9.2A. 2), but if I do not come when I can, he will be unfriendly.
     sí á coróná relictus sim, nón queam dícere (Brut. 192) , if I should be deserted by the circle of listeners, I should not be able to speak.

NOTE.--The Future Perfect is often used in the apodosis of a future condition: as,--vehementer mihi grátum féceris, sí hunc aduléscentem húmánitáte tuá comprehenderis (Fam. 13.15) , you will do (will have done) me a great favor, if you receive this young man with your usual courtesy.

Any form denoting or implying future time may stand in the apodosis of a future condition. So the Imperative, the participles in -dus and - rus, and verbs of necessity, possibility, and the like:
     alius fínis cónstituendus est, sí prius quid maximé reprehendere Scípió solitus sit díxeró; (Lael. 59), another limit must be set, if I first state what Scipio was wont most to find fault with.
     sí mé praecéperit fátum, vós mandásse mementó (Q. C. 9.6.26) , if fate cuts me off too soon, do you remember that I ordered this.
     nisi oculís víderitis ínsidiás Milóní á Clódió factás, nec déprecátúrí sumus nec postulátúrí (Mil. 6) , unless you see with your own eyes the plots laid against Milo by Clodius, I shall neither beg nor demand, etc.
     nón possum istum accúsáre, sí cupiam (Verr. 4.87) , I cannot accuse him, if I should (so) desire

Rarely the Perfect Indicative is used in apodosis with a Present or even a Future (or Future Perfect) in protasis, to represent the conclusion rhetorically as already accomplished:
     sí hóc bene fíxum in animó est, vícistis (Liv. 21.44) , if this is well fixed in your minds, you have conquered. [For you will have conquered.]
     sí eundem [ animum] habueritis, vícimus ( id. 21.43), if you shall have kept the same spirit, we have conquered.

A future condition is frequently thrown back into past time, without implying that it is contrary to fact (Sect: 517). In such cases the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive may be used:
     nón poterat, nisi décertáre vellet (B. C. 3.44) , he was not able, unless he wished to fight.
     tumulus appáruit, ... sí lúce palam írétur hostis praeventúrus erat (Liv. 22.24) , a hill appeared ... if they should go openly by daylight, the enemy would prevent. [The first two appear like Indirect Discourse, but are not. An observer describing the situation in the first example as present would say nón potest nisi velit (see d), and no indirect discourse would be thought of.]
     Caesar sí peteret, ... nón quicquam próficeret (Hor. S. 1.3.4) , if even Caesar were to ask, he would gain nothing. [Here the construction is not contrary to fact, but is simply sí petat, nón próficiat, thrown into past time.]

Conditions .Contrary to Fact

SECTION: #517. In the statement of a supposition impliedly false, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive are used in both protasis and apodosis.The Imperfect refers to present time, the Pluperfect to past:
     sí víveret, verba eiius audírétis (Rosc. Com. 42) , if he were living, you would hear his words. [Present.]
     nisi tú ámísissés, numquam recépissem (Cat. M. 11), unless you had lost it, I should not have recovered it. [Past.]
     sí meum cónsilium valuisset, tú hodié egérés, rés pública nón tot ducés ámísisset (Phil. 2.37) , if my judgment had prevailed [as it did not], you would this day be a beggar, and the republic would not have lost so many leaders. [Mixed Present and Past.]

In conditions contrary to fact the Imperfect often refers to past time, both in protasis and apodosis, especially when a repeated or continued action is denoted, or when the condition if true would still exist:
     sí nihil litterís adiuvárentur, numquam sé ad eárum studium contulissent (Arch. 16) , if they had not been helped at all by literature, they never would have given their attention to the study of it. [Without the condition, adiuvábantur.]
     híc sí mentis esset suae, ausus esset édúcere exercitum (Pison. 50) , if he were of sane mind, would he have dared to lead out the army? [Here esset denotes a continued state, past as well as present.]
     nón concidissent, nisi illud receptáculum classibus nostrís patéret (Verr. 2.3) , [the power of Carthage] would not have fallen, unless that station had been [constantly] open to our fleets. [Without the condition, patébat.]

In the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact the past tenses of the Indicative may be used to express what was intended, or likely, or already begun. In this use, the Imperfect Indicative corresponds in time to the Imperfect Subjunctive, and the Perfect or Pluperfect Indicative to the Pluperfect Subjunctive:
     sí licitum esset, mátrés veniébant (Verr. 5.129) , the mothers were coming if it had been allowed.
     in amplexús fíliae ruébat, nisi líctórés obstitissent (Tac. Ann. 16.32) , he was about rushing into his daughter's arms, unless the lictors had opposed.
     iam túta tenébam, ní géns crúdélis ferró invásisset (Aen. 6.358) , I was just reaching a place of safety, had not the fierce people attacked me.

NOTE 1.--Here the apodosis may be regarded as elliptical. Thus,-- mátrés venibant ( et vénissent), the matrons were coming (and would have kept on) if, etc.

NOTE 2.--With paene (and sometimes prope), almost, the Perfect Indicative is used in the apodosis of a past condition contrary to fact: as,--póns iter paene hostibus dedit, ní únus vir fuisset (Liv. 2.10) , the bridge had almost given a passage to the foe, if it had not been for one hero.

Verbs and other expressions denoting necessity, propriety, possibility, duty, when used in the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact, may be put in the Imperfect or Perfect Indicative.

Such are oportet, decet, débeó, possum, necesse est, opus est, and the Second Periphrastic Conjugation:
     nón potuit fierí sapiéns, nisi nátus esset (Fin. 2.103) , he could not have become a sage, if he had not been born.
     sí prívátus esset hóc tempore, tamen is erat déligendus (Manil. 50) , if he were at this time a private citizen, yet he ought to be appointed.
     quod esse caput débébat, sí probárí posset (Fin. 4.23) , what ought to be the main point, if it could be proved.
     sí ita putásset, certé optábilius Milóní fuit (Mil. 31) , if he had thought so, surely it would have been preferable for Milo.

NOTE 1.--In Present conditions the Imperfect Subjunctive ( oportéret, possem, etc.) is the rule, the Indicative being rare; in Past conditions both the Subjunctive (usually Pluperfect) and the Indicative (usually Perfect) are common.

For pár erat, melius fuit, and the like, followed by the infinitive, see Sect: 521. N.

NOTE 2.--The indicative construction is carried still further in poetry: as,-- sí nón alium iactáret odórem, laurus erat (Georg. 2.133) , it were a laurel, but for giving out a different odor.

The participle in -úrus with eram or fuí may take the place of an Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact:
     quid enim futúrum fuit [= fuisset], sí ... (Liv. 2.1) , what would have happened if, etc.
     relictúrí agrós erant, nisi ad eós Metellus litterás mísisset (Verr. 3.121) , they would have abandoned their fields, if Metellus had not sent them a letter.
     neque ambigitur quín ... id factúrus fuerit, sí ... (Liv. 2.1) , nor is there any question that he would have done it, if, etc. [Direct: fécisset.]
     adeó paráta séditió fuit ut Othónem raptúrí fuerint, ní incerta noctis timuissent (Tac. H. 1.26) , so far advanced was the conspiracy that they would have seized upon Otho, had they not feared the hazards of the night. [In a main clause: rapuissent, ní timuissent.]

The Present Subjunctive is sometimes used in poetry in the protasis and apodosis of conditions contrary to fact:
     ní comes admoneat, inruat (Aen. 6.293) , had not his companion warned him, he would have rushed on. [Cf. tú sí híc sís, aliter sentiás (Ter. And. 310) , if you were in my place, you would think differently.]

NOTE 1.--This is probably a remnant of an old construction (see next note).

NOTE 2.--In old Latin the Present Subjunctive (as well as the Imperfect) is used in present conditions contrary to fact and the Imperfect (more rarely the Pluperfect) in past conditions of the same kind. Thus it appears that the Imperfect Subjunctive, like the Imperfect Indicative, once denoted past time, even in conditional sentences. Gradually, however, in conditional sentences, the Present Subjunctive was restricted to the less vivid future and the Imperfect (in the main) to the present contrary to fact, while the Pluperfect was used in past conditions of this nature. The old construction, however, seems to have been retained as an archaism in poetry.

In Plautus and Terence absque mé ( té, etc.) is sometimes used to introduce conditions contrary to fact:
     absque té esset, hodié nusquam víverem (Pl. Men. 1022) , if it were not for you, I should not be alive to-day.
     absque eó esset, récté ego mihi vídissem (Ter. Ph. 188) , if it had not been for him, I should have looked out for myself.

1 It often depends entirely upon the view of the writer at the moment, and not upon the nature of the condition, whether it shall be stated vividly or not; as in the proverbial "If the sky falls, we shall catch larks"the impossible condition is iron<
    > ieally put in the vivid form, to illustrate the absurdity of some other supposed condition stated by some one else.

2 The implication of falsity, in this construction, is not inherent in the subjunctive; but comes from the transfer of a future condition to past time. Thus the time for the happening of the condition has, at the moment of writing, already passed; so that, if the condition remains a condition, it must be contrary to fact. So past forms of the indicative implying a future frequently take the place of the subjunctive <
    > apodosis in this construction (see c, d, below, and Sect: 511).

3 Observe that all these expressions contain the idea of futurity (cf. p. 328, footnote). Thus, decet mé [ hodié] íre crás, means it is proper for me [to-day] to go to-morrow; and, decébat mé [ herí] íre hodié, it was proper for me [yesterday] to go to-day, usually with the implication that I have not gone as I was bound to do.


SECTION: #518. General Conditions ( Sect: 513. 2) have usually the same forms as Particular Conditions. But they are sometimes distinguished in the following cases:

The Subjunctive is often used in the second person singular, to denote the act of an indefinite subject (you = any one). Here the Present Indicative of a general truth may stand in the apodosis:
     víta húmána prope utí ferrum est: sí exerceás, conteritur; sí nón exerceás, tamen róbígó interficit ( Cato de M.), human life is very like iron: if you use it, it wears away; if you don't use it, rust still destroys it.
     virtútem necessárió glória, etiamsí tú id nón agás, cónsequitur (Tusc. 1.91) , glory necessarily follows virtue, even if that is not one's aim.
     sí prohibita impúne tránscenderis, neque metus ultrá neque pudor est (Tac. Ann. 3.54) , if you once overstep the bounds with impunity, there is no fear or shame any more.

In a general condition in present time, the protasis often takes the Perfect Indicative, and the apodosis the Present Indicative. For past time, the Pluperfect is used in the protasis, and the Imperfect in the apodosis:
     sí quós aliquá parte membrórum inútilís nótávérunt, necárí iubent (Q. C. 9.1.25) , if they [ever] mark any infirm in any part of their limbs, they [always] order them to be put to death. [Present.]
     sí á persequendó hostís déterrére nequíverant, ab tergó circumveniébant (Iug. 50) , if [ever] they were unable to prevent the enemy from pursuing, they [always] surrounded them in the rear. [Past.]

In later writers (rarely in Cicero and Caesar), the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive are used in protasis, with the Imperfect Indicative in apodosis, to state a repeated or customary action in past time (Iterative Subjunctive):
     sí quis á dominó prehenderétur, concursú mílitum éripiébátur (B. C. 3.110) , if any (runaway) was arrested by his master, he was (always) rescued by a mob of soldiers.
     accúsátórés, sí facultás incideret, poenís adficiébantur (Tac. Ann. 6.30) , the accusers, whenever opportunity offered, were visited with punishment.
     sí quis collégam appellásset, ab eó ita discédébat ut paenitéret nón prióris décrétó stetisse (Liv. 3.36.8) , if any one appealed to a colleague, he [always] came off in such case that he repented not having submitted to the decree of the former decemvir. [Cf. S ócratés, quam sé cumque in partem dedisset, omnium fuit facile prínceps (De Or. 3.60) , in whatever direction Socrates turned himself, he was (always) easily the foremost (if in any. etc.).]

Conditional .Relative Clauses

SECTION: #519. A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb may express a condition and take any of the constructions of Protasis(Sect: 514):
     quí enim vitiís modum adpónit, is partem suscipit vitiórum (Tusc. 4.42) , he who [only] sets a limit to faults, takes up the side of the faults. [= sí quis adpónit. Present, nothing implied.]
     quí mentírí solet, péieráre cónsuévit (Rosc. Com. 46) , whoever is in the habit of lying, is accustomed to swear falsely. [= sí quis solet. Present, nothing implied.]
     quicquid potuit, potuit ipsa per sé; (Leg. Agr. 1.20), whatever power she had, she had by herself. [= sí quid potuit. Past, nothing implied.]
     quod quí faciet, nón aegritúdine sólum vacábit, sed, etc. (Tusc. 4.38) , and he who does (shall do) this, will be free not only, etc. [= sí quis faciet. Future, more vivid.]
     quisquis húc vénerit, vápulábit (Pl. Am. 309) , whoever comes here shall get a thrashing. [= sí quis vénerit. Future, more vivid.]
     quó volés, sequar (Clu. 71) , whithersoever you wish (shall wish), I will follow. [= sí quó volés. Future, more vivid.]
     philosophia, cui quí páreat, omne tempus aetátis sine molestiá possit dégere (Cat. M. 2) , philosophy, which if any one should obey, he would be able to spend his whole life without vexation. [= sí quis páreat. Future, less vivid.]
     quaecumque vós causa húc attulisset, laetárer (De Or. 2.15) , I should be glad whatever cause had brought you here (i.e. if any other, as well as the one which did). [= sí ... attulisset. Contrary to fact.]

The relative in this construction is always indefinite in meaning, and very often in form.

SECTION: #520. The special constructions of General Conditions are sometimes found in Conditional Relative Clauses:

1. The Second Person Singular of the Subjunctive in the protasis with the Indicative of a general truth in the apodosis (Sect: 518. a):
     bonus tantum modo ségnior fit ubi neglegás, at malus improbior (Iug. 31.28) , a good man merely becomes less diligent when you don't watch him, but a bad man becomes more shameless. [Present General Condition.]

2. The Perfect or Pluperfect Indicative in the protasis and the Present or Imperfect Indicative in the apodosis (Sect: 518. b):
     cum húc véní, hóc ipsum nihil agere mé délectat (De Or. 2.24) , whenever I come here, this very doing nothing delights me (whenever I have come, etc.). [Present General Condition.]
     cum rosam víderat, tum incipere vér arbitrábátur (Verr. 5.27) , whenever he saw (had seen) a rose, then he thought spring was beginning. [Past General Condition.]

3. In later writers (rarely in Cicero and Caesar) the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in the protasis and the Imperfect Indicative in the apodosis (Sect: 518. c):
     ubi imbécillitás máteriae postuláre vidérétur, pílae interpónuntur (B. C. 2.16) , wherever the weakness of the timber seemed to require, piles were put between. [Past General Condition: interpónuntur = interpónébantur.]
     quócumque sé intulisset, victóriam sécum trahébat (Liv. 6.8) , wherever he advanced, he carried victory with him. [Past General Condition.]

Condition Disguised

SECTION: #521. In many sentences properly conditional, the Protasis is not expressed by a conditional clause, but is stated in some other form of words or implied in the nature of the thought.

The condition may be implied in a Clause, or in a Participle, Noun, Adverb, or some other word or phrase:
     facile mé paterer--illó ipsó iúdice quaerente-- pró Sex. Rósció dícere (Rosc. Am. 85) , I should readily allow myself to speak for Roscius if that very judge were conducting the trial. [Present contrary to fact: sí quaereret, paterer.]
     nón mihi, nisi admonitó, vénisset in mentem (De Or. 2.180) , it would not have come into my mind unless [I had been] reminded. [Past contrary to fact: nisi admonitus essem.]
     núlla alia géns tantá móle cládis nón obruta esset (Liv. 22.54) , there is no other people that would not have been crushed by such a weight of disaster. [Past contrary to fact: sí alia fuisset.]
     némó umquam sine mágná spé immortálitátis sé pró patriá offerret ad mortem (Tusc. 1.32) , no one, without great hope of immortality, would ever expose himself to death for his country. [Present contrary to fact: nisi mágnam spem habéret.]
     quid hunc paucórum annórum accessió iuváre potuisset (Lael. 11) , what good could the addition of a few years have done him (if they had been added)? [Past contrary to fact: sí accessissent.]
     quid igitur mihi ferárum laniátus oberit nihil sentientí (Tusc. 1.104) , what harm will the mangling by wild beasts do me if I don't feel anything (feeling nothing)? [Future more vivid: sí nihil sentiam.]
     incitáta semel próclíví lábuntur sustinéríque núlló modó possunt ( id. 4.42), if once given a push, they slide down rapidly and can in no way be checked. [Present General: sí incitáta sunt.]

NOTE.--In several phrases denoting necessity, propriety, or the like, the Imperfect, Perfect, or Pluperfect Indicative of esse is used in the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact, the protasis being implied in a subject infinitive (cf. 517. c):
     quantó melius fuerat prómissum nón esse servátum (Off. 3.94) , how much better would it have been if the promise had not been kept! [ prómissum ... servátum= sí prómissum nón esset servátum.]
     morí praeclárum fuit (Att. 8.2.2) , it would have been honorable to die.
     sed erat aequius Triárium aliquid dé dissénsióne nostrá iúdicáre (Fin. 2.119) , but it would be more equitable if Triarius passed judgment on our dispute. [ Triárium iúdicáre= sí Triárius iúdicáret.]
     satius fuit ámittere mílités (Inv. 2.73) , it would have been better to lose the soldiers. [ ámittere= sí ámísisset.]

The condition may be contained in a wish (Optative Subjunctive), or expressed as an exhortation or command (Hortatory Subjunctive or Imperative):
     utinam quidem fuissem! molestus nóbís nón esset (Fam. 12.3) , I wish I had been [chief]: he would not now be troubling us (i.e. if I had been). [Optative Subjunctive.]
     nátúram expellás furcá, tamen úsque recurret (Hor. Ep. 1.10.24) , drive out nature with a pitchfork, still she will ever return. [Hortatory.]
     rogés enim Aristónem, neget (Fin. 4.69) , for ask Aristo, he would deny.
     manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria (Cat. M. 22) , old men keep their mental powers, only let them keep their zeal and diligence (Sect: 528. N.). [Hortatory.]
     tolle hanc opíniónem, lúctum sustuleris (Tusc. 1.30) , remove this notion, and you will have done away with grief. [Imperative.]

NOTE.--The so-called Concessive Subjunctive with ut and né often has the force of protasis (Sect: 527. a. N.): as,-- ut enim ratiónem Plató núllam adferret, ipsá auctóritáte mé frangeret (Tusc. 1.49) , even if Plato gave no reasons, [still] he would overpower me by his mere authority.

Rarely the condition takes the form of an independent clause:
     rídés: máióre cachinnó concutitur (Iuv. 3.100) , you laugh; he shakes with louder laughter (=if you laugh, he shakes).
     commové: sentiés (Tusc. 4.54) , stir him up, [and] you'll find, etc.
     dé paupertáte agitur: multí patientés pauperés commemorantur ( id. 3.57), we speak of poverty; many patient poor are mentioned.

For Conditional Relative Clauses, see Sect: 519, 520.

Condition Omitted

SECTION: #522. The Protasis is often wholly omitted, but may be inferred from the course of the argument:
     poterat Sextilius impúne negáre: quis enim redargueret (Fin. 2.55) , Sextilius might have denied with impunity; for who would prove him wrong (if he had denied)?

In expressions signifying necessity, propriety, and the like, the Indicative may be used in the apodosis of implied conditions, either future or contrary to fact:
     quod contrá decuit ab illó meum [ corpus cremárí] (Cat. M. 84) , whereas on the other hand mine ought to have been burnt by him.
     nam nós decébat domum lúgére ubi esset aliquis in lúcem éditus (Tusc. 1.115) , for it were fitting for us to mourn the house where a man has been born (but we do not).
     quantó melius fuerat (Off. 3.94) , how much better it would have been.
     illud erat aptius, aequum cuique concédere (Fin. 4.2) , it would be more fitting to yield each one his rights.
     ipsum enim exspectáre mágnum fuit (Phil. 2.103) , would it have been a great matter to wait for the man himself?
     longum est ea dícere, sed ... (Sest. 12) , it would be tedious to tell, etc. [Future.]

NOTE 1.--In this construction, the Imperfect Indicative refers to present time; the Pluperfect to simple past time, like the Perfect. Thus oportébat means it ought to be [now], but is not; oportuerat means it ought to have been, but was not.

NOTE 2.--In many cases it is impossible to say whether a protasis was present to the mind of the speaker or not (see third example above).

Complex Conditions

SECTION: #523. Either the Protasis or the Apodosis may be a complex idea in which the main statement is made with expressed or implied qualifications. In such cases the true logical relation of the parts is sometimes disguised:
     sí quis hórum díxisset ... sí verbum dé ré públicá fécisset ... multa plúra díxisse quam díxisset putárétur (Rosc. Am. 2) , if any of these had spoken, in case he had said a word about politics he would be thought to have said much more than he did say. [Here the apodosis of díxisset is the whole of the following statement ( sí ... putárétur), which is itself conditioned by a protasis of its own: sí verbum, etc.].
     quod sí in hóc mundó fierí sine deó nón potest, né in sphaerá quidem eósdem mótús sine dívínó ingenió potuisset imitárí; (Tusc. 1.63), now if that cannot be done in this universe without divine agency, no more could [Archimedes] in his orrery have imitated the same revolutions without divine genius. [Here sí potest (a protasis with nothing implied) has for its apodosis the whole clause which follows, but potuisset has a contraryto-fact protasis of its own implied in sine ... ingenió.]
     peream male sí nón optimum erat (Hor. S. 2.1.6) , confound me (may perish wretchedly) if it would n't be better. [Here peream is apodosis to the rest of the sentence, while the true protasis to optimum erat, contrary to fact, is omitted.]

Clauses of Comparison (Conclusion Omitted)

SECTION: #524. Conditional Clauses of Comparison take the Subjunctive, usually in the Present or Perfect unless the sequence of tenses requires the Imperfect or Pluperfect.

Such clauses are introduced by the comparative particles tamquam, tamquam sí, quasi, ac sí, ut sí, velut sí (later velut), poetic ceu (all meaning as if), and by quam sí (than if):
     tamquam clausa sit Asia (Fam. 12.9) , as if Asia were closed.
     tamquam sí claudus sim (Pl. Asin. 427) , just as if I were lame.
     ita hós [ honórés] petunt, quasi honesté víxerint (Iug. 85) , they seek them (offices) just as if they had lived honorably.
     quasi véró nón specié vísa iúdicentur (Acad. 2.58) , as if forsooth visible things were not judged by their appearance.
     similiter facis ac sí mé rogés (N. D. 3.8) , you do exactly as if you asked me.
     crúdélitátem horrérent velut sí córam adesset (B. G. 1.32) , they dreaded his cruelty (they said), as if he were present in person.
     híc ingentem púgnam cernimus ceu cétera nusquam bella forent (Aen. 2.438) , here we saw a great battle, as if there were no fighting elsewhere. [But sometimes with the indicative in poetry, as id. 5.88.]
     magis á mé abesse vidébáre quam sí domí essés (Att. 6.5) , you seemed to be absent from me more than if you were at home.

NOTE 1.--These subjunctive clauses are really future conditions with apodosis implied in the particle itself. Thus in tamquam sí claudus sim the protasis is introduced by sí, and the apodosis implied in tamquam.

NOTE 2.--The English idiom would lead us to expect the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive (contrary to fact) with these particles; but the point of view is different in the two languages. Thus the second example above is translated just as if I were lame,--as if it were a present condition contrary to fact; but it really means just as [it would be] if I should [at some future time] be lame, and so is a less vivid future condition requiring the Present Subjunctive. Similarly quasi honesté víxerint, as if they had lived honorably, is really as [they would do in the future] if they should have lived honorably and so requires the Perfect Subjunctive ( Sect: 516. c).

Even after a primary tense, the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive (contrary to fact) is often used in conditional clauses of comparison:
     aequé á té petó ac sí mea negótia essent (Fam. 13.43) , I entreat you as much as if it were my own business.
     eiius negótium síc velim suscipiás ut sí esset rés mea ( id. 7.20.1), I would have you undertake his business as though it were my affair.

NOTE.--The practice differs with the different particles. Thus in Cicero a clause with tamquam or quasi almost always observes the sequence of tenses, but with quam sí the Imperfect or Pluperfect is the rule.

Use of sí and its Compounds

SECTION: #525. The uses of some of the more common Conditional Particles may be stated as follows:

Sí is used for affirmative, nisi ( ní) and sí nón for negative conditions.

1. With nisi (generally unless) the apodosis is stated as universally true except in the single case supposed, in which case it is (impliedly) not true:
     nisi Conón adest, maereó, unless Conon is here, I mourn (i.e. I am always in a state of grief except in the single case of Conon's presence, in which case I am not).

2. With sí nón (if not) the apodosis is only stated as true in the (negative) case supposed, but as to other cases no statement is made:
     sí Conón nón adest, maereó, if Conon is not here, I mourn (i.e. I mourn in the single case of Conon's absence, nothing being said as to other cases in which I may or may not mourn).

NOTE.--It often makes no difference in which of these forms the condition is stated.

3. Sometimes nisi sí, except if, unless, occurs:
     nólí putáre mé ad quemquam longiórés epistulás soríbere, nisi sí quis ad mé plúra scrípsit (Fam. 14.2) , ... except in case one writes more to me.

NOTE.-- Ní is an old form surviving in a few conventional phrases and reappearing in poets and later writers.

Nisi véró and nisi forte regularly introduce an objection or exception ironically, and take the Indicative:
     nisi véró L. Caesar crúdélior vísus est (Cat. 4.13) , unless indeed Lucius Caesar seemed too cruel.
     nisi forte volumus Epicúréórum opíniónem sequí; (Fat. 37), unless, to be sure, we choose to follow the notion of the Epicureans.

NOTE.--This is the regular way of introducing a reductio ad absurdum in Latin. Nisi alone is sometimes used in this sense: as,-- nisi únum hóc faciam ut in puteó cénam coquant (Pl. Aul. 365) , unless I do this one thing, [make them] cook dinner in the well.

Síve ( seu) ... síve ( seu), whether ... or, introduce a condition in the form of an alternative. They may be used with any form of condition, or with different forms in the two members. Often also they are used without a verb:
     nam illó locó libentissimé soleó útí, síve quid mécum ipse cógitó, síve quid scríbó aut legó; (Legg. 2.1), for I enjoy myself most in that place, whether I am thinking by myself, or am either writing or reading.

NOTE.--Síve ... seu and seu ... síve are late or poetic.

Sín, but if, often introduces a supposition contrary to one that precedes:
     accúsátor illum défendet sí poterit; sín minus poterit, negábit (Inv. 2.88) , the accuser will defend him if he can; but if he cannot, he will deny.

Nisi is often used loosely by the comic poets in the sense of only when a negative (usually nesció) is expressed, or easily understood, in the main clause:
     nesció: nisi mé díxisse néminí certó sció; ( Ter. Ph. 952), I don't know: only I am sure that I have n't told anybody.


SECTION: #526. The concessive idea is rather vague and general, and takes a variety of forms, each of which has its distinct history. Sometimes concession is expressed by the Hortatory Subjunctive in a sentence grammatically independent (Sect: 440), but it is more frequently and more precisely expressed by a dependent clause introduced by a concessive particle. The concessive force lies chiefly in the Conjunctions (which are indefinite or conditional in origin), and is often made clearer by an adversative particle ( tamen, certé) in the main clause. As the Subjunctive may be used in independ ent clauses to express a concession, it is also employed in concessive clauses, and somewhat more frequently than the indicative.

SECTION: #527. The Particles of Concession (meaning although, granting that) are quamvís, ut, licet, etsí, tametsí, etiam sí, quamquam, and cum.

Some of these take the Subjunctive, others the Indicative, according to the nature of the clause which each introduces.

Quamvís and ut take the Subjunctive:
     quamvís ipsí ínfantés sint, tamen ... (Or. 76) , however incapable of speaking they themselves may be, yet, etc.
     quamvís scelerátí illí fuissent (De Or. 1.230) , however guilty they might have been.
     quamvís cómis in amícís tuendís fuerit (Fin. 2.80) , amiable as he may have been in keeping his friends.
     ut néminem alium rogásset (Mil. 46) , even if he had asked no other.
     ut enim nón efficiás quod vís, tamen mors ut malum nón sit efficiés (Tusc. 1.16) , for even if you do not accomplish what you wish, still you will prove that death is not an evil.
     ut ratiónem Plató núllam adferret ( id. 1.49), though Plato adduced no reasons.

NOTE.-- Quamvís means literally as much as you will. Thus in the first example above, let them be as incapable as you will, still, etc. The subjunctive with quamvís is hortatory, like that with né (Sect: 440); that with ut ( ut nón) is of uncertain origin.

Licet, although, takes the Present or Perfect Subjunctive:
     licet omnés mihi terrórés perículaque impendeant (Rosc. Am. 31) , though all terrors and perils should menace me.

NOTE.-- Licet is properly a verb in the present tense, meaning it is granted. Hence the subjunctive is by the sequence of tenses limited to the Present and Perfect. The concessive clause with licet is hortatory in origin, but may be regarded as a substantive clause serving as the subject of the impersonal verb (Sect: 565. N.1).

Etsí, etiam sí, tametsí, even if, take the same constructions as sí (see Sect: 514):
     etsí abest mátúritás, tamen nón est inútile (Fam. 6.18.4) , though ripeness of age is wanting, yet it is not useless, etc.
     etsí numquam dubium fuit, tamen perspició; ( id. 5.19), although it has never been doubtful, yet I perceive, etc.
     etsí statueram ( id. 5.5), though I had determined.
     etsí nihil aliud abstulissétis, tamen contentós vós esse oportébat (Sull. 90) , even if you had taken away nothing else, you ought to have been satisfied.
     etiam sí quod scríbás nón habébis, scríbitó tamen (Fam. 16.26) , even if you [shall] have nothing to write, still write.
     sed ea tametsí vós parví pendébátis ( Sall. Cat. 52.9), but although you regarded those things as of small account.

NOTE 1.-- Tametsí with the subjunctive is very rare.

NOTE 2.--A protasis with sí often has a concessive force: as,-- ego, sí essent inimícitiae mihi cum C. Caesare, tamen hóc tempore reí públicae cónsulere ... débérem (Prov. Cons. 47) , as for me, even if I had private quarrels with Caesar, it would still be my duty to serve the best interests of the state at this crisis.

Quamquam, although, introduces an admitted fact and takes the Indicative:
     omnibus--quamquam ruit ipse suís cládibus--pestem dénúntiat (Phil. 14.8) , though he is breaking down under his disasters, still he threatens all with destruction.

NOTE.-- Quamquam more commonly means and yet, introducing a new proposition in the indicative: as,-- quamquam haec quidem iam tolerábilia vidébantur, etsí, etc. ( Mil. 76), and yet these, in truth, seemed now bearable, though, etc.

The poets and later writers frequently use quamvís and quamquam like etsí, connecting them with the Indicative or the Subjunctive, according to the nature of the condition:
     quamquam movérétur (Liv. 36.34) , although he was moved.
     Pollió amat nostram, quamvís est rústica, músam (Ecl. 3.84) , Pollio loves my muse, though she is rustic.
     quamvís pervénerás (Liv. 2.40) , though you had come.

Ut, as, with the Indicative, may be equivalent to a concession:
     vérum ut erráre potuistí, síc décipí té nón potuisse quis nón videt (Fam. 10.20.2) , suppose you could have been mistaken, who does not see that you cannot have been deceived in this way?

For cum concessive, see Sect: 549; for quí concessive, see Sect: 535. e. For concession expressed by the Hortatory Subjunctive (negative né), see Sect: 440.


SECTION: #528. Dum, modo, dummodo, and tantum ut, introducing a Proviso, take the Subjunctive. The negative with these particles is né:
     óderint dum metuant (Off. 1.97) , let them hate, if only they fear.
     valétúdó modo bona sit (Brut. 64) , provided the health be good.
     dummodo inter mé atque té múrus intersit (Cat. 1.10) , provided only the wall (of the city) is between us.
     tantum ut sciant (Att. 16.11.1) , provided only they know.
     modo né sit ex pecudum genere (Off. 1.105) , provided [in pleasure] he be not of the herd of cattle.
     id faciat saepe, dum né lassus fíat ( Cato R. R. 5.4) , let him do this often, provided he does not get tired.
     dummodo ea ( sevéritás) né variétur (Q. Fr. 1.1.20) , provided only it (strictness) be not allowed to swerve.
     tantum né noceat (Ov. M. 9.21) , only let it do no harm.

NOTE.--The Subjunctive with modo is hortatory or optative; that with dum and dummodo, a development from the use of the Subjunctive with dum in temporal clauses, Sect: 553 (compare the colloquial so long as my health is good, I don't care).

The Hortatory Subjunctive without a particle sometimes expresses a proviso:
     sint Maecénátés, nón deerunt Marónés (Mart. 8.56.5 ) , so there be Maecenases, Virgils will not be lacking.

The Subjunctive with ut (negative né) is sometimes used to denote a proviso, usually with ita in the main clause:
     probáta condició est, sed ita ut ille praesidia dédúceret (Att. 7.14.1) , the terms were approved, but only on condition that he should withdraw the garrisons.

NOTE.--This is a development of the construction of Characteristic or Result.

For a clause of Characteristic expressing Proviso, see Sect: 535. d.


SECTION: #529. The Subjunctive in the clause of Purpose is hortatory in origin, coming through a kind of indirect discourse construction (for which see Sect: 592). Thus, mísit légátós quí dícerent means he sent ambassadors who should say, i.e. who were directed to say; in the direct orders the verb would be dícite, which would become dícant in the Indirect Discourse of narrative (Sect: 588) or dícerent in the past (cf. hortatory subjunctive in past tenses, Sect: 439. b). The Subjunctive with ut and né is, in general, similar in origin.

SECTION: #530. A clause expressing purpose is called a Final Clause.

SECTION: #531. Final Clauses take the Subjunctive introduced by ut ( utí), negative né ( ut né), or by a Relative Pronoun or Adverb.--

1. Pure Clauses of Purpose, with ut ( utí) or né ( ut né), express the purpose of the main verb in the form of a modifying clause:
     ab arátró abdúxérunt Cincinnátum, ut dictátor esset (Fin. 2.12) , they brought Cincinnatus from the plough that he might be dictator.
     ut sint auxilió suís, subsistunt (B. C. 1.80) , they halt in order to support (be an aid to) their own men.
     né mílités oppidum inrumperent, portás obstruit ( id. 1.27), he barricaded the gates, in order that the soldiers might not break into the town.
     scálás parárí iubet, né quam facultátem dímittat ( id. 1.28), he orders scalingladders to be got ready, in order not to let slip any opportunity.
     ut né sit impúne (Mil. 31) , that it be not with impunity.

NOTE 1.--Sometimes the conjunction has a correlative ( ideó, idcircó, eó cónsilió, etc.) in the main clause (cf. Sect: 561. a):
     légum idcircó serví sumus, ut líberí símus (Clu 146), for this reason we are subject to the laws, that we may be free.
     cópiás tránsdúxit eó cónsilió, ut castellum expúgnáret (cf. B. G. 2.9), he led the troops across with this design--to storm the fort.

NOTE 2.-- Ut nón sometimes occurs in clauses of purpose when nón belongs to some particular word: as,-- ut plúra nón dícam (Manil. 44) , to avoid unnecessary talk.

2. Relative Clauses of Purpose are introduced by the relative pronoun quí or a relative adverb ( ubi, unde, quó, etc.). The antecedent is expressed or implied in the main clause:
     mittitur L. Décidius Saxa quí locí nátúram perspiciat (B. C. 1.66) , Lucius Decidius Saxa is sent to examine the ground (who should examine, etc.).
     scríbébat órátiónés quás alií dícerent (Brut. 206) , he wrote speeches for other men to deliver.
     eó exstínctó fore unde discerem néminem (Cat. M. 12) , that when he was dead there would be nobody from whom (whence) I could learn.
     huic né ubi cónsisteret quidem contrá té locum relíquistí; ( Quinct. 73), you have left him no ground even to make a stand against you.
     habébam quó cónfugerem (Fam. 4.6.2) , I had [a retreat] whither I might flee.

NOTE.--In this construction quí= ut is (etc.), ubi= ut ibi, and so on (Sect: 537. 2).

The ablative quó (= ut eó) is used as a conjunction in final clauses which contain a comparative:
     comprimere eórum audáciam, quó facilius céterórum animí frangerentur (Fam. 15.4.10) , to repress their audacity, that the spirit of the others might be broken more easily (by which the more easily).
     líbertáte úsus est, quó impúnius dicáx esset (Quinct. 11) , he took advantage of liberty, that he might bluster with more impunity.

NOTE.--Occasionally quó introduces a final clause that does not contain a comparative: as,--L. Sulla exercitum, quó sibi fídum faceret, lúxuriósé habuerat ( Sall. Cat. 11), Lucius Sulla had treated the army luxuriously, in order to make it devoted to him.

For quóminus (= ut eó minus) after verbs of hindering, see Sect: 558. b.

SECTION: #532. The principal clause, on which a final clause depends, is often to be supplied from the context:
     ac né longum sit ... iussimus (Cat. 3.10) , and, not to be tedious, we ordered, etc. [Strictly, in order not to be tedious, I say we ordered.]
     sed ut ad Dionysium redeámus (Tusc. 5.63) , but to return to Dionysius.
     sed ut eódem revertar, causa haec fuit timóris (Fam. 6.7.3) , but, to return to the same point, this was the cause of fear.
     satis incónsíderátí fuit, né dícam audácis (Phil. 13.12) , it was the act of one rash enough, not to say daring.

NOTE 1.--By a similar ellipsis the Subjunctive is used with nédum (sometimes né), still less, not to mention that:
     nédum salví esse possímus (Clu. 95) , much less could we be safe.
     nédum istí nón statim conquísítúrí sint aliquid sceleris et flágití; (Leg. Agr. 2.97), far more will they hunt up at once some sort of crime and scandal.
     nédum in marí et viá sit facile (Fam. 16.8) , still less is it easy at sea and on a journey.
     quippe secundae rés sapientium animós fatígant; né illí corruptís móribus victóriae temperárent ( Sall. Cat. 11), for prosperity overmasters the soul even of the wise; much less did they with their corrupt morals put any check on victory.

NOTE 2.--With nédum the verb itself is often omitted: as,-- aptius húmánitátí tuae quam tóta Peloponnésus, nédum Patrae (Fam. 7.28.1) , fitter for your refinement than all Peloponnesus, to say nothing of Patr .

For Substantive Clauses involving purpose, see Sect: 563-566.

SECTION: #533. The Purpose of an action is expressed in Latin in various ways; but never (except in idiomatic expressions and rarely in poetry) by the simple Infinitive as in English (Sect: 460).

The sentence, they came to seek peace, may be rendered--
     (1) vénérunt ut pácem peterent. [Final clause with ut (Sect: 531. 1).]
     (2) vénérunt quí pácem peterent. [Final clause with Relative (Sect: 531. 2).]
     (3) [ vénérunt ad petendum pácem.] Not found with transitive verbs (Sect: 506, N.2), but cf. ad párendum senátuí. [Gerund with ad (Sect: 506).]
     (4) vénérunt ad petendam pácem. [Gerundive with ad (Sect: 506).]
     (5) vénérunt pácem petendí causá ( grátiá). [Gen. of Gerund with causá (Sect: 504. b).]
     (6) vénérunt pácis petendae causá ( grátiá). [Gen. of Gerundive with causá (Sect: 504. b).]
     (7) vénérunt pácem petítúrí. [Future participle (Sect: 499. 2); in later writers.]
     (8) vénérunt pácem petítum. [Supine in -um (Sect: 509).]

These forms are not used indifferently, but:/p>

The usual way of expressing purpose is by ut (negative né), unless the purpose is closely connected with some one word, in which case a relative is more common:
     légátós ad Dummnorígem mittunt, ut eó déprecátóre á Séquanís impetrárent (B. G. 1.9) , they send envoys to Dumnorix, in order through his intercession to obtain (this favor) from the Sequani.
     mílités mísit ut eós quí fúgerant persequerentur ( id. 5.10), he sent the soldiers to follow up those who had fled.
     Cúrió praemittit equités quí prímum impetum sustineant (B. C. 2.26) , Curio sends forward cavalry to withstand the first attack.

The Gerund and Gerundive constructions of purpose are usually limited to short expressions, where the literal translation, though not the English idiom, is nevertheless not harsh or strange.

The Supine is used to express purpose only with verbs of motion, and in a few idiomatic expressions (Sect: 509).

The Future Participle used to express purpose is a late construction of inferior authority (Sect: 499. 2).

For the poetical Infinitive of Purpose, see Sect: 460. c. For the Present Participle in a sense approaching that of purpose, see Sect: 490. 3.


SECTION: #534. The relative clause of Characteristic with the Subjunctive is a development peculiar to Latin. A relative clause in the Indicative merely states something as a fact which is true of the antecedent; a characteristic clause (in the Subjunctive) defines the antecedent as a person or thing of such a character that the statement made is true of him or it and of all others belonging to the same class. Thus,-- nón potest exercitum is continére imperátor quí sé ipse nón continet (indicative) means simply, that commander who does not (as a fact) restrain himself cannot restrain his army; whereas nón potest exercitum is continére imperátor quí sé ipse nón contineat (subjunctive) would mean, that commander who is not such a man as to restrain himself, etc., that is, who is not characterized by self-restraint.

This construction has its origin in the potential use of the subjunctive (Sect: 445) Thus, in the example just given, quí sé ipse nón contineat would mean literally, who would not restrain himself (in any supposable case), and this potential idea passes over easily into that of general quality or characteristic. The characterizing force is most easily felt when the antecedent is indefinite or general. But this usage is extended in Latin to cases which differ but slightly from statements of fact, as in some of the examples below.

The use of the Subjunctive to express Result comes from its use in Clauses of Characteristic. Thus, nón sum ita hebes ut haec dícam means literally, I am not dull in the manner (degree) in which I should say this, hence, I am not so dull as to say this. Since, then, the characteristic often appears in the form of a supposed result, the construction readily passes over into Pure Result, with no idea of characteristic; as,-- tantus in cúriá clámor factus est ut populus concurreret (Verr. 2.47) , such an outcry was made in the senate-house that the people hurried together.

SECTION: #535. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive is often used to indicate a characteristic of the antecedent, especially where the antecedent is otherwise undefined:
     neque enim tú is es quí nesciás (Fam. 5.12.6) , for you are not such a one as not to know. [Here is is equivalent to such, and is defined only by the relative clause that follows.]
     multa dícunt quae vix intellegam (Fin. 4.2) , they say many things which (such as) I hardly understand.
     pácí quae nihil habitúra sit ínsidiárum semper est cónsulendum (Off. 1.35) , we must always aim at a peace which shall have no plots.

A Relative Clause of Characteristic is used after general expressions of existence or non-existence, including questions which imply a negative.

So especially with sunt quí, there are [some] who; quis est quí, who is there who?--
     sunt quí discessum animí á corpore putent esse mortem (Tusc. 1.18) , there are some who think that the departure of soul from body constitutes death.
     erant quí cénsérent (B. C. 2.30) , there were some who were of the opinion, etc.
     erant quí Helvidium miserárentur (Tac. Ann. 16.29) , there were some who pitied Helvidius. [Cf. est cum (N.3, below).]
     quis est quí id nón maximís efferat laudibus (Lael. 24) , who is there that does not extol it with the highest praise?
     nihil videó quod timeam (Fam. 9.16.3) , I see nothing to fear.
     nihil est quod adventum nostrum extiméscás (Fam. 9.26.4) , there is no reason why you should dread my coming.
     unde agger comportárí posset nihil erat reliquum (B. C. 2.15) , there was nothing left from which an embankment could be got together.

NOTE 1.--After general negatives like némó est quí, the Subjunctive is regular; after general affirmatives like sunt quí, it is the prevailing construction, but the Indicative sometimes occurs; after multí ( nón núllí, quídam) sunt quí, and similar expressions in which the antecedent is partially defined, the choice of mood depends on the shade of meaning which the writer wishes to express:
     sunt béstiae quaedam in quibus inest aliquid simile virtútis (Fin. 5.38) , there are certain animals in which there is something like virtue.
     But,-- inventí multí sunt quí vítam prófundere pró patriá parátí essent (Off. 1.84) , many were found of such a character as to be ready to give their lives for their country.

NOTE 2.--Characteristic clauses with sunt quí etc. are sometimes called Relative Clauses with an Indefinite Antecedent, but are to be carefully distinguished from the Indefinite Relative in protasis (Sect: 520).

NOTE 3.--The phrases est cum, fuit cum, etc. are used like est quí, sunt quí: as,-- ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiéscendí fore iústum arbitrárer (De Or. 1.1) , and there was a time when I thought a beginning of rest would be justifiable on my part.

A Relative Clause of Characteristic may follow únus and sólus:
     níl admírárí prope rés est úna sólaque quae possit facere et serváre beátum (Hor. Ep. 1.6.1) , to wonder at nothing is almost the sole and only thing that can make and keep one happy.
     sólus es cúius in victóriá ceciderit némó nisi armátus (Deiot. 34) , you are the only man in whose victory no one has fallen unless armed.

A clause of Result or Characteristic with quam ut, quam quí (rarely with quam alone), may be used after comparatives:
     Canachí sígna rigidióra sunt quam ut imitentur véritátem (Brut. 70) , the statues of Canachus are too stiff to represent nature (stiffer than that they should).
     máiórés arborés caedébant quam quás ferre míles posset (Liv. 33.5) , they cut trees too large for a soldier to carry (larger than what a soldier could carry).

NOTE.--This construction corresponds in sense to the English too ... to.

A relative clause of characteristic may express restriction or proviso (cf. Sect: 528. b):
     quod sciam, so far as I know (lit. as to what I know).
     Catónis órátiónés, quás quidem invénerim (Brut. 65) , the speeches of Cato, at least such as I have discovered.
     servus est némó, quí modo tolerábilí condicióne sit servitútis (Cat. 4.16) , there is not a slave, at least in any tolerable condition of slavery.

A Relative Clause of Characteristic may express cause or concession:
     peccásse mihi videor quí á té discesserim (Fam. 16.1) , I seem to myself to have done wrong because I have left you. [Causal.]
     virum simplicem quí nós nihil célet (Or. 230) , O guileless man, who hides nothing from us! [Causal.]
     egomet quí séró Graecás litterás attigissem, tamen complúrés Athénís diés sum commorátus (De Or. 1.82) , I myself, though I began Greek literature late, yet, etc. (lit. [a man] who, etc.). [Concessive.]

NOTE 1.--In this use the relative is equivalent to cum is etc. It is often preceded by ut, utpote, or quippe:
     nec cónsul, ut quí id ipsum quaesísset, moram certáminí fécit (Liv. 42.7) , nor did the consul delay the fight, since he had sought that very thing (as [being one] who had sought, etc.).
     Lúcius, fráter eiius, utpote quí peregré dépúgnárit, familiam dúcit (Phil. 5.30) , Lucius, his brother, leads his household, inasmuch as he is a man who has fought it out abroad.
     convívia cum patre nón iníbat, quippe qui né in oppidum quidem nisi perráró veníret (Rosc. Am. 52) , he did not go to dinner parties with his father, since he did not even come to town except very rarely.

NOTE 2.--The Relative of Cause or Concession is merely a variety of the Characteristic construction. The quality expressed by the Subjunctive is connected with the action of the main verb either as cause on account of which (SINCE) or as hindrance in spite of which (ALTHOUGH).

Dígnus, indígnus, aptus, idóneus take a subjunctive clause with a relative (rarely ut). The negative is nón:
     dígna in quibus élabórárent (Tusc. 1.1) , (things) worth spending their toil on (worthy on which they should, etc.).
     dígna rés est ubi tú nervós intendás tuós (Ter. Eun. 312) , the affair is worthy of your stretching your sinews (worthy wherein you should, etc.).
     idóneus quí impetret (Manil. 57) , fit to obtain.
     indígní ut redimerémur (Liv. 22.59.17) , unworthy to be ransomed.

NOTE 1.--This construction is sometimes explained as a relative clause of purpose, but it is more closely related to characteristic.

NOTE 2.--With dígnus etc., the poets often use the Infinitive:
     fóns rívó dare nómen idóneus (Hor. Ep. 1.16.12) , a source fit to give a name to a stream.
     aetás mollis et apta regí (Ov. A. A. 1.10) , a time of life soft and easy to be guided.
     vívere dígnus erás (Ov. M. 10.633) , you were worthy to live.


SECTION: #536. The Subjunctive in Consecutive Clauses is a development of the use of that mood in Clauses of Characteristic (as explained in Sect: 534).

SECTION: #537. Clauses of Result take the Subjunctive introduced by ut, so that (negative, ut nón), or by a relative pronoun or relative adverb.

1. Pure Clauses of Result, with ut or ut nón, express the result of the main verb in the form of a modifying clause:
     tanta vís probitátis est ut eam in hoste díligámus (Lael. 29) , so great is the power of goodness that we love it even in an enemy.
     púgnátur ácriter ad novissimum agmen, adeó ut paene terga convertant (B. C. 1.80) , there is sharp fighting in the rear, so (to such a degree) that they almost take flight.
     multa rúmor adfingébat, ut paene bellum cónfectum vidérétur ( id. 1.53), rumor added many false reports, so that the war seemed almost ended.

2. Relative Clauses of Result are introduced by the relative pronoun quí or a relative adverb ( ubi, unde, quó, etc.). The antecedent is expressed or implied in the main clause.

The Relative in this construction is equivalent to ut with the corre sponding demonstrative: quí = ut is (etc.), ubi = ut ibi, and so on:
     nam est innocentia affectió tális animí quae noceat néminí; (Tusc. 3.16), for innocence is such a quality of mind as to do harm to no one.
     sunt aliae causae quae pláné efficiant (Top. 59) , there are other causes such as to bring to pass.
     núlla est celeritás quae possit cum animí celeritáte contendere (Tusc. 1.43) , there is no swiftness which can compare with the swiftness of the mind.
     quis návigávit quí nón sé mortis perículó committeret (Manil. 31) , who went to sea who did not incur the peril of death?

NOTE 1.--Since the relative clause of Result is a development from the relative clause of Characteristic (Sect: 534), no sharp line can be drawn between the two constructions. In doubtful cases, it is better to attempt no distinction or to describe the clause as one of Characteristic.

NOTE 2.--Clauses of Result are often introduced by such correlative words as tam, tális, tantus, ita, síc, adeó. úsque eó, which belong to the main clause.

A Negative Result is introduced by ut nón, ut némó, quí nón, etc., not by né:
     multís gravibusque volneribus cónfectus ut iam sé sustinére non posset (B. G. 2.25) , used up with many severe wounds so that he could no longer stand.
     tantá ví in Pompeií equités impetum fécérunt ut eórum némó cónsisteret (B. C. 3.93) , they attacked Pompey's cavalry with such vigor that not one of them stood his ground.
     némó est tam senex quí sé annum nón putet posse vívere (Cat. M. 24) , nobody is so old as not to think that he can live a year.

NOTE.--When the result implies an effect intended (not a simple purpose), ut né or né is sometimes used as being less positive than ut nón: [ librum] ita corrigás né mihi noceat ( Caecina, Fam. 6.7.6), correct the book so that it may not hurt me.

Frequently a clause of result or characteristic is used in a restrictive sense, and so amounts to a Proviso (cf. Sect: 535. d):
     hóc ita est útile ut né pláné inlúdámur ab accúsátóribus (Rosc. Am. 55) , this is so far useful that we are not utterly mocked by the accusers (i.e. useful only on this condition, that, etc.).
     nihil autem est molestum quod nón désíderés (Cat. M. 47) , but nothing is troublesome which (= provided that) you do not miss.

The clause of result is sometimes expressed in English by the Infinitive with TO or SO AS TO or an equivalent:
     tam longé aberam ut nón vidérem, I was too far away to see (so far that I did not see; cf. Sect: 535. c).

NOTE.--Result is never expressed by the Infinitive in Latin except by the poets in a few passages (Sect: 461. a).

SECTION: #538. The constructions of Purpose and Result are precisely alike in the affirmative (except sometimes in tense sequence, Sect: 485. c); but, in the negative, Purpose takes né, Result ut nón etc.:
     cústódítus est né effugeret, he was guarded in order that he MIGHT not escape.
     cústódítus est ut nón effugeret, he was guarded so that he DID not escape.

So in negative Purpose clauses né quis, né quid, ne- ullus, né quó, né quandó, nécubi, etc. are almost always used; in negative Result clauses, ut némó, ut nihil, ut núllus, etc.:
     (1) cernere né quis eós, neu quis contingere posset (Aen. 1.413) , that no one might see them, no one touch them. [Purpose.]
     né quandó líberís próscríptórum bona patria reddantur (Rosc. Am. 145) , lest at some time the patrimony of the proscribed should be restored to their children.
     ipse né quó inciderem, revertí Formiás (Att. 8.3.7) , that I might not come upon him anywhere, I returned to Formi".
     dispositís explórátóribus nécubi Rómání cópiás trádúcerent (B. G. 7.35) , having stationed scouts here and there in order that the Romans might not lead their troops across anywhere.
     (2) multí ita sunt imbécillí senés ut núllum officí múnus exsequí possint (Cat. M. 35) , many old men are so feeble that they cannot perform any duty to society. [Result.]
     quí summum bonum síc ínstituit ut nihil habeat cum virtúte coniúnctum (Off. 1.5) , who has so settled the highest good that it has nothing in common with virtue.

For clauses of Result or Characteristic with quín, see Sect: 559. For Substantive Clauses of Result, see Sect: 567-571.


SECTION: #539. Causal Clauses take either the Indicative or the Subjunctive, according to their construction; the idea of cause being contained, not in the mood itself, but in the form of the argument (by implication), in an antecedent of causal meaning (like proptereá), or in the connecting particles.

Quod is in origin the relative pronoun (stem quo-) used adverbially in the accusative neuter (cf. Sect: 214. d) and gradually sinking to the position of a colorless relative con junction (cf. English that and see Sect: 222). Its use as a causal particle is an early special development. Quia is perhaps an accusative plural neuter of the relative stem qui-, and seems to have developed its causal sense more distinctly than quod, and at an earlier period. It is used (very rarely) as an interrogative, why? (so in classical Latin with nam only), and may, like quandó, have developed from an interrogative to a relative particle.

Quoniam (for quom iam) is also of relative origin ( quom being a case-form of the pronominal stem quo-). It occurs in old Latin in the sense of when (cf. quom, cum), from which the causal meaning is derived (cf. cum causal). The Subjunctive with quod and quia depends on the principle of Informal Indirect Discourse (Sect: 592).

Quandó is probably the interrogative quam (how?) compounded with a form of the pronominal stem do- (cf. dum, dó- nec). It originally denoted time (first interrogatively, then as a relative), and thus came to signify cause. Unlike quod and quia, it is not used to state a reason in informal indirect discourse and therefore is never followed by the Subjunctive.

SECTION: #540. The Causal Particles quod and quia take the Indicative, when the reason is given on the authority of the writer or speaker; the Subjunctive, when the reason is given on the authority of another:

1. Indicative:
     cum tibi agam grátiás quod mé vívere coégistí (Att. 3.3) , when I may thank you that you have forced me to live.
     cúr igitur pácem nóló? quia turpis est (Phil. 7.9) , why then do I not wish for peace? Because it is disgraceful.
     ita fit ut adsint proptereá quod officium sequuntur, taceant autem quia periculum vítant (Rosc. Am. 1) , so it happens that they attend because they follow duty, but are silent because they seek to avoid danger.

2. Subjunctive:
     mihi grátulábáre quod audíssés mé meam prístinam dígnitátem obtinére (Fam. 4.14.1) , you congratulated me because [as you said] you had heard that I had regained my former dignity.
     noctú ambulábat Themistoclés quod somnum capere nón posset (Tusc. 4.44) , Themistocles used to walk about at night because [as he said] he could not sleep.
     mea máter íráta est quia nón redierim (Pl. Cist. 101) , my mother is angry because I did n't return.

NOTE 1.-- Quod introduces either a fact or a statement, and accordingly takes either the Indicative or the Subjunctive. Quia regularly introduces a fact; hence it rarely takes the Subjunctive. Quoniam, inasmuch as, since, when now, now that, has reference to motives, excuses, justifications, and the like and takes the Indicative.

NOTE 2.--Under this head what the speaker himself thought under other circumstances may have the Subjunctive (Sect: 592. 3. N.): as,-- ego laeta vísa sum quia soror vénisset (Pl. Mil. 387), I seemed (in my dream) glad because my sister had come.

So with quod even a verb of saying may be in the Subjunctive: as,-- rediit quod sé oblítum nesció quid díceret (Off. 1.40) , he returned because he said he had forgotten something.

NOTE 3.-- Nón quod, nón quia, nón quó, introducing a reason expressly to deny it, take the Subjunctive; but the Indicative sometimes occurs when the statement is in itself true, though not the true reason. In the negative, nón quín (with the Subjunctive) may be used in nearly the same sense as nón quod nón. After a comparative, quam quó or quam quod is used:
     pugilés ingeméscunt, nón quod doleant, sed quia profundendá vóce omne corpus intenditur (Tusc. 2.56) , boxers groan, not because they are in pain, but because by giving vent to the voice the whole body is put in a state of tension.
     nón quia réctior ad Alpís via esset, sed crédéns (Liv. 21.31.2) , not because the route to the Alps was more direct, but believing, etc.
     nón quín parí virtúte et voluntáte alií fuerint, sed tantam causam nón habuérunt (Phil. 7.6) , not that there were not others of equal courage and good-will, but they had not so strong a reason.
     haec amóre magis impulsus scríbenda ad té putáví, quam quó té arbitrárer monitís et praeceptís egére (Fam. 10.3.4) , this I thought I ought to write to you, rather from the impulse of (prompted by) affection than because I thought that you needed advice and suggestion.

Quoniam and quandó, since, introduce a reason given on the authority of the writer or speaker, and take the Indicative:
     locus est á mé, quoniam ita Muréna voluit, retráctandus (Mur. 54) , I must review the point, since Murena has so wished.
     quandó ita vís, dí bene vortant (Pl. Trin. 573) , since you so wish, may the gods bless the undertaking.
     quandó ad máióra nátí sumus (Fin. 5.21) , since we are born for greater things.

NOTE.--The Subjunctive with quoniam is unclassical. Quandó, since, in the causal sense, is mostly archaic or late. Quandó, when, is used as interrogative, relative, and indefinite: as,-- quandó? hodié, when? to-day; sí quandó, if ever.

Causal clauses introduced by quod, quia, quoniam, and quandó take the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, like any other dependent clause (see Sect: 580).

A Relative, when used to express cause, regularly takes the Subjunctive (see Sect: 535. e).

Cum causal takes the Subjunctive (see Sect: 549).

For Substantive Clauses with quod, see Sect: 572.


SECTION: #541. Temporal Clauses are introduced by particles which are almost all of relative origin. They are construed like other relative clauses, except where they have developed into special idiomatic constructions.

For list of Temporal Particles, see p. 138.

Temporal Clauses may be classified as follows:

I. Conditional Relative Clauses: ubi, ut, cum, quandó, in Protasis (Sect: 542).

II. Clauses with postquam, ubi, etc. (Indicative), (Sect: 543).

III. Clauses with cum 1. Cum temporal (Sect: 545-548). 2. Cum causal or concessive (Sect: 549).

IV. Clauses with antequam and priusquam (Indicative or Subjunctive) (Sect: 551).

V. Clauses with dum, dónec, and quoad (Indicative or Subjunctive) (Sect: 552-556).

1 As in the Greek os an, hotan, etc.; and in statutes in English, where the phrases if any person shall and whoever shall are used indifferently.

2 With all temporal particles the Subjunctive is often found depending on some other principle of construction. (See Intermediate Clauses. Sect: 591.)

Conditional Relative Clauses

SECTION: #542. The particles ubi, ut, cum, quandó, either alone or compounded with - cumque, may be used as Indefinite Relatives (in the sense of whenever), and have the constructions of Protasis (cf. Sect: 514):
     cum id malum negás esse, capior (Tusc. 2.29) , whenever you (the individual disputant) deny it to be an evil, I am misled. [Present general condition.]
     quod profectó cum mé núlla vís cógeret, facere nón audérem (Phil. 5.51) , which I would surely not venture to do, as long as no force compelled me. [Present, contrary to fact: cf. Sect: 517.]
     cum videás eós dolóre nón frangí, débeás exístimáre, etc. (Tusc. 2.66) , when you see that those are not broken by pain, you ought to infer, etc. [Present general condition: cf. Sect: 518. a.]
     cum rosam víderat, tum incipere vér arbitrábátur (Verr. 5.27) , whenever he saw a rose he thought spring had begun. [Past general condition: cf. Sect: 518. b.]
     id ubi díxisset, hastam in fínís eórum émittébat (Liv. 1.32.13) , when he had said this, he would cast the spear into their territories. [Past General Condition, repeated action: see Sect: 518. c.]

Temporal Clauses with postquam, ubi, etc.

SECTION: #543. The particles postquam (posteáquam), ubi, ut ( ut prímum, ut semel), simul atque ( simul ac, or simul alone), take the Indicative (usually in the perfect or the historical present):
     mílités postquam victóriam adeptí sunt, nihil reliquí victís fécére ( Sall. Cat. 11), when the soldiers had won the victory, they left nothing to the vanquished.
     posteáquam forum attigistí, nihil fécistí nisi, etc. (Fam. 15.16.3) , since you came to the forum, you have done nothing except, etc.
     ubi omnís idem sentíre intelléxit, posterum diem púgnae cónstituit (B. G. 3.23) , when he understood that all agreed (thought the same thing), he appointed the next day for the battle.
     Catilína, ubi eós convénisse videt, sécédit ( Sall. Cat. 20), when Catiline sees that they have come together, he retires.
     Pompeiius ut equitátum suum pulsum vídit, acié excessit (B. C. 3.94) , when Pompey saw his cavalry beaten, he left the field.
     ut semel é Píraeeó éloquentia évecta est (Brut. 51) , as soon as eloquence had set sail from the Pir"us.
     nostrí simul in áridó cónstitérunt, in hostís impetum fécérunt (B. G. 4.26) , our men, as soon as they had taken a position on dry ground, made an attack on the enemy.
     simul atque intróductus est, rem cónfécit (Clu. 40) , as soon as he was brought in, he did the job.

These particles less commonly take the Imperfect or Pluperfect Indicative. The Imperfect denotes a past state of things; the Pluperfect, an action completed in past time:
     postquam strúctí utrimque stábant, ducés in medium prócédunt (Liv. 1.23) , when they stood in array on both sides, the generals advance into the midst.
     P. áfricánus posteáquam bis cónsul et cénsor fuerat (Caecil. 69) , when Africanus had been (i.e. had the dignity of having been) twice consul and censor.
     postquam id difficilius vísum est, neque facultás perficiendí dabátur, ad Pompeiium tránsiérunt (B. C. 3.60) , when this seemed too hard, and no means of effecting it were given, they passed over to Pompey.
     post diem quíntum quam iterum barbarí male púgnáverant [= victí sunt], légátí á Bocchó veniunt (Iug. 102) , the fifth day after the barbarians were beaten the second time, envoys come from Bocchus.
     haec iuventútem, ubi familiárés opés défécerant, ad facinora incendébant ( Sall. Cat. 13), when their inherited resources had given out, etc.
     ubi perícula virtúte própulerant ( id. 6), when they had dispelled the dangers by their valor.

For the use of ubi, ut, either alone or compounded with - cumque as Indefinite Relatives, see Sect: 542.


SECTION: #544. The conjunction cum ( quom) is a case-form of the relative pronoun quí. It inherits from quí its subordinating force, and in general shares its constructions. But it was early specialized to a temporal meaning (cf. tum, dum), and its range of usage was therefore less wide than that of quí; it could not, for example, introduce clauses of purpose or of result.

With the Indicative, besides the simple expression of definite time (corresponding to simple relative clauses with the Indicative), it has a few special uses,--conditional, explicative, cum inversum--all easily derived from the temporal use.

With the Subjunctive, cum had a development parallel to that of the quí-clause of Characteristic,--a development not less extensive and equally peculiar to Latin. From defining the time the cum-clause passed over to the description of the time by means of its attendant circumstances of cause or concession (cf. since, while).

In particular, cum with the Subjunctive was used in narrative (hence the past tenses, Imperfect and Pluperfect) as a descriptive clause of time. As, however, the present participle in Latin is restricted in its use and the perfect active participle is almost wholly lacking, the historical or narrative cum-clause came into extensive use to supply the deficiency. In classical writers the narrative cum-clause (with the Subjunctive) has pushed back the defining clause (with the Imperfect or Pluperfect Indicative) into comparative infrequency, and is itself freely used where the descriptive or characterizing force is scarcely perceptible (cf. the quí-clause of Characteristic, Sect: 534).

Cum Temporal

SECTION: #545. A temporal clause with cum, when, and some past tense of the Indicative dates or defines the time at which the action of the main verb occurred:
     eó [ lituó] regiónés díréxit tum cum urbem condidit (Div. 1.30) , he traced with it the quarters [of the sky] at the time he founded the city.
     cum occíditur Sex. Róscius, ibídem fuérunt serví; ( Rosc. Am. 120), when Roscius was slain, the slaves were on the spot. [ occíditur is historical present.]
     quem quidem cum ex urbe pellébam, hóc próvidébam animó; ( Cat. 3.16), when I was trying to force him (conative imperfect) from the city, I looked forward to this.
     fulgentís gladiós hostium vidébant Decií cum in aciem eórum inruébant (Tusc. 2.59) , the Decii saw the flashing swords of the enemy when they rushed upon their line.
     tum cum in Asiá rés mágnás permultí ámíserant (Manil. 19) , at that time, when many had lost great fortunes in Asia.

NOTE 1.--This is the regular use with all tenses in early Latin, and at all times with the Perfect and the Historical Present (as with postquam etc.). With the Imperfect and Pluperfect the Indicative use is (in classical Latin) much less common than the Subjunctive use defined below (Sect: 546).

NOTE 2.--This construction must not be confused with that of cum, whenever, in General Conditions (Sect: 542).

When the time of the main clause and that of the temporal clause are absolutely identical, cum takes the Indicative in the same tense as that of the main verb:
     maximá sum laetitiá adfectus cum audíví cónsulem té factum esse (Fam. 15.7) , I was very much pleased when I heard that you had been elected consul.

SECTION: #546. A temporal clause with cum and the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive describes the circumstances that accompanied or preceded the action of the main verb:
     cum essem ótiósus in Tusculánó, accépí tuás litterás (Fam. 9.18.1) , when I was taking my ease in my house at Tusculum, I received your letter.
     cum servílí belló premerétur (Manil. 30) , when she ( Italy) was under the load of the Servile War.
     cum id núntiátum esset, mátúrat (B. G. 1.7) , when this had been reported, he made (makes) haste.
     cum ad Cybistra quínque diés essem morátus, régem Ariobarzánem ínsidiís líberáví; ( Fam. 15.4.6), after remaining at Cybistra for five days, I freed King Ariobarzanes from plots.
     is cum ad mé Láodicéam vénisset mécumque ego eum vellem, repente percussus est atrócissimís litterís ( id. 9.25.3), when he had come to me at Laodicea and I wished him to remain with me, he was suddenly, etc.

NOTE 1.--This construction is very common in narrative, and cum in this use is often called narrative cum.

NOTE 2.-- Cum with the Imperfect or Pluperfect Indicative does not (like cum with the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive) describe the time by its circumstances; it defines the time of the main verb by denoting a coxistent state of things (Imperfect Indicative) or a result attained when the action of the main verb took place (Pluperfect). Thus the construction is precisely that of postquam etc. (Sect: 543. a).

NOTE 3.--The distinction between the uses defined in Sect: 545, 546, may be illustrated by the following examples: (1) He had a fever when he was in Spain (Shakspere). Here the when-clause defines the time when Caesar had the fever,--namely, in the year of his Spanish campaign (B.C. 49). In Latin we should use cum with the Imperfect Indicative. (2) Columbus discovered America when he was seeking a new route to India; here the when-clause does not define or date the time of the discovery; it merely describes the circumstances under which America was discovered,--namely, in the course of a voyage undertaken for another purpose. In Latin we should use the Imperfect Subjunctive.

NOTE 4.--The distinction explained in Note # is unknown to early Latin. In Plautus quom always has the Indicative unless the Subjunctive is required for some other reason.

When the principal action is expressed in the form of a temporal clause with cum, and the definition of the time becomes the main clause, cum takes the Indicative.

Here the logical relations of the two clauses are inverted; hence cum is in this use called cum inversum:
     diés nóndum decem intercesserant, cum ille alter fílius ínfáns necátur (Clu. 28) , ten days had not yet passed, when the other infant son was killed. [Instead of when ten days had not yet passed, etc.]
     iamque lúx appárébat cum prócédit ad mílités (Q. C. 7.8.3) , and day was already dawning when he appears before the soldiers.
     hóc facere noctú apparábant, cum mátrés familiae repente in públicum prócurrérunt (B. G. 7.26) , they were preparing to do this by night, when the women suddenly ran out into the streets.

SECTION: #547. Present time with cum temporal is denoted by the Present Indicative; future time, by the Future or Future Perfect Indicative:
     incidunt tempora, cum ea, quae maximé videntur dígna esse iústó homine, fíunt contrária (Off. 1.31) , times occur when those things which seem especially worthy of the upright man, become the opposite.
     nón dubitábó dare operam ut té videam, cum id satis commodé facere poteró (Fam. 13.1) , I shall not hesitate to take pains to see you, when I can do it conveniently.
     longum illud tempus cum nón eró (Att. 12.18) , that long time when I shall be no more.
     cum véneris, cógnóscés (Fam. 5.7.3) , when you come (shall have come), you will find out.

SECTION: #548. Cum, whenever, takes the construction of a relative clause in a general condition (see Sect: 542).

For present time, either the Present or the Perfect Indicative is used; for past time, regularly the Pluperfect Indicative.

For est cum etc., see Sect: 535. a. N.3.

Cum Causal or Concessive

SECTION: #549. Cum causal or concessive takes the Subjunctive:
     id difficile nón est, cum tantum equitátú valeámus (B. C. 3.86) , this is not difficult since we are so strong in cavalry. [Causal.]
     cum sólitúdó ínsidiárum et metús pléna sit, ratió ipsa monet amícitiás comparáre (Fin. 1.66) , since solitude is full of treachery and fear, reason itself prompts us to contract friendships. [Causal.]
     cum prímí órdinés concidissent, tamen ácerrimé reliquí resistébant (B. G. 7.62) , though the first ranks had fallen, still the others resisted vigorously. [Concessive.]
     breví spatió legiónés numeró hominum expléverat, cum initió nón amplius duóbus mílibus habuisset ( Sall. Cat. 56), in a short time he had filled out the legions with their complement of men, though at the start he had not had more than two thousand. [Concessive.]

Cum causal may usually be translated by since; cum concessive by although or while; either, occasionally, by when.

NOTE 1.-- Cum in these uses is often emphasized by ut, utpote, quippe, praesertim; as,-- nec reprehendó: quippe cum ipse istam reprehénsiónem nón fúgerim ( Att. 10.3A), I find no fault; since I myself did not escape that blame.

NOTE 2.--These causal and concessive uses of cum are of relative origin and are parallel to quí causal and concessive (Sect: 535. e). The attendant circumstances are regarded as the cause of the action, or as tending to hinder it.

NOTE 3.--In early Latin cum ( quom) causal and concessive usually takes the Indicative: as,-- quom tua rés distrahitur, utinam videam (Pl. Trin. 617) , since your property is being torn in pieces, O that I may see, etc.

Cum with the Indicative frequently introduces an explanatory statement, and is sometimes equivalent to quod, on the ground that:
     cum tacent, clámant (Cat. 1.21) , when they are silent, they cry out (i.e. their silence is an emphatic expression of their sentiments).
     grátulor tibi cum tantum valés apud Dolábellam (Fam. 9.14.3) , I congratulate you that you are so strong with Dolabella.

NOTE.--This is merely a special use of cum temporal expressing coincident time (Sect: 545. a).

Cum ... tum, signifying both ... and, usually takes the Indicative; but when cum approaches the sense of while or though, the Subjunctive is used (Sect: 549):
     cum multa nón probó, tum illud in prímís (Fin. 1.18) , while there are many things I do not approve, there is this in chief. [Indicative.]
     cum difficile est, tum né aequum quidem (Lael. 26) , not only is it difficult but even unjust.
     cum rés tóta ficta sit pueríliter, tum né efficit quidem quod vult (Fin. 1.19) , while the whole thing is childishly got up, he does not even make his point (accomplish what he wishes). [Subjunctive; approaching cum causal.]

Antequam and Priusquam

SECTION: #550. Antequam and priusquam, before, introduce Clauses of Time which resemble those with cum temporal in their constructions. Priusquam consists of two parts (often written separately and sometimes separated by other words), the comparative adverb prius, sooner (before), which really modifies the main verb, and the relative particle quam, than, which introduces the subordinate clause. The latter is therefore a relative clause, and takes the Indicative or the Subjunctive (like other relative clauses) according to the sense intended. The Subjunctive with priusquam is related to that of purpose (Sect: 529) and is sometimes called the Anticipatory or Prospective Subjunctive. Antequam, like priusquam, consists of two words, the first of which is the adverb ante, before, modifying the main verb. Its constructions are the same as those of priusquam, but the latter is commoner in classic prose.

SECTION: #551. Antequam and priusquam take sometimes the Indicative sometimes the Subjunctive.

With antequam or priusquam the Perfect Indicative states a fact in past time:
     antequam tuás légí litterás, hominem íre cupiébam (Att. 2.7.2) , before I read your letter, I wished the man to go.
     neque ante dímísit eum quam fidem dedit aduléscéns (Liv. 39.10) , and she did not let the young man go till he pledged his faith.
     neque prius fugere déstitérunt quam ad flúmen pervénérunt (B. G. 1.53) , nor did they stop running until they reached the river.

NOTE.--The Perfect Indicative in this construction is regular when the main clause is negative and the main verb is in an historical tense. The Imperfect Indicative is rare; the Pluperfect Indicative, very rare. The Perfect Subjunctive is rare and ante-classical, except in Indirect Discourse.

With antequam or priusquam the Imperfect Subjunctive is common when the subordinate verb implies purpose or expectancy in past time, or when the action that it denotes did not take place:
     ante púgnárí coeptum est quam satis ínstruerétur aciés (Liv. 22.4.7) , the fight was begun before the line could be properly formed.
     priusquam tú suum sibi vénderés, ipse possédit (Phil. 2.96) , before you could sell him his own property, he took possession of it himself.
     priusquam télum abicí posset aut nostrí propius accéderent, omnis Várí aciés terga vertit (B. C. 2.34) , before a weapon could be thrown or our men approached nearer, the whole line about Varus took flight.

NOTE 1.--The Pluperfect Subjunctive is rare, except in Indirect Discourse by sequence of tenses for the Future Perfect Indicative (Sect: 484. c): as,-- antequam hominés nefárií dé meó adventú audíre potuissent, in Macedoniam perréxí (Planc. 98) , before those evil men could learn of my coming, I arrived in Macedonia.

NOTE 2.--After an historical present the Present Subjunctive is used instead of the Imperfect: as,-- neque ab eó prius Domitiání mílités discédunt quam in cónspectum Caesaris dédúcátur (B. C. 1.22) , and the soldiers of Domitius did (do) not leave him until he was (is) conducted into Caesar's presence. So, rarely, the Perfect Subjunctive (as B. G. 3.18).

Antequam and priusquam, when referring to future time, take the Present or Future Perfect Indicative; rarely the Present Subjunctive:
     priusquam dé céterís rébus respondeó, dé amícitiá pauca dícam (Phil. 2.3) , before I reply to the rest, I will say a little about friendship.
     nón défatígábor antequam illórum ancipités viás percéperó (De Or. 3.145) , I shall not weary till I have traced out their doubtful ways.
     antequam veniat litterás mittet (Leg. Agr. 2.53) , before he comes, he will send a letter.

NOTE 1.--The Future Indicative is very rare.

NOTE 2.--In a few cases the Subjunctive of present general condition is found with antequam and priusquam (cf. Sect: 518. a): as,--in omnibus negótiís priusquam aggrediáre, adhibenda est praeparátió díligéns (Off. 1.73) , in all undertakings, before you proceed to action, careful preparation must be used.

Dum, Dónec, and Quoad

SECTION: #552. As an adverb meaning for a time, awhile, dum is found in old Latin, chiefly as an enclitic (cf. vixdum, nóndum). Its use as a conjunction comes either through correlation (cf. cum ... tum, sí ... síc) or through substitution for a conjunction, as in the English the moment I saw it, I understood. Quoad is a compound of the relative quó, up to which point, with ad. The origin and early history of dónec are unknown.

SECTION: #553. Dum and quoad, until, take the Present or Imperfect Subjunctive in temporal clauses implying intention or expectancy:
     exspectás fortasse dum dícat (Tusc. 2.17) , you are waiting perhaps for him to say (until he say). [ Dum is especially common after exspectó.]
     dum reliquae návés convenírent, ad hóram nónam exspectávit (B. G. 4.23) , he waited till the ninth hour for the rest of the ships to join him.
     comitia díláta [ sunt] dum léx ferrétur (Att. 4.17.3) , the election was postponed until a law should be passed.
     an id exspectámus, quoad né vestígium quidem Asiae cívitátum atque urbium relinquátur (Phil. 11.25) , shall we wait for this until not a trace is left of the states and cities of Asia?
     Epamínóndás exercébátur plúrimum luctandó ad eum fínem quoad stáns complectí posset atque contendere (Nep. Epam. 2) , Epaminondas trained himself in wrestling so far as to be able (until he should be able) to grapple standing and fight (in that way).

NOTE 1.-- Dónec is similarly used in poetry and later Latin: as,-- et dúxit longé dónec curváta coírent inter sé capita ( Aen. 11.860), and drew it (the bow) until the ourved tips touched each other.

NOTE 2.-- Dum, until, may be used with the Present or Future Perfect Indicative to state a future fact when there is no idea of intention or expectancy; but this construction is rare in classic prose. The Future is also found in early Latin. Dónec, until, is similarly used, in poetry and early Latin, with the Present and Future Perfect Indicative, rarely with the Future:
     ego in Arcánó opperior dum ista cógnóscó (Att. 10.3) , I am waiting in the villa at Arcaeuntil I find this out. [This is really dum, while.]
     mihi úsque cúrae erit quid agás, dum quid égeris scieró (Fam. 12.19.3) , I shall always feel anxious as to what you are doing, until I actually know (shall have known) what you have done.
     délicta máiórum lués dónec templa reféceris (Hor. Od. 3.6.1) , you shall suffer for the sins of your ancestors until you rebuild the temples.
     ter centum régnábitur annós, dónec geminam partú dabit I lia prólem (Aen. 1.272) , sway shall be held for thrice a hundred years, until Ilia shall give birth to twin offspring.

SECTION: #554. Dónec and quoad, until, with the Perfect Indicative denote an actual fact in past time:
     dónec rediit silentium fuit (Liv. 23.31.9) , there was silence until he returned.
     úsque eó timuí dónec ad reiiciendós iúdicés vénimus (Verr. 2.1.17) , I was anxious until the moment when we came to challenge the jurors.
     Rómae fuérunt quoad L. Metellus in próvinciam profectus est ( id. 2.62), they remained at Rome until Lucius Metellus set out for the province.

NOTE.-- Dum, until, with the Perfect Indicative is rare: as,-- mánsit in condicióne úsque ad eum fínem dum iúdicés reiiectí sunt (Verr. 1.16) , he remained true to the agreement until the jurors were challenged.

SECTION: #555. Dum, dónec, and quoad, as long as, take the Indicative:
     dum anima est, spés esse dícitur (Att. 9.10.3) , as long as there is life, there is said to be hope.
     dum praesidia úlla fuérunt, in Sullae praesidiís fuit (Rosc. Am. 126) , so long as there were any garrisons, he was in the garrisons of Sulla.
     dum longius á múnítióne aberant Gallí, plús multitúdine télórum próficiébant (B. G. 7.82) , so long as the Gauls were at a distance from the fortifications, they had the advantage because of their missiles.
     dónec grátus eram tibí, Persárum viguí rége beátior (Hor. Od. 3.9.1) , as long as I enjoyed thy favor, I flourished happier than the king of the Persians.
     quoad potuit fortissimé restitit (B. G. 4.12) , he resisted bravely as long as he could.

NOTE 1.-- Dónec in this use is confined to poetry and later writers.

NOTE 2.-- Quam diú, as long as, takes the Indicative only: as,-- sé oppidó tam diú tenuit quam diú in próvinciá Parthí fuérunt (Fam. 12.19.2) , he kept himself within the town as long as the Parthians were in the province.

SECTION: #556. Dum, while, regularly takes the Present Indicative to denote continued action in past time.

In translating, the English Imperfect must generally be used:
     dum haec geruntur, Caesarí núntiátum est (B. G. 1.46) , while this was going on, a message was brought to Caesar.
     haec dum aguntur, intereá Cleomenés iam ad Elórí lítus pervénerat (Verr. 5.91) , while this was going on, Cleomenes meanwhile had come down to the coast at Elorum.
     hóc dum nárrat, forte audíví; ( Ter. Haut. 272), I happened to hear this while she was telling it.

NOTE.--This construction is a special use of the Historical Present (Sect: 469).

A past tense with dum (usually so long as) makes the time emphatic by contrast; but a few irregular cases of dum with a past tense occur where no contrast is intended:
     nec enim dum eram vóbíscum, animum meum vidébátis (Cat. M. 79) , for while I was with you, you could not see my soul. [Here the time when he was alive is contrasted with that after his death.]
     corta est púgna, pár dum cónstábant órdinés (Liv. 22.47) , a conflict began, well matched as long as the ranks stood firm.
     But,-- dum oculós hostium certámen áverterat ( id. 32.24), while the struggle kept the eyes of the enemy turned away.
     dum únum adscendere gradum cónátus est, vénit in perículum (Mur. 55) , while he attempted to climb one step [in rank] he fell into danger.

NOTE.--In later writers, dum sometimes takes the Subjunctive when the classical usage would require the Indicative, and dónec, until, is freely used in this manner (especially by Tacitus):
     dum ea in Samnió gererentur, in Etruriá interim bellum ingéns concítur (Liv. 10.18) , while this was being done in Samnium, meanwhile a great war was stirred up in Etruria.
     illa quidem dum té fugeret, hydrum nón vídit (Georg. 4.457) , while she was fleeing from you she did not see the serpent.
     dum per vícós déportárétur, condormiébat (Suet. Aug. 78) , while he was being carried through the streets he used to fall dead asleep.
     Rhénus servat nómen et violentiam cursús ( quá Germániam praevehitur) dónec Oceanó misceátur (Tac. Ann. 2.6) , the Rhine keeps its name and rapid course (where it borders Germany) until it mingles with the ocean.
     temporibusque Augustí dícendís nón défuére decóra ingenia dónec glíscente adúlátióne déterrérentur ( id. 1.1), for describing the times of Augustus there was no lack of talent until it was frightened away by the increasing servility of the age.

For dum, provided that, see Sect: 528.


SECTION: #557. The original meaning of quín is how not? why not? (quí- né), and when used with the Indicative or (rarely) with the Subjunctive it regularly implies a general negative. Thus, quín ego hóc rogem? why should n't I ask this? implies that there is no reason for not asking. The implied negative was then expressed in a main clause, like núlla causa est or fierí nón potest. Hence come the various dependent constructions introduced by quín.

Quóminus is really a phrase ( quó minus), and the dependent constructions which it introduces have their origin in the relative clause of purpose with quó and a comparative (see Sect: 531. a).

SECTION: #558. A subjunctive clause with quín is used after verbs and other expressions of hindering, resisting, refusing, doubting, delaying, and the like, when these are negatived, either expressly or by implication:
     nón húmána úlla neque dívína obstant quín sociós amícós trahant exscindant ( Sall. Ep. Mith. 17) , no human or divine laws prevent them from taking captive and exterminating their friendly allies.
     ut né Suessiónés quidem déterrére potuerint quín cum hís cónsentírent (B. G. 2.3) , that they were unable to hinder even the Suessiones from making common cause with them.
     nón posse mílités continérí quín in urbem inrumperent (B. C. 2.12) , that the soldiers could not be restrained from bursting into the city.
     nón recúsat quín iúdicés (Deiot. 43) , he does not object to your judging.
     neque recúsáre quín armís contendant (B. G. 4.7) , and that they did not refuse to fight.
     praeteríre nón potuí quín scríberem ad té; ( Caesar ap. Cic. Att. 9.6A), I could not neglect to write to you.
     Tréverí tótíus hiemis núllum tempus intermísérunt quín légátós mitterent (B. G. 5.55) , the Treveri let no part of the winter pass without sending ambassadors. [Cf. B. G. 5.53; B. C. 1.78.]
     nón cúnctandum exístimávit quín púgná décertáret (B. G. 3.23) , he thought he ought not to delay risking a decisive battle.
     paulum áfuit quín Várum interficeret (B. C. 2.35) , he just missed killing Varus (it lacked little but that he should kill).
     neque multum áfuit quín castrís expellerentur ( id. 2.35), they came near being driven out of the camp.
     facere nón possum quín cotídié ad té mittam (Att. 12.27.2) , I cannot help sending to you every day.
     fierí núlló modó poterat quín Cleomení parcerétur (Verr. 5.104) , it was out of the question that Cleomenes should not be spared.
     ut efficí nón possit quín eós óderim (Phil. 11.36) , so that nothing can prevent my hating them.

Quín is especially common with nón dubitó, I do not doubt, nón est dubium, there is no doubt, and similar expressions:
     nón dubitábat quín eí créderémus (Att. 6.2.3) , he did not doubt that we believed him.
     illud cavé dubités quín ego omnia faciam (Fam. 5.20.6) , do not doubt that I will do all.
     quis ígnórat quín tria Graecórum genera sint (Flacc. 64) , who is ignorant that there are three races of Greeks?
     nón erat dubium quín Helvétií plúrimum possent (cf. B. G. 1.3), there was no doubt that the Helvetians were most powerful.
     neque Caesarem fefellit quín ab iís cohortibus initium victóriae orírétur (B. C. 3.94) , and it did not escape Caesar's notice that the beginning of the victory came from those cohorts.

NOTE 1.-- Dubitó without a negative is regularly followed by an Indirect Question; so sometimes nón dubitó and the like:
     nón núllí dubitant an per Sardiniam veniat (Fam. 9.7) , some doubt whether he is coming through Sardinia.
     dubitáte, sí potestis, á quó sit Sex. Róscius occísus (Rosc. Am. 78) , doubt, if you can, by whom Sextus Roscius was murdered.
     dubitábam tú hás ipsás litterás essésne acceptúrus (Att. 15.9) , I doubt whether you will receive this very letter. [Epistolary Imperfect (Sect: 479).]
     quális sit futúrus, né vós quidem dubitátis (B. C. 2.32) , and what it (the outcome) will be, you yourselves do not doubt.
     nón dubitó quid sentiant (Fam. 15.9) , I do not doubt what they think.
     dubium illí nón erat quid futúrum esset ( id. 8.8.1), it was not doubtful to him what was going to happen.

NOTE 2.-- Nón dubitó in the sense of I do not hesitate commonly takes the Infinitive, but sometimes quín with the Subjunctive:
     nec dubitáre illum appelláre sapientem (Lael. 1) , and not to hesitate to call him a sage.
     dubitandum nón exístimá vit quín proflcíscerétur (B. G. 2.2) , he did not think he ought to hesitate to set out.
     quid dubitás útí temporis opportúnitáte (B. C. 2.34) , why do you hesitate to take advantage of the favorable moment? [A question implying a negative.]

Verbs of hindering and refusing often take the subjunctive with né or quóminus (= ut eó minus), especially when the verb is not negatived:
     plúra né dícam tuae mé lacrimae impediunt (Planc. 104) , your tears preveni me from speaking further.
     nec aetás impedit quóminus agrí colendí studia teneámus (Cat. M. 60) , nor does age prevent us from retaining an interest in tilling the soil.
     nihil impedit quóminus id facere possímus (Fin. 1.33) , nothing hinders us from being able to do that.
     obstitistí né tránsíre cópiae possent (Verr. 5.5) , you opposed the passage of the troops (opposed lest the troops should cross).

NOTE.--Some verbs of hindering may take the Infinitive:
     nihil obest dícere (Fam. 9.13.4) , there is nothing to prevent my saying it.
     prohibet accédere (Caec. 46) , prevents him from approaching.

SECTION: #559. A clause of Result or Characteristic may be introduced <
    > quín after a general negative, where quín is equivalent to quí ( quae, quod) nón:

1. Clauses of Result:
     némó est tam fortis quín [= quí nón] reí novitáte perturbétur (B. G. 6.39) , no one is so brave as not to be disturbed by the unexpected occurrence.
     némó erat adeó tardus quín putáret (B. C. 1.69) , no one was so slothful as not to think, etc.
     quis est tam déméns quín sentiat (Balb. 43) , who is so senseless as not to think, etc.?
     níl tam difficilest quín quaerendó investígárí possiet (Ter. Haut. 675) , nothing's so hard but search will find it out ( Herrick).

2. Clauses of Characteristic:
     némó nostrum est quín [= quí nón] sciat (Rosc. Am. 55) , there is no one of us who does not know.
     némó fuit mílitum quín vulnerárétur (B. C. 3.53) , there was not one of the soldiers who was not wounded.
     ecquis fuit quín lacrimáret (Verr. 5.121) , was there any one who did not shed tears?
     quis est quín intellegat (Fin. 5.64) , who is there who does not understand?
     hórum nihil est quín [= quod nón] intereat (N. D. 3.30) , there is none of these (elements) which does not perish.
     nihil est illórum quín [= quod nón] ego illí díxerim (Pl. Bac. 1012) , there is nothing of this that I have not told him.

NOTE.-- Quín sometimes introduces a pure clause of result with the sense of ut nón: as,-- numquam tam male est Siculís quín aliquid facété et commodé dícant (Verr. 4.95) , things are never so bad with the Sicilians but that they have something pleasant or witty to say.

For quín in independent constructions. see Sect: 440


SECTION: #560. A clause which is used as a noun may be called a Substantive Clause, as certain relative clauses are sometimes called adjective clauses. But in practice the term is restricted to clauses which represent a nominative or an accusative case, the clauses which stand for an ablative being sometimes called adverbial clauses.

Even with this limitation the term is not quite precise (see p. 367, footnote 1). The fact is rather that the clause and the leading verb are mutually complementary; each reinforces the other. The simplest and probably the earliest form of such sentences is to be found in the paratactic use (see Sect: 268) of two verbs like voló abeás, dícámus cénseó, adeam optimum est. From such verbs the usage spread by analogy to other verbs (see lists on pp. 363, 367, footnotes), and the complementary relation of the clause to the verb came to resemble the complementary force of the accusative, especially the accusative of cognate meaning (Sect: 390).

SECTION: #561. A clause used as a noun is called a Substantive Clause.

A Substantive Clause may be used as the Subject or Object of a verb, as an Appositive, or as a Predicate Nominative or Accusative.

NOTE 1.--Many ideas which in English take the form of an abstract noun may be rendered by a substantive clause in Latin. Thus, he demanded an investigation may be postulábat ut quaestió habérétur. The common English expression for with the infinitive also corresponds to a Latin substantive clause: as,--it remains for me to speak of the piratic war, reliquum est ut dé belló dícam píráticó.

NOTE 2.--When a Substantive Clause is used as subject, the verb to which it is subject is called impersonal, and the sign of the construction in English is commonly the so-called expletive IT.

SECTION: #562. Substantive Clauses are classified as follows:

1. Subjunctive Clauses ( ut, né, ut nón, etc.). a. Of purpose (command, wish, fear) (Sect: 563, 564). b. Of result (happen, effect, etc.) (Sect: 568).

2. Indicative Clauses with quod: Fact, Specification, Feeling (Sect: 572).

3. Indirect Questions: Subjunctive, introduced by an Interrogative Word (Sect: 573-576).

4. Infinitive Clauses a. With verbs of ordering, wishing, etc. (Sect: 563). b. Indirect Discourse (Sect: 579 ff.).

NOTE.--The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is not strictly a clause, but in Latin it has undergone so extensive a development that it may be so classed. The uses of the Infinitive Clause are of two kinds: (1) in constructions in which it replaces a subjunctive clause with ut etc.; (2) in the Indirect Discourse. The first class will be discussed in connection with the appropriate subjunctive constructions (Sect: 563); for Indirect Discourse, see Sect: 579 ff.

Substantive Clauses of Purpose

SECTION: #563. Substantive Clauses of Purpose with ut (negative né) are used as the object of verbs denoting an action directed toward the future.

Such are, verbs meaning to admonish, ask, bargain, command, decree, determine, permit, persuade, resolve, urge, and wish:
     monet ut omnés suspíciónés vítet (B. G. 1.20) , he warns him to avoid all suspicion.
     hortátur eós né animó déficiant (B. C. 1.19) , he urges them not to lose heart.
     té rogó atque óró ut eum iuvés (Fam. 13.66) , I beg and pray you to aid him.
     hís utí conquírerent imperávit (B. G. 1.28) , he ordered them to search.
     persuádet Casticó ut régnum occupáret ( id. 1.3), he persuades Casticus to usurp royal power.
     suís imperávit né quod omnínó télum reiicerent ( id. 1.46), he ordered his men not to throw back any weapon at all.

NOTE.--With any verb of these classes the poets may use the Infinitive instead of an object clause:
     hortámur fárí (Aen. 2.74) , we urge [him] to speak.
     né quaere docérí ( id. 6.614), seek not to be told.
     temptat praevertere ( id. 1.721), she attempts to turn, etc.

For the Subjunctive without ut with verbs of commanding, see Sect: 565. a.

Iubeó, order, and vetó, forbid, take the Infinitive with Subject Accusative:
     Labiénum iugum montis ascendere iubet (B. G. 1.21) , he orders Labienus to ascend the ridge of the hill.
     líberós ad sé addúcí iussit ( id. 2.5), he ordered the children to be brought to him.
     ab opere légátós discédere vetuerat ( id. 2.20), he had forbidden the lieutenants to leave the work.
     vetuére [ bona] reddí (Liv. 2.5) , they forbade the return of the goods (that the goods be returned).

NOTE.--Some other verbs of commanding etc. occasionally take the Infinitive:
     pontem imperant fierí (B. C. 1.61) , they order a bridge to be built.
     rés monet cavére ( Sall. Cat. 52.3), the occasion warns us to be on our guard.

Verbs of wishing take either the Infinitive or the Subjunctive.

With voló ( nóló, máló) and cupió the Infinitive is commoner, and the subject of the infinitive is rarely expressed when it would be the same as that of the main verb.

With other verbs of wishing the Subjunctive is commoner when the subject changes, the Infinitive when it remains the same.

1. Subject of dependent verb same as that of the verb of wishing:
     augur fierí voluí; ( Fam. 15.4.13), I wished to be made augur.
     cupió vigiliam meam tibi trádere ( id. 11.24), I am eager to hand over my watch to you.
     iúdicem mé esse, nón doctórem voló; (Or. 117), I wish to be a judge, not a teacher.
     mé Caesaris mílitem dící voluí; ( B. C. 2.32.13), I wished to be called a soldier of Caesar.
     cupió mé esse clémentem (Cat. 1.4) , I desire to be merciful. [But regularly, cupió esse cléméns (see Sect: 457).]
     omnís hominés, quí sésé student praestáre céterís animálibus ( Sall. Cat. 1), all men who wish to excel other living creatures.

2. Subject of dependent verb different from that of the verb of wishing:
     voló té scíre (Fam. 9.24.1) , I wish you to know.
     vim volumus exstinguí (Sest. 92) , we wish violence to be put down.
     té tuá fruí virtúte cupimus (Brut. 331) , we wish you to reap the fruits of your virtue.
     cupió ut impetret (Pl. Capt. 102) , I wish he may get it.
     numquam optábó ut audiátis (Cat. 2.15) , I will never desire that you shall hear.

For voló and its compounds with the Subjunctive without ut, see Sect: 565.

Verbs of permitting take either the Subjunctive or the Infinitive. Patior takes regularly the Infinitive with Subject Accusative; so often sinó:
     permísit ut faceret (De Or. 2.366) , permitted him to make.
     concédó tibi ut ea praetereás (Rosc. Am. 54) , I allow you to pass by these matters.
     tabernácula statuí passus nón est (B. C. 1.81) , he did not allow tents to be pitched.
     vínum importárí nón sinunt (B. G. 4.2) , they do not allow wine to be imported.

Verbs of determining, decreeing, resolving, bargaining, take either the Subjunctive or the Infinitive:
     cónstituerant ut L. Béstia quererétur ( Sall. Cat. 43), they had determined that Lucius Bestia should complain.
     proelió supersedére statuit (B. G. 2.8) , he determined to refuse battle.
     dé bonís régis quae reddí cénsuerant (Liv. 2.5) , about the king's goods, which they had decreed should be restored.
     décernit utí cónsulés díléctum habeant ( Sall. Cat. 34), decrees that the consuls shall hold a levy.
     édictó né quis iniussú púgnáret (Liv. 5.19) , having commanded that none should fight without orders.

NOTE 1.--Different verbs of these classes with the same meaning vary in their construction (see the Lexicon). For verbs of bargaining etc. with the Gerundive, see Sect: 500. 4.

NOTE 2.--Verbs of decreeing and voting often take the Infinitive of the Second Periphrastic conjugation: Régulus captívós reddendós [ esse] nón cénsuit (Off. 1.39) , Regulus voted that the captives should not be returned. [He said, in giving his formal opinion: captíví nón reddendí sunt.]

Verbs of caution and effort take the Subjunctive with ut. But cónor, try, commonly takes the Complementary Infinitive:
     cúrá ut quam prímum intellegam (Fam. 13.10.4) , let me know as soon as possible (take care that I may understand).
     dant operam ut habeant ( Sall. Cat. 41), they take pains to have (give their attention that, etc.).
     impellere utí Caesar nóminárétur ( id. 49), to induce them to name C sar (that Caesar should be named).
     cónátus est Caesar reficere pontís (B. C. 1.50) , Caesar tried to rebuild the bridges.

NOTE 1.-- Cónor sí also occurs (as B. G. 1.8); cf. míror sí etc., Sect: 572. b. N.

NOTE 2.-- Ut né occurs occasionally with verbs of caution and effort (cf. Sect: 531): cúrá et próvidé ut néquid eí désit (Att. 11.3.3) , take care and see that he lacks nothing.

For the Subjunctive with quín and quóminus with verbs of hindering etc., see Sect: 558.

SECTION: #564. Verbs of fearing take the Subjunctive, with né affirmative and né nón or ut negative.

In this use né is commonly to be translated by that, ut and né nón by that not:
     timeó né Verrés fécerit (Verr. 5.3) , I fear that Verres has done, etc.
     né animum offenderet verébátur (B. G. 1.19) , he feared that he should hurt the feelings, etc.
     né exhérédárétur veritus est (Rosc. Am. 58) , he feared that he should be disinherited.
     órátor metuó né languéscat senectúte (Cat. M. 28) , I fear the orator grows feeble from old age.
     vereor ut tibi possim concédere (De Or. 1.35) , I fear that I cannot grant you.
     haud sáné perículum est né nón mortem optandam putet (Tusc. 5.118) , there is no danger that he will not think death desirable.

NOTE.--The subjunctive in né-clauses after a verb of fearing is optative in origin. To an independent ne-sentence, as né accidat, may it not happen, a verb may be prefixed (cf. Sect: 560), making a complex sentence. Thus, vidé né accidat; óró né accidat; cavet né accidat; when the prefixed verb is one of fearing, timeó né accidat becomes let it not happen, but I fear that it may. The origin of the ut-clause is similar.

SECTION: #565. Voló and its compounds, the impersonals licet and oportet, and the imperatives díc and fac often take the Subjunctive without ut:
     voló amés (Att. 2.10) , I wish you to love.
     quam vellem mé invítássés (Fam. 10.28.1) , how I wish you had invited me!
     mállem Cerberum metuerés (Tusc. 1.12) , I had rather you feared Cerberus.
     sint enim oportet ( id. 1.12), for they must exist.
     querámur licet (Caec. 41) , we are allowed to complain.
     fac díligás (Att. 3.13.2) , do love! [A periphrasis for the imperative dílige, love (cf. Sect: 449. c).]
     díc exeat, tell him to go out.

NOTE 1.--In such cases there is no ellipsis of ut. The expressions are idiomatic remnants of an older construction in which the subjunctives were hortatory or optative and thus really independent of the verb of wishing etc. In the classical period, however, they were doubtless felt as subordinate. Compare the use of cavé and the subjunctive (without né) in Prohibitions (Sect: 450), which appears to follow the analogy of fac.

NOTE 2.-- Licet may take (1) the Subjunctive, usually without ut; (2) the simple Infinitive; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative; (4) the Dative and the Infinitive (see Sect: 455. 1). Thus, I may go is licet eam, licet íre, licet mé íre, or licet mihi íre.

For licet in concessive clauses, see Sect: 527. b.

NOTE 3.-- Oportet may take (1) the Subjunctive without ut; (2) the simple Infinitive; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. Thus I must go is oportet eam, oportet íre, or oportet mé íre.

Verbs of commanding and the like often take the subjunctive without ut:
     huic mandat Rémós adeat (B. G. 3.11) , he orders him to visit the Remi.
     rogat fínem faciat ( id. 1.20), he asks him to cease.
     Mnésthea vocat, classem aptent socií; ( Aen. 4.289), he calls Mnestheus [and orders that] his comrades shall make ready the fleet.

NOTE.--The subjunctive in this construction is the hortatory subjunctive used to express a command in Indirect Discourse (Sect: 588).

Substantive Clauses of Purpose with Passive Verbs

SECTION: #566. A Substantive Clause used as the object of a verb becomes the subject when the verb is put in the passive (Impersonal Construction):
     Caesar ut cógnósceret postulátum est (B. C. 1.87) , Caesar was requested to make an investigation (it was requested that Caesar should make an investigation).
     sí erat Héraclió ab senátú mandátum ut emeret (Verr. 3.88) , if Heraclius had been instructed by the senate to buy.
     sí persuásum erat Cluvió ut mentírétur (Rosc. Com. 51) , if Cluvius had been persuaded to lie.
     putó concédí nóbís oportére ut Graecó verbó útámur (Fin. 3.15) , I think we must be allowed to use a Greek word.
     né quid eís noceátur á Caesare cavétur (B. C. 1.86) , Caesar takes care that no harm shall be done them (care is taken by Caesar lest, etc.).

With verbs of admonishing, the personal object becomes the subject and the object clause is retained:
     admonití sumus ut cavérémus ( Att. 8.11D. 3), we were warned to be careful.
     cum monérétur ut cautior esset (Div. 1.51) , when he was advised to be more cautious.
     monérí vísus est né id faceret ( id. 56), he seemed to be warned not to do it.

Some verbs that take an infinitive instead of a subjunctive are used impersonally in the passive, and the infinitive becomes the subject of the sentence:
     loquí nón concéditur (B. G. 6.20) , it is not allowed to speak.

With iubeó, vetó, and cógó, the subject accusative of the infinitive becomes the subject nominative of the main verb, and the infinitive is retained as complementary (Personal Construction):
     adesse iubentur postrídié; ( Verr. 2.41), they are ordered to be present on the following day.
     íre in exsilium iussus est (Cat. 2.12) , he was ordered to go into exile.
     Simónidés vetitus est návigáre (Div. 2.134) , Simonides was forbidden to sail.
     Mandubií exíre cóguntur (B. G. 7.78) , the Mandubii are compelled to go out.

Substantive Clauses of Result (Consecutive Clauses)

SECTION: #567. Clauses of Result may be used substantively, (1) as the object of fació etc. (Sect: 568); (2) as the subject of these same verbs in the passive, as well as of other verbs and verbal phrases (Sect: 569); (3) in apposition with another substantive, or as predicate nominative etc. (see Sect: 570, 571).

SECTION: #568. Substantive Clauses of Result with ut (negative ut nón) are used as the object of verbs denoting the accomplishment of an effort.

Such are especially fació and its compounds ( effició, cónfició, etc.):
     efficiam ut intellegátis (Clu. 7) , I will make you understand (lit. effect that you, etc.). [So, faciam ut intellegátis ( id. 9).]
     commeátús ut portárí possent efficiébat (B. G. 2.5) , made it possible that supplies could be brought.
     perfécí ut é régnó ille discéderet (Fam. 15.4.6) , I brought about his departure from the kingdom.
     quae líbertás ut laetior esset régis superbia fécerat (Liv. 2.1) , the arrogance of the king had made this liberty more welcome.
     évincunt ínstandó ut litterae darentur ( id. 2.4), by insisting they gain their point,--that letters should be sent. [Here évincunt = efficiunt.]

NOTE 1.--The expressions facere ut, committere ut, with the subjunctive, often form a periphrasis for the simple verb: as,-- invítus fécí ut Fláminium é senátú éicerem (Cat. M. 42) , it was with reluctance that I expelled Flaminius from the senate.

SECTION: #569. Substantive Clauses of Result are used as the subject of the following:

1. Of passive verbs denoting the accomplishment of an effort:
     impetrátum est ut in senátú recitárentur ( litterae) ( B. C. 1.1), they succeeded in having the letter read in the senate (it was brought about that, etc.).
     ita efficitur ut omne corpus mortále sit (N. D. 3.30) , it therefore is made out that every body is mortal.

2. Of Impersonals meaning it happens, it remains, it follows, it is necessary, it is added, and the like (Sect: 568, footnote):
     accidit ut esset lúna pléna (B. G. 4.29) , it happened to be full moon (it happened that it was, etc.). [Here ut esset is subject of accidit.]
     reliquum est ut officiís certémus inter nós (Fam. 7.31) , it remains for us to vie with each other in courtesies.
     restat ut hóc dubitémus (Rosc. Am. 88) , it is left for us to doubt this.
     sequitur ut doceam (N. D. 2.81) , the next thing is to show (it follows, etc.).

NOTE 1.--The infinitive sometimes occurs: as,-- nec enim acciderat mihi opus esse (Fam. 6.11.1) , for it had not happened to be necessary to me.

NOTE 2.-- Necesse est often takes the subjunctive without ut: as,-- concédás necesse est (Rosc. Am. 87) , you must grant.

3. Of est in the sense of it is the fact that, etc. (mostly poetic):
     est ut viró vir látius órdinet arbusta (Hor. Od. 3.1.9) , it is the fact that one man plants his vineyards in wider rows than another.

Fore (or futúrum esse) ut with a clause of result as subject is Often used instead of the Future Infinitive active or passive; so necessarily in verbs which have no supine stem:
     spéró fore ut contingat id nóbís (Tusc. 1.82) , I hope that will be our happy lot.
     cum vidérem fore ut nón possem (Cat. 2.4) , when I saw that I should not be able.

SECTION: #570. A substantive clause of result may be in apposition with another substantive (especially a neuter pronoun):
     illud etiam restiterat, ut té in iús édúcerent (Quinct. 33) , this too remained-- for them to drag you into court.

SECTION: #571. A substantive clause of result may serve as predicate nominative after mós est and similar expressions:
     est mós hominum, ut nólint eundem plúribus rébus excellere (Brut. 84) , it is the way of men to be unwilling for one man to excel in several things.

A result clause, with or without ut, frequently follows quam after a comparative (but see Sect: 583. c):
     Canachí sígna rigidióra sunt quam ut imitentur véritátem (Brut. 70) , the statues of Canachus are too stiff to represent nature (stiffer than that they should).
     perpessus est omnia potius quam indicáret (Tusc. 2.52) , he endured all rather than betray, etc. [Regularly without ut except in Livy.]

The phrase tantum abest, it is so far [from being the case], regularly takes two clauses of result with ut: one is substantive, the subject of abest; the other is adverbial, correlative with tantum:
     tantum abest ut nostra mírémur, ut úsque eó difficilés ac mórósí símus, ut nóbís nón satis faciat ipse Démosthenés (Or. 104) , so far from admiring my own works, I am difficult and captious to that degree that not Demosthenes himself satisfies me. [Here the first ut-clause is the subject of abest (Sect: 569. 2); the second, a result clause after tantum (Sect: 537); and the third, after úsque eó.]

Rarely, a thought or an idea is considered as a result, and is expressed by the subjunctive with ut instead of the accusative and infinitive (Sect: 580). In this case a demonstrative usually precedes:
     praeclárum illud est, ut eós ... amémus (Tusc. 3.73) , this is a noble thing, that we should love, etc.
     vérí simile nón est ut ille antepóneret (Verr. 4.11) , it is not likely that he preferred.

For Relative Clauses with quín after verbs of hindering etc., see Sect: 558.

Indicative with Quod

SECTION: #572. A peculiar form of Substantive Clause consists of quod (in the sense of that, the fact that) with the Indicative.

The clause in the Indicative with quod is used when the statement is regarded as a fact:
     alterum est vitium, quod quídam nimis mágnum studium cónferunt (Off. 1.19) , it is another fault that some bestow too much zeal, etc. [Here ut cónferant could be used, meaning that some should bestow; or the accusative and infinitive, meaning to bestow (abstractly); quod makes it a fact that men do bestow, etc.]
     inter inanimum et animal hóc maximé interest, quod animal agit aliquid (Acad. 2.37) , this is the chief difference between an inanimate object and an animal, that an animal aims at something.
     quod rediit nóbís mírábile vidétur (Off. 3.111) , that he (Regulus) returned seems wonderful to us.
     accidit perincommodé quod eum nusquam vídistí (Att. 1.17.2) , it happened very unluckily that you nowhere saw him.
     opportúnissima rés accidit quod Germání vénérunt (B. G. 4.13) , a very fortunate thing happened, (namely) that the Germans came.
     praetereó quod eam sibi domum sédemque délégit (Clu. 188) , I pass over the fact that she chose that house and home for herself.
     mittó quod possessa per vim (Flacc. 79) , I disregard the fact that they were seized by violence.

NOTE.--Like other substantive clauses, the clause with quod may be used as subject, as object, as appositive, etc., but it is commonly either the subject or in apposition with the subject.

A substantive clause with quod sometimes appears as an accusative of specification, corresponding to the English whereas or as to the fact that:
     quod mihi dé nostró statú grátuláris, minimé mírámur té tuís praeclárís operibus laetárí; ( Fam. 1.7.7), as to your congratulating me on our condition, we are not at all surprised that you are pleased with your own noble works.
     quod dé domó scríbis, ego, etc. (Fam. 14.2.3) , as to what you write of the house, I, etc.

Verbs of feeling and the expression of feeling take either quod ( quia) or the accusative and infinitive (Indirect Discourse):
     quod scríbis ... gaudeó; ( Q. Fr. 3.1.9), I am glad that you write.
     fació libenter quod eam nón possum praeteríre (Legg. 1.63) , I am glad that I cannot pass it by.
     quae perfecta esse vehementer laetor (Rosc. Am. 136) , I greatly rejoice that this is finished.
     quí quia nón habuit á mé turmás equitum fortasse suscénset (Att. 6.3.5) , who perhaps feels angry that he did not receive squadrons of cavalry from me.
     molesté tulí té senátuí grátiás nón égisse (Fam. 10.27.1) , I was displeased that you did not return thanks to the senate.

NOTE.-- Míror and similar expressions are sometimes followed by a clause with sí.This is apparently substantive, but really protasis (cf. Sect: 563. e. N. 1). Thus,-- míror sí quemquam amícum habére potuit (Lael. 54) , I wonder if he could ever have a friend. [Originally, If this is so, I wonder at it.]

.Indirect Questions

SECTION: #573. An Indirect Question is any sentence or clause which is introduced by an interrogative word (pronoun, adverb, etc.), and which is itself the subject or object of a verb, or depends on any expression implying uncertainty or doubt.

In grammatical form, exclamatory sentences are not distinguished from interrogative (see the third example below).

SECTION: #574. An Indirect Question takes its verb in the Subjunctive:
     quid ipse sentiam expónam (Div. 1.10) , I will explain what I think. [Direct: quid sentió?]
     id possetne fierí cónsuluit ( id. 1.32), he consulted whether it could be done. [Direct: potestne?]
     quam sís audáx omnés intellegere potuérunt (Rosc. Am. 87) , all could understand how bold you are. [Direct: quam es audáx!]
     doleam necne doleam nihil interest (Tusc. 2.29) , it is of no account whether I suffer or not. [Double question.]
     quaesíví á Catilíná in conventú apud M. Laecam fuisset necne (Cat. 2.13) , I asked Catiline whether he had been at the meeting at Marcus L"ca's or not. [Double question.]
     rogat mé quid sentiam, he asks me what I think. [Cf. rogat mé sententiam, he asks me my opinion.]
     hóc dubium est, uter nostrum sit inverécundior (Acad. 2.126) , this is doubtful, which of us two is the less modest.
     incertí quátenus Voleró exercéret victóriam (Liv. 2.55) , uncertain how far Volero would push victory. [As if dubitantés quátenus, etc.]

NOTE.--An Indirect Question may be the subject of a verb (as in the fourth example), the direct object (as in the first), the secondary object (as in the sixth), an appositive (as in the seventh).

SECTION: #575. The Sequence of Tenses in Indirect Question is illustrated by the following examples:
     dícó quid faciam, I tell you what I am doing.
     dícó quid factúrus sim, I tell you what I will (shall) do.
     dícó quid fécerim, I tell you what I did (have done, was doing).
     díxí quid facerem, I told you what I was doing.
     díxí quid fécissem, I told you what I had done (had been doing).
     díxí quid factúrus essem, I told you what I would (should) do (was going to do).
     díxí quid factúrus fuissem, I told you what I would (should) have done.

Indirect Questions referring to future time take the subjunctive of the First Periphrastic Conjugation:
     próspició quí concursús futúrí sint (Caecil. 42) , I foresee what throngs there will be. [Direct: quí erunt?]
     quid sit futúrum crás, fuge quaerere (Hor. Od. 1.9.13) , forbear to ask what will be on the morrow. [Direct: quid erit or futúrum est?]
     posthác nón scríbam ad té quid factúrus sim, sed quid fécerim (Att. 10.18) , hereafter I shall not write to you what I am going to do, but what I have done. [Direct: quid faciés (or factúrus eris)? quid fécistí?]

NOTE.--This Periphrastic Future avoids the ambiguity which would be caused by using the Present Subjunctive to refer to future time in such clauses.

The Deliberative Subjunctive (Sect: 444) remains unchanged in an Indirect Question, except sometimes in tense:
     quó mé vertam nesció; ( Clu. 4), I do not know which way to turn. [Direct: quó mé vertam?]
     neque satis cónstábat quid agerent (B. G. 3.14) , and it was not very clear what they were to do. [Direct: quid agámus?]
     nec quisquam satis certum habet, quid aut spéret aut timeat (Liv. 22.7.10) , nor is any one well assured what he shall hope or fear. [Here the future participle with sit could not be used.]
     incertó quid peterent aut vítárent ( id. 28.36.12), since it was doubtful (ablative absolute) what they should seek or shun.

Indirect Questions often take the Indicative in early Latin and in poetry:
     víneam quó in agró cónserí oportet síc observátó; ( Cato R. R. 6.4), in what soil a vineyard should be set you must observe thus.

Nesció quis, when used in an indefinite sense (somebody or other), is not followed by the Subjunctive.

So also nesció quó ( unde, an, etc.), and the following idiomatic phrases which are practically adverbs:
     mírum ( nímírum) quam, marvellously (marvellous how).
     mírum quantum, tremendously (marvellous how much).
     immáne quantum, monstrously (monstrous how much).
     sáné quam, immensely.
     valdé quam, enormously.

Examples are:
     quí istam nesció quam indolentiam mágnopere laudant (Tusc. 3.12) , who greatly extol that freedom from pain, whatever it is.
     mírum quantum prófuit (Liv. 2.1) , it helped prodigiously.
     ita fátó nesció quó contigisse arbitror (Fam. 15.13) , I think it happened so by some fatality or other.
     nam suós valdé quam paucós habet ( id. 11.13A. 3), for he has uncommonly few of his own.
     sáné quam sum gávísus ( id. 11.13A. 4), I was immensely glad.
     immáne quantum discrepat (Hor. Od. 1.27.5) , is monstrously at variance.

SECTION: #576. In colloquial usage and in poetry the subject of an In direct Question is often attracted into the main clause as object (Accusative of Anticipation):
     nóstí Márcellum quam tardus sit (Fam. 8.10.3) , you know how slow Marcellus is. [For nóstí quam tardus sit Márcellus. Cf. "I know thee who thou art.]
     Cf. potestne igitur eárum rérum, quá ré futúrae sint, úlla esse praesénsió; (Div. 2.15), can there be, then, any foreknowledge as to those things, why they will occur? [A similar use of the Objective Genitive.]

NOTE.--In some cases the Object of Anticipation becomes the Subject by a change of voice, and an apparent mixture of relative and interrogative constructions is the result:
     quídam saepe in parvá pecúniá perspiciuntur quam sint levés (Lael. 63) , it is often seen, in a trifling matter of money, how unprincipled some people are (some people are often seen through, how unprincipled they are).
     quem ad modum Pompeiium oppúgnárent á mé indicátí sunt (Leg. Agr. 1.5) , it has been shown by me in what way they attacked Pompey (they have been shown by me, how they attacked).

An indirect question is occasionally introduced by sí in the sense of whether (like if in English, cf. Sect: 572. b. N.):
     circumfunduntur hostés sí quem aditum reperíre possent (B. G. 6.37) , the enemy pour round [to see] if they can find entrance.
     vísam sí domí est (Ter. Haut. 170) , I will go see if he is at home.

NOTE.--This is strictly a Protasis, but usually no Apodosis is thought of, and the clause is virtually an Indirect Question.

For the Potential Subjunctive with forsitan (originally an Indirect Question), see Sect: 447. a.

1 Such verbs or verbal phrases are id agó, ad id venió, caveó ( né), cénseó, cógó, concédó, cónstituó, cúró, décernó, édícó, flágitó, hortor, imperó, ínstó, mandó, metuó ( né). moneó, negótium dó, operam dó, óró, persuádeó, petó, postuló, praecipió, precor, prónúntió. quaeró, rogó, scíscó, timeó ( né), vereor ( né), videó, voló.

2 In all these cases the clause is not strictly subject or object. The main verb originally conveyed a meaning sufficient in itself, and the result clause was merely complementary. This is seen by the frequent use of ita and the like with the main verb ( ita accidit ut, etc.). In like manner purpose clauses are only apparently subject or object of the verb with which they are connected.

3 Verbs and phrases taking an ut-clause of result as subject or object are accédit, accidit, additur, altera est rés, committó, cónsequor, contingit, effició, évenit, fació, fit, flerí potest, fore, impetró, integrum est, mós est, múnus est, necesse est, prope est, réctum est, relinquitur, reliquum est, restat, tantí est, tantum abest, and a few others.

4 Cf. the Greek thaumazo ei.

SECTION: #577. The use of the Accusative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse ( órátió oblíqua) is a comparatively late form of speech, developed in the Latin and Greek only, and perhaps separately in each of them. It is wholly wanting in Sanskrit, but some forms like it have grown up in English and German.

The essential character of Indirect Discourse is, that the language of some other person than the writer or speaker is compressed into a kind of Substantive Clause, the verb of the main clause becoming Infinitive, while modifying clauses, as well as all hortatory forms of speech, take the Subjunctive. The person of the verb necessarily conforms to the new relation of persons.

The construction of Indirect Discourse, however, is not limited to reports of the language of some person other than the speaker; it may be used to express what any one--whether the speaker or some one else--says, thinks, or perceives, whenever that which is said, thought, or perceived is capable of being expressed in the form of a complete sentence. For anything that can be said etc. can also be reported indirectly as well as directly.

The use of the Infinitive in the main clause undoubtedly comes from its use as a case-form to complete or modify the action expressed by the verb of saying and its object together. This object in time came to be regarded as, and in fact to all intents became, the subject of the infinitive. A transition state is found in Sanskrit, which, though it has no indirect discourse proper, yet allows an indirect predication after verbs of saying and the like by means of a predicative apposition, in such expressions as "The maids told the king [that] his daughter [was] bereft of her senses.

The simple form of indirect statement with the accusative and infinitive was afterwards amplified by introducing dependent or modifying clauses; and in Latin it became a common construction, and could be used to report whole speeches etc., which in other languages would have the direct form. (Compare the style of reporting speeches in English, where only the person and tense are changed.)

The Subjunctive in the subordinate clauses of Indirect Discourse has no significance except to make more distinct the fact that these clauses are subordinate; consequently no direct connection has been traced between them and the uses of the mood in simple sentences. It is probable that the subjunctive in indirect questions (Sect: 574), in informal indirect discourse (Sect: 592), and in clauses of the integral part (Sect: 593) represents the earliest steps of a movement by which the subjunctive became in some degree a mood of subordination.

The Subjunctive standing for hortatory forms of speech in Indirect Discourse is simply the usual hortatory subjunctive, with only a change of person and tense (if necessary), as in the reporter's style.

SECTION: #578. A Direct Quotation gives the exact words of the original speaker or writer (Oratio Recta).

An Indirect Quotation adapts the words of the speaker or writer to the construction of the sentence in which they are quoted ( rátió Oblíqua).

NOTE.--The term Indirect Discourse ( órátió oblíqua) is used in two senses. In the wider sense it includes all clauses--of whatever kind--which express the words or thought of any person indirectly, that is, in a form different from that in which the person said the words or conceived the thought. In the narrower sense the term Indirect Discourse is restricted to those cases in which some complete proposition is cited in the form of an Indirect Quotation, which may be extended to a narrative or an address of any length, as in the speeches reported by Caesar and Livy. In this book the term is used in the restricted sense.


SECTION: #579. Verbs and other expressions of knowing, thinking, telling, and perceiving,govern the Indirect Discourse.

NOTE.-- Inquam, said I (etc.) takes the Direct Discourse except in poetry.

Declaratory Sentences in Indirect Discourse

SECTION: #580. In Indirect Discourse the main clause of a Declaratory Sentence is put in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. All subordinate clauses take the Subjunctive:
     sció mé paene incrédibilem rem pollicérí (B. C. 3.86) , I know that I am promising an almost incredible thing. [Direct: polliceor.]
     nón arbitror té ita sentíre (Fam. 10.26.2) , I do not suppose that you feel thus. [Direct: sentís.]
     spéró mé líberátum [ esse] dé metú; (Tusc. 2.67), I trust I have been freed from fear. [Direct: líberátus sum.]
     [ dícit] esse nón núllós quórum auctóritás plúrimum valeat (B. G. 1.17) , he says there are some, whose influence most prevails. [Direct: sunt nón núllí ... valet.]
     nisi iúrásset, scelus sé factúrum [ esse] arbitrábátur (Verr. 2.1.123) , he thought he should incur guilt, unless he should take the oath. [Direct: nisi iúráveró, faciam.]

The verb of saying etc. is often not expressed, but implied in some word or in the general drift of the sentence:
     cónsulis alteríus nómen invísum cívitátí fuit: nimium Tarquiniós régnó adsuésse; initium á Príscó factum; régnásse dein Ser. Tullium, etc. (Liv. 2.2) , the name of the other consul was hateful to the state; the Tarquins (they thought) had become too much accustomed to royal power, etc. [Here invísum implies a thought, and this thought is added in the form of Indirect Discourse.]
     órantés ut urbibus saltem--iam enim agrós déplórátós esse-- opem senátus ferret ( id. 41.6), praying that the senate would at least bring aid to the cities--for the fields [they said] were already given up as lost.

The verb negó, deny, is commonly used in preference to dícó with a negative:
     [ Stóicí] negant quidquam [ esse] bonum nisi quod honestum sit (Fin. 2.68) , the Stoics assert that nothing is good but what is right.

Verbs of promising, hoping, expecting, threatening, swearing, and the like, regularly take the construction of Indirect Discourse, contrary to the English idiom:
     minátur sésé abíre (Pl. Asin. 604) , he threatens to go away. [Direct: abeó, I am going away.]
     spérant sé maximum frúctum esse captúrós (Lael. 79) , they hope to gain the utmost advantage. [Direct: capiémus.]
     spérat sé absolútum írí (Sull. 21) , he hopes that he shall be acquitted. [Direct: absolvar.]
     quem inimícissimum futúrum esse prómittó ac spondeó; ( Mur. 90), who I promise and warrant will be the bitterest of enemies. [Direct: erit.]
     dolor fortitúdinem sé débilitátúrum minátur (Tusc. 5.76) , pain threatens to wear down fortitude. [Direct: débilitábó.]
     cónfídó mé quod velim facile á té impetrátúrum (Fam. 11.16.1) , I trust I shall easily obtain from you what I wish. [Direct: quod voló, impetrábó.]

NOTE.--These verbs, however, often take a simple Complementary Infinitive (Sect: 456) So regularly in early Latin (except spéró):
     pollicentur obsidés dare (B. G. 4.21) , they promise to give hostages.
     prómísí dólium víní dare (Pl. Cist. 542) , I promised to give a jar of wine.

Some verbs and expressions may be used either as verbs of saying, or as verbs of commanding, effecting, and the like. These take as their object either an Infinitive with subject accusative or a Substantive clause of Purpose or Result, according to the sense.

1. Infinitive with Subject Accusative (Indirect Discourse): --
     laudem sapientiae statuó esse maximam (Fam. 5.13) , I hold that the glory of wisdom is the greatest. [Indirect Discourse.]
     rés ipsa monébat tempus esse (Att. 10.8.1) , the thing itself warned that it was time. [Cf. monére ut, warn to do something.]
     fac mihi esse persuásum (N. D. 1.75) , suppose that I am persuaded of that. [Cf. facere ut, bring it about that.]
     hóc volunt persuádére, nón interíre animás (B. G. 6.14) , they wish to convince that souls do not perish.

2. Subjunctive (Substantive Clause of Purpose or Result):
     statuunt ut decem mília hominum mittantur (B. G. 7.21) , they resolve that 10,000 men shall be sent. [Purpose clause (cf. Sect: 563).]
     huic persuádet utí ad hostís tránseat ( id. 3.18), he persuades him to pass over to the enemy.
     Pompeiius suís praedíxerat ut Caesaris impetum exciperent (B. C. 3.92) , Pompey had instructed his men beforehand to await Caesar's attack.
     dénúntiávit ut essent animó parátí; ( id. 3.86), he bade them be alert and steadfast (ready in spirit).

NOTE.--The infinitive with subject accusative in this construction is Indirect Discourse, and is to be distinguished from the simple infinitive sometimes found with these verbs instead of a subjunctive clause (Sect: 563. d).

SECTION: #581. The Subject Accusative of the Infinitive is regularly expressed in Indirect Discourse, even if it is wanting in the direct:
     órátor sum, I am an orator; dícit sé esse órátórem, he says he is an orator.

NOTE 1.--But the subject is often omitted if easily understood:
     ígnóscere imprúdentiae díxit (B. G. 4.27) , he said he pardoned their rashness.
     eadem ab aliís quaerit: reperit esse véra ( id. 1.18), he inquires about these same things from others; he finds that they are true.

NOTE 2.--After a relative, or quam (than), if the verb would be the same as that of the main clause, it is usually omitted, and its subject is attracted into the accusative:
     té suspicor eísdem rébus quibus mé ipsum commovérí; (Cat. M. 1), I suspect that you are disturbed by the same things as I.
     cónfídó tamen haec quoque tibi nón minus gráta quam ipsós librós futúra (Plin. Ep. 3.5.20) , I trust that these facts too will be no less pleasing to you than the books themselves.

NOTE 3.--In poetry, by a Greek idiom, a Predicate Noun or Adjective in the indirect discourse sometimes agrees with the subject of the main verb:
     vir bonus et sapiéns ait esse parátus (Hor. Ep. 1.7.22) , a good and wise man says he is prepared, etc. [In prose: ait sé esse parátum.]
     sénsit mediós délápsus in hostís (Aen. 2.377) , he found himself fallen among the foe. [In prose: sé esse délápsum.]

SECTION: #582. When the verb of saying etc. is passive, the construction may be either Personal or Impersonal. But the Personal construction is more common and is regularly used in the tenses of incomplete action:
     beáté víxisse videor (Lael. 15) , I seem to have lived happily.
     Epamínóndás fidibus praecláré cecinisse dícitur (Tusc. 1.4) , Epaminondas is said to have played excellently on the lyre.
     multí idem factúrí esse dícuntur (Fam. 16.12.4) , many are said to be about to do the same thing. [Active: dícunt multós factúrós ( esse).]
     prímí tráduntur arte quádam verba vínxisse (Or. 40) , they first are related to have joined words with a certain skill.
     Bibulus audiébátur esse in Syriá; ( Att. 5.18), it was heard that Bibulus was in Syria ( Bibulus was heard, etc.). [Direct: Bibulus est.]
     céterae Illyricí legiónés secútúrae spérábantur (Tac. H. 2.74) , the rest of the legions of Illyricum were expected to follow.
     vidémur enim quiétúrí fuisse, nisi essémus lacessítí (De Or. 2.230) , it seems that we should have kept quiet, if we had not been molested (we seem, etc.). [Direct: quiéssémus ... nisi essémus lacessítí.]

NOTE.--The poets and later writers extend the personal use of the passive to verbs which are not properly verba sentiendí etc.: as,-- colligor dominae placuisse (Ov. Am. 2.6.61), it is gathered [from this memorial] that I pleased my mistress.

In the compound tenses of verbs of saying etc., the impersonal construction is more common, and with the gerundive is regular:
     tráditum est etiam Homérum caecum fuisse (Tusc. 5.114) , it is a tradition, too, that Homer was blind.
     ubi tyrannus est, ibi nón vitiósam, sed dícendum est pláné núllam esse rem públicam (Rep. 3.43) , where there is a tyrant, it must be said, not that the commonwealth is evil, but that it does not exist at all.

NOTE.--An indirect narrative begun in the personal construction may be continued with the Infinitive and Accusative (as De Or. 2.299; Liv. 5.41.9).

1 Such are: (1) knowing, sció, cógnóscó, compertum habeó, etc.; (2) thinking, putó, exístimó, arbitror, etc.; (3) telling, dícó, núntió, referó, polliceor, prómittó, certiórem fació, etc.; (4) perceiving, sentió, comperió, videó, audió, etc. So in general any word that denotes thought or mental and visual perception or their expression may govern the Indirect Discourse.

2 Compare the Greek aorist infinitive after similar verbs.

Declaratory Sentences in Indirect Discourse

SECTION: #583. A Subordinate Clause merely explanatory, or containing statements which are regarded as true independently of the quotation, takes the Indicative:
     quis neget haec omnia quae vidémus deórum potestáte administrárí; ( Cat. 3.21), who can deny that all these things we see are ruled by the power of the gods?
     cúius ingenió putábat ea quae gesserat posse celebrárí; ( Arch. 20), by whose genius he thought that those deeds which he had done could be celebrated. [Here the fact expressed by quae gesserat, though not explanatory, is felt to be true without regard to the quotation: quae gessisset would mean, what Marius claimed to have done.]

NOTE.--Such a clause in the indicative is not regarded as a part of the Indirect Discourse; but it often depends merely upon the feeling of the writer whether he shall use the Indicative or the Subjunctive (cf. Sect: 591-593).

A subordinate clause in Indirect Discourse occasionally takes the Indicative when the fact is emphasized:
     factum eiius hostis perículum ... cum, Cimbrís et Teutonís ... pulsís, nón minórem laudem exercitus quam ipse imperátor meritus vidébátur (B. G. 1.40) , that a trial of this enemy had been made when, on the defeat of the Cimbri and Teutoni, the army seemed to have deserved no less credit than the commander himself.

Clauses introduced by a relative which is equivalent to a demonstrative with a conjunction are not properly subordinate, and hence take the Accusative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse (see Sect: 308. f):
     Márcellus requísísse dícitur Archimédem illum, quem cum audísset interfectum permolesté tulisse (Verr. 4.131) , Marcellus is said to have sought for Archimedes, and when he heard that he was slain, to have been greatly distressed. [ quem= et eum.]
     cénsent únum quemque nostrum mundí esse partem, ex quó [= et ex eó] illud nátúrá cónsequí (Fin. 3.64) , they say that each one of us is a part of the universe, from which this naturally follows.

NOTE.--Really subordinate clauses occasionally take the accusative and infinitive. as,-- quem ad modum sí nón dédátur obses pró ruptó foedus sé habitúrum, síc déditam inviolátam ad suós remissúrum (Liv. 2.13) , [he says] as in case the hostage is not given up he shall consider the treaty as broken, so if given up he will return her unharmed to her friends.

The infinitive construction is regularly continued after a comparative with quam:
     addit sé prius occísum írí ab eó quam mé violátum írí (Att. 2.20.2) , he adds that he himself will be killed by him, before I shall be injured.
     nónne adfírmáví quidvís mé potius perpessúrum quam ex I taliá exitúrum (Fam. 2.16.3) , did I not assert that I would endure anything rather than leave Italy?

NOTE.--The subjunctive with or without ut also occurs with quam (see Sect: 535. c).

Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse

SECTION: #584. The Present, the Perfect, or the Future Infinitiveis used in Indirect Discourse, according as the time indicated is present, past, or future with reference to the verb of saying etc. by which the Indirect Discourse is introduced:
     cadó, I am falling.
     dícit sé cadere, he says he is falling.
     díxit sé cadere, he said he was falling.
     cadébam, I was falling; cecidí, I fell, have fallen; cecideram, I had fallen.
     dícit sé cecidisse, he says he was falling, fell, has fallen, had fallen.
     díxit sé cecidisse, he said he fell, had fallen.
     cadam, I shall fall.
     dícit sé cásúrum [ esse], he says he shall fall.
     díxit sé cásúrum [ esse], he said he should fall.
     cecideró, I shall have fallen.
     dícit fore ut ceciderit [rare], he says he shall have fallen.
     díxit fore ut cecidisset [rare], he said he should have fallen.

All varieties of past time are usually expressed in Indirect Discourse by the Perfect Infinitive, which may stand for the Imperfect, the Perfect, or the Pluperfect Indicative of the Direct.

NOTE.--Continued or repeated action in past time is sometimes expressed by the Present Infinitive, which in such cases stands for the Imperfect Indicative of the Direct Discourse and is often called the Imperfect Infinitive.

This is the regular construction after meminí when referring to a matter of actual experience or observation: as,-- té meminí haec dícere, I remember your saying this (that you said this). [Direct: díxistí or dícébás.]

The present infinitive posse often has a future sense:
     totíus Galliae sésé potírí posse spérant (B. G. 1.3) , they hope that they shall be able to get possession of all Gaul.

1 For various ways of expressing the Future Infinitive, see Sect: 164. 3. c.

Tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse

SECTION: #585. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse follow the rule for the Sequence of Tenses (Sect: 482). They depend for their sequence on the verb of saying etc. by which the Indirect Discourse is introduced.

Thus in the sentence, díxit sé Rómam itúrum ut cónsulem vidéret, he said he should go to Rome in order that he might see the consul, vidéret follows the sequence of díxit without regard to the Future Infinitive, itúrum [ esse], on which it directly depends.

NOTE.--This rule applies to the subjunctive in subordinate clauses, to that which stands for the imperative etc. (see examples, Sect: 588), and to that in questions (Sect: 586).

A subjunctive depending on a Perfect Infinitive is often in the Imperfect or Pluperfect, even if the verb of saying etc. is in a primary tense (cf. Sect: 485. j); so regularly when these tenses would have been used in Direct Discourse:
     Tarquinium díxisse ferunt tum exsulantem sé intelléxisse quós fídós amícós habuisset (Lael. 53) , they tell us that Tarquin said that then in his exile he had found out what faithful friends he had had. [Here the main verb of saying, ferunt, is primary, but the time is carried back by díxisse and intelléxisse, and the sequence then becomes secondary.]
     tantum prófécisse vidémur ut á Graecís né verbórum quidem cópiá vincerémur (N. D. 1.8) , we seem to have advanced so far that even in abundance of words we ARE not surpassed by the Greeks.

NOTE 1.--The proper sequence may be seen, in each case, by turning the Perfect Infinitive into that tense of the Indicative which it represents. Thus, if it stands for an imperfect or an historical perfect, the sequence will be secondary; if it stands for a perfect definite, the sequence may be either primary or secondary (Sect: 485. a).

NOTE 2.--The so-called imperfect infinitive after meminí (Sect: 584. a. N.) takes the secondary sequence: as,-- ad mé adíre quósdam meminí, quí dícerent (Fam. 3.10.6) , I remember that some persons visited me, to tell me, etc.

The Present and Perfect Subjunctive are often used in dependent clauses of the Indirect Discourse even when the verb of saying etc. is in a secondary tense:
     dícébant ... totidem Nerviós ( pollicérí) quí longissimé absint (B. G. 2.4) , they said that the Nervii, who live farthest off, promised as many.

NOTE.--This construction comes from the tendency of language to refer all time in narration to the time of the speaker ( repraesentátió). In the course of a long pas sage in the Indirect Discourse the tenses of the subjunctive often vary, sometimes following the sequence, and sometimes affected by repraesentátió. Examples may be seen in B. G. 1.13, 7.20, etc.

Certain constructions are never affected by repraesentátió. Such are the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive with cum temporal, antequam, and priusquam.

Questions in Indirect Discourse

SECTION: #586. A Question in Indirect Discourse may be either in the Subjunctive or in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative.

A real question, asking for an answer, is generally put in the Subjunctive; a rhetorical question, asked for effect and implying its own answer, is put in the Infinitive:
     quid sibi vellet? cúr in suás possessiónés veníret (B. G. 1.44) , what did he want? why did he come into his territories? [Real question. Direct: quid vís? cúr venís?]
     num recentium iniúriárum memoriam [ sé] dépónere posse ( id. 1.14), could he lay aside the memory of recent wrongs? [Rhetorical Question. Direct: num possum?]
     quem sígnum datúrum fugientibus? quem ausúrum Alexandró succédere (Q. C. 3.5.7) , who will give the signal on the retreat? who will dare succeed Alexander? [Rhetorical. Direct: quis dabit ... audébit.]

NOTE 1.--No sharp line can be drawn between the Subjunctive and the Infinitive in questions in the Indirect Discourse. Whether the question is to be regarded as rhetorical or real often depends merely on the writer's point of view:
     utrum partem régní petítúrum esse, an tótum éreptúrum (Liv. 45.19.15) , will you ask part of the regal power (he said), or seize the whole?
     quid tandem praetórí faciendum fuisse ( id. 31.48), what, pray, ought a praetor to have done?
     quid repente factum [ esse] cúr, etc. ( id. 34.54), what had suddenly happened, that, etc.?

NOTE 2.--Questions coming immediately after a verb of asking are treated as Indirect Questions and take the Subjunctive (see Sect: 574). This is true even when the verb of asking serves also to introduce a passage in the Indirect Discourse. The question may be either real or rhetorical. See quaesívit, etc. ( Liv. 37.15).

For the use of tenses, see Sect: 585.

SECTION: #587. A Deliberative Subjunctive (Sect: 444) in the Direct Discourse is always retained in the Indirect:
     cúr aliquós ex suís ámitteret (B. C. 1.72) , why (thought he) should he lose some of his men? [Direct: cúr ámittam?]

Commands in Indirect Discourse

SECTION: #588. All Imperative forms of speech take the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse:
     reminíscerétur veteris incommodí; ( B. G. 1.13), remember (said he) the ancient disaster. [Direct: reminíscere.]
     fínem faciat ( id. 1.20), let him make an end. [Direct: fac.]
     ferrent opem, adiuvárent (Liv. 2.6) , let them bring aid, let them help.

This rule applies not only to the Imperative of the direct discourse, but to the Hortatory and the Optative Subjunctive as well.

NOTE 1.--Though these subjunctives stand for independent clauses of the direct discourse, they follow the rule for the sequence of tenses, being in fact dependent on the verb of saying etc. (cf. Sect: 483, 585).

NOTE 2.--A Prohibition in the Indirect Discourse is regularly expressed by né with the present or imperfect subjunctive, even when nólí with the infinitive would be used in the Direct: as,-- né perturbárentur (B. G. 7.29) , do not (he said) be troubled. [Direct: nólíte perturbárí. But sometimes nóllet is found in Indirect Discourse.]

Conditions in Indirect Discourse

SECTION: #589. Conditional sentences in Indirect Discourse are expressed as follows:

1. The Protasis, being a subordinate clause, is always in the Subjunctive.

2. The Apodosis, if independent and not hortatory or optative, is always in some form of the Infinitive.

The Present Subjunctive in the apodosis of less vivid future conditions (Sect: 516. b) becomes the Future Infinitive like the Future Indicative in the apodosis of more vivid future conditions.

Thus there is no distinction between more and less vivid future conditions in the Indirect Discourse.

Examples of Conditional Sentences in Indirect Discourse are:/p>

1. Simple Present Condition (Sect: 515):
     ( díxit) sí ipse populó Rómánó nón praescríberet quem ad modum suó iúre úterétur, nón oportére sésé á populó Rómánó in suó iúre impedírí (B. G. 1.36) , he said that if he did not dictate to the Roman people how they should use their rights, he ought not to be interfered with by the Roman people in the exercise of his rights. [Direct: sí nón praescríbó ... nón oportet.]
     praedicávit ... sí páce útí velint, iníquum esse, etc. ( id. 1.44), he asserted that if they wished to enjoy peace, it was unfair, etc. [Direct: sí volunt ... est. Present tense kept by repraesentátió (Sect: 585. b. N.).]

2. Simple Past Condition (Sect: 515):
     nón dícam né illud quidem, sí maximé in culpá fuerit Apollónius, tamen in hominem honestissimae cívitátis honestissimum tam graviter animadvertí, causá indictá, nón oportuisse (Verr. 5.20) , I will not say this either, that, even if Apollonius was very greatly in fault, still an honorable man from an honorable state ought not to have been punished so severely without having his case heard. [Direct: sí fuit ... nón oportuit.]

3. Future Conditions (Sect: 516):
     ( díxit) quod sí praetereá némó sequátur, tamen sé cum sólá decimá legióne itúrum (B. G. 1.40) , but if nobody else should follow, still he would go with the tenth legion alone. [Direct: sí sequétur ... íbó. Present tense by repraesentátió (Sect: 585. b. N.).]
     Haeduís sé obsidés redditúrum nón esse, neque eís ... bellum illátúrum, sí in eó manérent, quod convénisset, stipendiumque quotannís penderent: sí id nón fécissent, longé eís fráternum nómen populí Rómání áfutúrum ( id. 1.36), he said that he would not give up the hostages to the Haedui, but would not make war upon them if they observed the agreement which had been made, and paid tribute yearly; but that, if they should not do this, the name of brothers to the Roman people would be far from aiding them. [Direct: reddam ... ínferam ... sí manébunt ... pendent: sí nón fécerint ... aberit. Datamés ut audívit, sénsit, sí in turbam exísset ab homine tam necessárió sé relictum, futúrum [ esse] ut céterí cónsilium sequantur (Nep. Dat. 6), when Datames heard this, he saw that, if it should get abroad that he had been abandoned by a man so closely connected with him, everybody else would follow his example. [Direct: sí exierit ... sequentur.
     ( putávérunt) nisi mé cívitáte expulissent, obtinére sé nón posse licentiam cupiditátum suárum (Att. 10.4) , they thought that unless they drove me out of the state, they could not have free play for their desires. [Direct: nisi ( Cicerónem) expulerimus, obtinére nón poterimus.]

In changing a Condition contrary to fact (Sect: 517) into the Indirect Discourse, the following points require notice:

1. The Protasis always remains unchanged in tense.

2. The Apodosis, if active, takes a peculiar infinitive form, made by combining the Participle in - rus with fuisse.

3. If the verb of the Apodosis is passive or has no supine stem, the periphrasis futúrum fuisse ut (with the Imperfect Subjunctive) must be used.

4. An Indicative in the Apodosis becomes a Perfect Infinitive.

Examples are:
     nec sé superstitem fíliae futúrum fuisse, nisi spem ulcíscendae mortis eiius in auxilió commílitónum habuisset (Liv. 3.50.7) , and that he should not now be a survivor, etc., unless he had had hope, etc. [Direct: nón superstes essem, nisi habuissem.]
     illud Asia cógitet, núllam á sé neque bellí externí neque discordiárum domesticárum calamitátem áfutúram fuisse, sí hóc imperió nón tenérétur (Q. Fr. 1.1.34) , let Asia (personified) think of this, that no disaster, etc., would not be hers, if she were not held by this government. [Direct: abesset, sí nón tenérer.]
     quid inimícitiárum créditis [ mé] exceptúrum fuisse, sí ínsontís lacessíssem (Q. C. 6.10.18) , what enmities do you think I should have incurred, if I had wantonly assailed the innocent? [ excépissem ... sí lacessíssem.]
     invítum sé dícere, nec dictúrum fuisse, ní cáritás reí públicae vinceret (Liv. 2.2) , that he spoke unwillingly and should not have spoken, did not love for the state prevail. [Direct: nec díxissem ... ní vinceret.]
     nisi eó tempore quídam núntií dé Caesaris victóriá ... essent allátí, exístimábant pléríque futúrum fuisse utí [ oppidum] ámitterétur (B. C. 3.101) , most people thought that unless at that time reports of Caesar's victory had been brought, the town would have been lost. [Direct: nisi essent allátí ... ámissum esset.]
     quórum sí aetás potuisset esse longinquior, futúrum fuisse ut omnibus perfectís artibus hominum víta érudírétur (Tusc. 3.69) , if life could have been longer, human existence would have been embellished by every art in its perfection. [Direct: sí potuisset ... érudíta esset.]
     at pléríque exístimant, sí ácrius ínsequí voluisset, bellum eó dié potuisse fíníre (B. C. 3.51) , but most people think that, if he had chosen to follow up the pursuit more vigorously, he could have ended the war on that day. [Direct: sí voluisset ... potuit.]
     Caesar respondit ... sí alicúius iniúriae sibi cónscius fuisset, nón fuisse difficile cavére (B. G. 1.14) , Caesar replied that if [the Roman people] had been aware of any wrong act, it would not have been hard for them to take precautions. [Direct: sí fuisset, nón difficile fuit (Sect: 517. c).]

NOTE 1.--In Indirect Discourse Present Conditions contrary to fact are not distinguished in the apodosis from Past Conditions contrary to fact, but the protasis may keep them distinct.

NOTE 2.--The periphrasis futúrum fuisse ut is sometimes used from choice when there is no necessity for resorting to it, but not in Caesar or Cicero.

NOTE 3.--Very rarely the Future Infinitive is used in the Indirect Discourse to express the Apodosis of a Present Condition contrary to fact. Only four or five examples of this use occur in classic authors: as,-- Titurius clámábat sí Caesar adesset neque Carnutés, etc., neque Eburónés tantá cum contemptióne nostra ad castra ventúrós esse (B. G. 5.29) , Titurius cried out that if Caesar were present, neither would the Carnutes, etc., nor would the Eburones be coming to our camp with such contempt, [Direct: sí adesset ... venírent.]

SECTION: #590. The following example illustrates some of the foregoing principles in a connected address:


Sí pácem populus Rómánus cum Helvétiís faceret, in eam partem itúrós atque ibi futúrós Helvétiós, ubi eós Caesar cónstituisset atque esse voluisset: sín belló persequí persevéráret, reminíscerétur et veteris incommodí populí Rómání, et prístinae virtútis Helvétiórum. Quod impróvísó únum págum adortus esset, cum eí quí flúmen tránsíssent suís auxilium ferre nón possent, né ob eam rem aut suae mágnó opere virtútí tribueret, aut ipsós déspiceret: sé ita á patribus máióribusque suís didicisse, ut magis virtúte quam doló contenderent, aut ínsidiís níterentur. Quá ré né committeret, ut is locus ubi cónstitissent ex calamitáte populí Rómání et internecióne exercitús nómen caperet, aut memoriam próderet. -- B. G. 1.13. Sí pácem populus Rómánus cum Helvétiís faciet, in eam partem íbunt atque ibi erunt Helvétií, ubi eós tú cónstitueris atque esse volueris: sín belló persequí persevérábis, reminíscere [ inquit] et veteris incommodí populí Rómání, et prístinae virtútis Helvétiórum. Quod impróvísó únum págum adortus es, cum eí quí flúmen tránsierant suís auxilium ferre nón possent, né ob eam rem aut tuae mágnó opere virtútí tribueris, aut nós déspexeris: nós ita á patribus máióribusque nostrís didicimus, ut magis virtúte quam doló contendámus, aut ínsidiís nítámur. Quá ré nólí committere, ut híc locus ubi cónstitimus ex calamitáte populí Rómání et internecióne exercitús nómen capiat, aut memoriam pródat.


SECTION: #591. A Subordinate clause takes the Subjunctive:/p>

1. When it expresses the thought of some other person than the speaker or writer (Informal Indirect Discourse), or

2. When it is an integral part of a Subjunctive clause or equivalent Infinitive (Attraction).

1 See note on Indirect Discourse (Sect: 577).

Informal Indirect Discourse

SECTION: #592. A Subordinate Clause takes the Subjunctive when it expresses the thought of some other person than the writer or speaker:

1. When the clause depends upon another containing a wish, a command, or a question, expressed indirectly, though not strictly in the form of Indirect Discourse:
     animal sentit quid sit quod deceat (Off. 1.14) , an animal feels what it is that is fit.
     huic imperat quás possit adeat cívitátés (B. G. 4.21) , he orders him to visit what states he can.
     hunc sibi ex animó scrúpulum, quí sé diés noctísque stimulat ac pungit, ut évellátis postulat (Rosc. Am. 6) , he begs you to pluck from his heart this doubt that goads and stings him day and night. [Here the relative clause is not a part of the Purpose expressed in évellátis, but is an assertion made by the subject of postulat.]

2. When the main clause of a quotation is merged in the verb of saying, or some modifier of it:
     sí quid dé hís rébus dícere vellet, fécí potestátem (Cat. 3.11) , if he wished to say anything about these matters, I gave him a chance.
     tulit dé caede quae in Appiá viá facta esset (Mil. 15) , he passed a law concerning the murder which (in the language of the bill) took place in the Appian Way.
     nisi restituissent statuás, vehementer minátur (Verr. 2.162) , he threatens them violently unless they should restore the statues. [Here the main clause, "that he will inflict punishment" is contained in minátur.]
     iís auxilium suum pollicitus sí ab Suébís premerentur (B. G. 4.19) , he promised them his aid if they should be molested by the Suevi. [= pollicitus sé auxilium látúrum, etc.]
     prohibitió tollendí, nisi pactus esset, vim adhibébat pactióní; ( Verr. 3.37), the forbidding to take away unless he came to terms gave force to the bargain.

3. When a reason or an explanatory fact is introduced by a relative or by quod (rarely quia) (see Sect: 540):
     Paetus omnís librós quós fráter suus relíquisset mihi dónávit (Att. 2.1.12) , P"tus presented to me all the books which (he said) his brother had left.

NOTE.--Under this head even what the speaker himself thought under other circumstances may have the Subjunctive. So also with quod even the verb of saying may be in the Subjunctive (Sect: 540. N.2). Here belong also nón quia, nón quod, introducing a reason expressly to deny it. (See Sect: 540. N.3.)

ISubjunctive of Integral Part (Attraction)

SECTION: #593. A clause depending upon a Subjunctive clause or an equivalent Infinitive will itself take the Subjunctive if regarded as an integral part of that clause:
     imperat, dum rés iúdicétur, hominem adservent: cum iúdicáta sit, ad sé ut addúcant (Verr. 3.55) , he orders them, till the affair should be decided, to keep the man; when it is judged, to bring him to him.
     etenim quis tam dissolútó animó est, quí haec cum videat, tacére ac neglegere possit (Rosc. Am. 32) , for who is so reckless of spirit that, when he sees these things, he can keep silent and pass them by ?
     mós est Athénís laudárí in cóntióne eós quí sint in proeliís interfectí; (Or. 151), it is the custom at Athens for those to be publicly eulogized who have been slain in battle. [Here laudárí is equivalent to ut laudentur.]

But a dependent clause may be closely connected grammatically with a Subjunctive or Infinitive clause, and still take the Indicative, if it is not regarded as a necessary logical part of that clause:
     quódam modó postulat ut, quem ad modum est, síc etiam appellétur, tyrannus (Att. 10.4.2) , in a manner he demands that as he is, so he may be called, a tyrant.
     nátúra fert ut eís faveámus quí eadem perícula quibus nós perfúnctí sumus ingrediuntur (Mur. 4) , nature prompts us to feel friendly towards those who are entering on the same dangers which we have passed through.
     né hostés, quod tantum multitúdine poterant, suós circumveníre possent (B. G. 2.8) , lest the enemy, because they were so strong in numbers, should be able to surround his men.
     sí mea in té essent officia sólum tanta quanta magis á té ipsó praedicárí quam á mé ponderárí solent, verécundius á té ... peterem (Fam. 2.6) , if my good services to you were only so great as they are wont rather to be called by you than to be estimated by me, I should, etc.

NOTE 1.--The use of the Indicative in such clauses sometimes serves to emphasize the fact, as true independently of the statement contained in the subjunctive or infinitive clause. But in many cases no such distinction is perceptible.

NOTE 2.--It is often difficult to distinguish between Informal Indirect Discourse and the Integral Part. Thus in imperávit ut ea fierent quae opus essent, essent may stand for sunt, and then will be Indirect Discourse, being a part of the thought, but not a part of the order; or it may stand for erunt, and then will be Integral Part, being a part of the order itself. The difficulty of making the distinction in such cases is evidence of the close relationship between these two constructions.


SECTION: #594.

1. A noun used to describe another, and denoting the same person or thing, agrees with it in Case (Sect: 282).

2. Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Participles agree with their nouns in Gender, Number, and Case (Sect: 286).

3. Superlatives (more rarely Comparatives) denoting order and succession--also medius, ( céterus), reliquus--usually designate not what object, but what part of it, is meant (Sect: 293).

4. The Personal Pronouns have two forms for the genitive plural, that in -um being used partitively, and that in - í oftenest objectively (Sect: 295. b).

5. The Reflexive Pronoun ( sé), and usually the corresponding possessive ( suus), are used in the predicate to refer to the subject of the sentence or clause (Sect: 299).

6. To express Possession and similar ideas the Possessive Pronouns must be used, not the genitive of the personal or reflexive pronouns (Sect: 302. a).

7. A Possessive Pronoun or an Adjective implying possession may take an appositive in the genitive case agreeing in gender, number, and case with an implied noun or pronoun (Sect: 302. e).

8. A Relative Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in Gender and Number, but its Case depends on its construction in the clause in which it stands (Sect: 305).

9. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Person (Sect: 316).

10. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs (Sect: 321).

11. A Question of simple fact, requiring the answer yes or no, is formed by adding the enclicic - ne to the emphatic word (Sect: 332).

12. When the enclitic - ne is added to a negative word,--as in nónne,-- an affirmative answer is expected. The particle num suggests a negative answer (Sect: 332. b).

13. The Subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative (Sect: 339).

14. The Vocative is the case of direct address (Sect: 340).

15. A noun used to limit or define another, and not meaning the same person or thing, is put in the Genitive (Sect: 342).

16. The Possessive Genitive denotes the person or thing to which an object, quality, feeling, or action belongs (Sect: 343).

17. The genitive may denote the Substance or Material of which a thing consists (Sect: 344).

18. The genitive is used to denote Quality, but only when the quality is modified by an adjective (Sect: 345).

19. Words denoting a part are followed by the Genitive of the whole to which the part belongs (Partitive Genitive, Sect: 346).

20. Nouns of action, agency, and feeling govern the Genitive of the object (Objective Genitive, Sect: 348).

21. Adjectives denoting desire, knowledge, memory, fulness, power, sharing, guilt, and their opposites; participles in -ns when used as adjectives; and verbals in -áx, govern the Genitive (Sect: 349. a, b, c).

22. Verbs of remembering and forgetting take either the Accusative or the Genitive of the object (Sect: 350).

23. Verbs of reminding take with the Accusative of the person a Genitive of the thing (Sect: 351).

24. Verbs of accusing, condemning, and acquitting take the Genitive of the charge or penalty (Sect: 352).

25. The Dative is used of the object indirectly affected by an action (Indirect Object, Sect: 361).

26. Many verbs signifying to favor, help, please, trust, and their contraries; also, to believe, persuade, command, obey, serve, resist, envy, threaten, pardon, and spare, take the Dative (Sect: 367).

27. Many verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pró, sub, super, and some with circum, admit the Dative of the indirect object (Sect: 370).

28. The Dative is used with esse and similar words to denote Possession (Sect: 373).

29. The Dative of the Agent is used with the Gerundive, to denote the person on whom the necessity rests (Sect: 374).

30. The Dative often depends, not on any particular word, but on the general meaning of the sentence (Dative of Reference, Sect: 376).

31. Many verbs of taking away and the like take the Dative (especially of a person) instead of the Ablative of Separation ( Sect: 381).

32. The Dative is used to denote the Purpose or End, often with another Dative of the person or thing affected (Sect: 382).

33. The Dative is used with adjectives (and a few adverbs) of fitness, nearness, likeness, service, inclination, and their opposites (Sect: 384).

34. The Direct Object of a transitive verb is put in the Accusative (Sect: 387).

35. An intransitive verb often takes the Accusative of a noun of kindred meaning, usually modified by an adjective or in some other manner (Cognate Accusative, Sect: 390).

36. Verbs of naming, choosing, appointing, making, esteeming, showing, and the like, may take a Predicate Accusative along with the direct object (Sect: 393).

37. Transitive verbs compounded with prepositions sometimes take (in addition to the direct object) a Secondary Object, originally governed by the preposition (Sect: 394).

38. Some verbs of asking and teaching may take two Accusatives, one of the Person, and the other of the Thing (Sect: 396).

39. The subject of an Infinitive is in the Accusative (Sect: 397. e).

40. Duration of Time and Extent of Space are expressed by the Accusative (Sect: 424. c, 425).

41. Words signifying separation or privation are followed by the Ablative (Ablative of Separation, Sect: 400).

42. The Ablative, usually with a preposition, is used to denote the source from which anything is derived or the material of which it consists (Sect: 403).

43. The Ablative, with or without a preposition, is used to express cause (Sect: 404).

44. The Voluntary Agent after a passive verb is expressed by the Ablative with á or ab (Sect: 405).

45. The Comparative degree is often followed by the Ablative signifying than ( 406).

46. The Comparative may be followed by quam, than. When quam is used, the two things compared are put in the same case (Sect: 407).

47. The Ablative is used to denote the means or instrument of an action (Sect: 409).

48. The deponents, útor, fruor, fungor, potior, and vescor, with several of their compounds, govern the Ablative (Sect: 410).

49. Opus and úsus, signifying need, are followed by the Ablative (Sect: 411).

50. The manner of an action is denoted by the Ablative, usually with cum unless a limiting adjective is used with the noun (Sect: 412).

51. Accompaniment is denoted by the Ablative, regularly with cum (Sect: 413).

52. With Comparatives and words implying comparison the Ablative is used to denote the degree of difference (Sect: 414).

53. The quality of a thing is denoted by the Ablative with an adjective or genitive Modifier (Sect: 415).

54. The price of a thing is put in the Ablative (Sect: 416).

55. The Ablative of Specification denotes that in respect to which anything is or is done (Sect: 418).

56. The adjectives dígnus and indígnus take the Ablative (Sect: 418. b).

57. A noun or pronoun, with a participle in agreement, may be put in the Ablative to define the time or circumstances of an action (Ablative Absolute, Sect: 419).
     An adjective, or a second noun, may take the place of the participle in the ablative absolute construction (Sect: 419. a).

58. Time when, or within which, is denoted by the Ablative; time how long by the Accusative (Sect: 423).

59. Relations of Place are expressed as follows:
     1. The place from which, by the Ablative with ab, dé, ex.
     2. The place to which (or end of motion), by the Accusative with ad or in.
     3. The place where, by the Ablative with in (Locative Ablative). (Sect: 426.)

60. With names of towns and small islands, and with domus and rús, the relations of place are expressed as follows:
     1. The place from which, by the Ablative without a preposition.
     2. The place to which, by the Accusative without a preposition.
     3. The place where, by the Locative. (Sect: 427.)

61. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used in the present tense to express an exhortation, a command, or a concession. (Sect: 439, 440).

62. The Optative Subjunctive is used to express a wish. The present tense denotes the wish as possible, the imperfect as unaccomplished in present time, the pluperfect as unaccomplished in past time (Sect: 441).

63. The Subjunctive is used in questions implying (1) doubt, indignation, or (2) an impossibility of the thing's being done (Deliberative Subjunctive, Sect: 444).

64. The Potential Subjunctive is used to suggest an action as possible or conceivable (Sect: 446).

65. The Imperative is used in commands and entreaties (Sect: 448).

66. Prohibition is regularly expressed in classic prose (1) by nólí with the Infinitive, (2) by cavé with the Present Subjunctive, (3) by né with the Perfect Subjunctive ( Sect: 450).

67. The Infinitive, with or without a subject accusative, may be used with est and similar verbs (1) as the Subject, (2) in Apposition with the subject, or (3) as a Predicate Nominative (Sect: 452).

68. Verbs which imply another action of the same subject to complete their meaning take the Infinitive without a subject accusative (Complementary Infinitive, Sect: 456).

69. The Infinitive, with subject accusative, is used with verbs and other expressions of knowing, thinking, telling, and perceiving (Indirect Discourse, see Sect: 459).

70. The Infinitive is often used for the Imperfect Indicative in narration, and takes a subject in the Nominative (Historical Infinitive, Sect: 463).

71. SEQUENCE OF TENSES. In complex sentences, a primary tense in the main clause is followed by the Present or Perfect Subjunctive in the dependent clause; a secondary tense by the Imperfect or Pluperfect (Sect: 483).

72. Participles denote time as present, past, or future with respect to the time of the verb in their clause (Sect: 489).

73. The Gerund and the Gerundive are used, in the oblique cases, in many of the constructions of nouns (Sect: 501-507).

74. The Supine in -um is used after verbs of motion to express Purpose (Sect: 509).

75. The Supine in -ú is used with a few adjectives and with the nouns fás, nefás, and opus, to denote Specification ( 510).

76. Dum, modo, dummodo, and tantum ut, introducing a Proviso, take the Subjunctive (Sect: 528).

77. Final clauses take the Subjunctive introduced by ut ( utí), negative né ( ut né), or by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb (Sect: 531).

78. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive is often used to indicate a characteristic of the antecedent, especially where the antecedent is otherwise undefined (Sect: 535).

79. Dígnus, indígnus, aptus, and idóneus, take a Subjunctive clause with a relative (rarely with ut) (Sect: 535. f).

80. Clauses of Result take the Subjunctive introduced by ut, so that (negative, ut nón), or by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb (Sect: 537).

81. The Causal Particles quod, quia, and quoniam take the Indicative when the reason is given on the authority of the writer or speaker; the Subjunctive when the reason is given on the authority of another (Sect: 540).

82. The particles postquam (posteáquam), ubi, ut ( ut prímum, ut semel), simul atque ( simul ac, or simul alone) take the Indicative (usually in the perfect or the historical present) ( 543).

83. A Temporal clause with cum, when, and some past tense of the Indicative dates or defines the time at which the action of the main verb occurred (Sect: 545).

84. A Temporal clause with cum and the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive describes the circumstances that accompanied or preceded the action of the main verb (Sect: 546).

85. Cum Causal or Concessive takes the Subjunctive (Sect: 549).
     For other concessive particles, see Sect: 527.

86. In Indirect Discourse the main clause of a Declaratory Sentence is put in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. All subordinate clauses take the Subjunctive (Sect: 580).

87. The Present, the Perfect, or the Future Infinitive is used in Indirect Discourse, according as the time indicated is present, past, or future with reference to the verb of saying etc. by which the Indirect Discourse is introduced (Sect: 584).

88. In Indirect Discourse a real question is generally put in the Subjunctive; a rhetorical question in the Infinitive (Sect: 586).

89. All Imperative forms of speech take the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse (Sect: 588).

90. A Subordinate clause takes the Subjunctive when it expresses the thought of some other person than the writer or speaker (Informal Indirect Discourse, Sect: 592).

91. A clause depending on a Subjunctive clause or an equivalent Infinitive will itself take the Subjunctive if regarded as an integral part of that clause (Attraction, Sect: 593).
     For Prepositions and their cases, see Sect: 220, 221.
     For Conditional Sentences, see Sect: 512 ff. (Scheme in Sect: 514.)
     For ways of expressing Purpose, see Sect: 533.

1 The subjunctive in this use is of the same nature as the subjunctive in the main clause. A dependent clause in a clause of purpose is really a part of the purpose, as is seen from the use of should and other auxiliaries in English. In a result clause this is less clear, but the result construction is a branch of the characteristic (Sect: 534), to which category the dependent clause in this case evidently belongs when it takes the subjunctive.


SECTION: #595. Latin differs from English in having more freedom in the arrangement of words for the purpose of showing the relative importance of the ideas in a sentence.

SECTION: #596. As in other languages, the Subject tends to stand first, the Predicate last. Thus,--
     Pausániás Lacedaemonius mágnus homó sed varius in omní genere vítae fuit (Nep. Paus. 1) , Pausanias the Laced"monian was a great man, but inconsistent in the whole course of his life.

NOTE.--This happens because, from the speaker's ordinary point of view, the subject of his discourse is the most important thing in it, as singled out from all other things to be spoken of.

There is in Latin, however, a special tendency to place the verb itself last of all, after all its modifiers. But many writers purposely avoid the monotony of this arrangement by putting the verb last but one, followed by some single word of the predicate.

SECTION: #597. In connected discourse the word most prominent in the speaker's mind comes first, and so on in order of prominence.

This relative prominence corresponds to that indicated in English by a graduated stress of voice (usually called emphasis).

The difference in emphasis expressed by difference in order of words is illustrated in the following passages:
     apud Xenophóntem autem moriéns Cyrus máior haec dícit (Cat. M. 79) , IN XENOPHON too, on his death-bed Cyrus the elder utters these words.
     Cyrus quidem haec moriéns; nós, sí placet, nostra videámus ( id. 82), CYRUS, to be sure, utters these words on his death-bed; let US, if you please, consider our own case.
     Cyrus quidem apud Xenophóntem eó sermóne, quem moriéns habuit ( id. 30), CYRUS, to be sure, in Xenophon, in that speech which he uttered on his death-bed.

NOTE.--This stress or emphasis, however, in English does not necessarily show any violent contrast to the rest of the words in the sentence, but is infinitely varied, constantly increasing and diminishing, and often so subtle as to be unnoticed except in careful study. So, as a general rule, the precedence of words in a Latin sentence is not mechanical, but corresponds to the prominence which a good speaker would mark by skilfully managed stress of voice. A Latin written sentence, therefore, has all the clearness and expression which could be given to a spoken discourse by the best actor in English. Some exceptions to the rule will be treated later.

The first chapter of Caesar's Gallic War, if rendered so as to bring out as far as possible the shades of emphasis, would run thus:

GAUL,in the widest sense, is divided into three parts,which are inhabited(as follows): oneby the Belgians, anotherby the Aquitani, the third by a people called in their ownlanguage Celts, in ours Gauls. THESE in their language,institutions, and laws are all of them 10 different. The GAULS 11 (proper) are separated 12 from the Aquitani by the river Garonne, from the Belgians by the Marne and Seine. Of THESE 13 (TRIBES) the bravest of all 14 are the Belgians, for the reason that they live farthest 15 awayfrom the CIVILIZATION and REFINEMENT of the Province, and because they are LEAST 16 of all of them subject to the visits of traders, 17 and to the (consequent) importation of such things as 18 tend to soften 19 their warlike spirit; and are also nearest 20 to the Germans, who live across the Rhine, 21 and with whom they are incessantly 22 at war. For the same reason the HELVETIANS, as well, are superior to all the other Gauls in valor, because they are engaged in almost daily battles with the Germans, either defending their own boundaries from them, or themselves making war on those of the Germans. Of ALL THIS country, one part--the one which, as has been said, the Gauls (proper) occupy--BEGINS at the river Rhone. Its boundaries are the river Garonne, the ocean, and the confines of the Belgians. It even REACHES on the side of the Sequani and Helvetians the river Rhine. Its general direction is towards the north. The BELGIANS begin at the extreme limits of Gaul; they reach (on this side) as far as the lower part of the Rhine. They spread to the northward and eastward. AQUITANIA extends from the Garonne to the Pyrenees, and that part of the ocean that lies towards Spain. It runs off westward and northward. Gallia est omnis dívísa in partís trís, quárum únam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquítání, tertiam quí ipsórum linguá Celtae, nostrá Gallí appellantur. Hí omnés linguá, ínstitútís, légibus inter sé differunt. Gallós ab Aquítánís Garumna flúmen, á Belgís Mátrona et Séquana dívidit. Hórum omnium fortissimí sunt Belgae, proptereá quod á cultú atque húmánitáte próvinciae longissimé absunt, miniméque ad eós mercátórés saepe commeant atque ea quae ad efféminandós animós pertinent important, proximíque sunt Germánís, quí tráns Rhénum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Quá dé causá Helvétií quoque reliquós Gallós virtúte praecédunt, quod feré cotídiánís proeliís cum Germánís contendunt, cum aut suís fínibus eós prohibent, aut ipsí in eórum fínibus bellum gerunt. Eórum úna pars, quam Gallós obtinére dictum est, initium capit á flúmine Rhodanó; continétur Garumná flúmine, Oceanó, fínibus Belgárum; attingit etiam ab Séquanís et Helvétiís flúmen Rhénum; vergit ad septentriónés. Belgae ab extrémís Galliae fínibus oriuntur: pertinent ad ínferiórem partem flúminis Rhéní; spectant in septentriónem et orientem sólem. Aquítánia á Garumná flúmine ad Pyrénaeós montís et eam partem Oceaní quae est ad Hispániam pertinet; spectat inter occásum sólis et septentriónés.

The more important word is never placed last for emphasis. The apparent cases of this usage (when the emphasis is not misconceived) are cases where a word is added as an afterthought, either real or affected, and so has its position not in the sentence to which it is appended, but, as it were, in a new one.


SECTION: #598. The main rules for the .Order of Words are as follows:

In any phrase the determining and most significant word comes first:

1. Adjective and Noun:
     omnís hominés decet, EVERY man ought (opposed to some who do not).
     Lúcius Catilína nóbilí genere nátus fuit, mágná ví et animí et corporis, sed ingenió maló právóque ( Sall. Cat. 5), Lucius Catiline was born of a NOBLE family, with GREAT force of mind and body, but with a NATURE that was evil and depraved. [Here the adjectives in the first part are the emphatic and important words, no antithesis between the nouns being as yet thought of; but in the second branch the noun is meant to be opposed to those before mentioned, and immediately takes the prominent place, as is seen by the natural English emphasis, thus making a chiasmus. 23 ]

2. Word with modifying case:
     quid magis Epamínóndam, Thébánórum imperátórem, quam victóriae Thébánórum cónsulere decuit (Inv. 1.69) , what should Epaminondas, commander of the THEBANS, have aimed at more than the VICTORY of the Thebans?
     lacrimá nihil citius áréscit ( id. 1.109), nothing dries quicker than a TEAR.
     némó feré laudis cupidus (De Or. 1.14) , hardly any one desirous of GLORY (cf. Manil. 7, avidí laudis, EAGER for glory).

Numeral adjectives, adjectives of quantity, demonstrative, relative, and interrogative pronouns and adverbs, tend to precede the word or words to which they belong:
     cum aliquá perturbátióne (Off. 1.137) , with SOME disturbance.
     hóc únó praestámus (De Or. 1.32) , in THIS one thing we excel.
     céterae feré artés, the OTHER arts.

NOTE.--This happens because such words are usually emphatic; but often the words connected with them are more so, and in such cases the pronouns etc. yield the emphatic place:
     causa aliqua (De Or. 1.250) , some CASE.
     stilus ille tuus ( id. 1.257), that well-known STYLE of yours (in an antithesis; see passage). [ Ille is idiomatic in this sense and position.]
     Rómam quae apportáta sunt (Verr. 4.121) , what were carried to ROME (in contrast to what remained at Syracuse).

When sum is used as the Substantive verb (Sect: 284. b), it regularly stands first, or at any rate before its subject:
     est virí mágní púníre sontis (Off. 1.82) , it is the duty of a great man to punish the guilty.

The verb may come first, or have a prominent position, either (1) because the idea in it is emphatic; or (2) because the predication of the whole statement is emphatic; or (3) the tense only may be emphatic:
     (1) dícébat idem Cotta (Off. 2.59), Cotta used to SAY the same thing (opposed to others' boasting).
     idem fécit aduléscéns M. Antónius ( id. 2.49), the same thing was DONE by Mark Antony in his youth. [Opposed to díxí just before.]
     facis amícé; (Lael. 9), you ACT kindly. [Cf. amícé facis, you are very KIND (you act KINDLY).]
     (2) própénsior benígnitás esse débébit in calamitósós nisi forte erunt dígní calamitáte (Off. 2.62) , liberality ought to be readier toward the unfortunate unless perchance they REALLY DESERVE their misfortune.
     praesertim cum scríbat ( Panaetius) ( id. 3.8), especially when he DOES SAY (in his books). [Opposed to something omitted by him.]
     (3) fuimus Tróes, fuit Ilium (Aen. 2.325) , we have CEASED to be Trojans, Troy is now no MORE.
     loquor autem dé commúnibus amícitiís (Off. 3.45) , but I am SPEAKING NOW of common friendships.

Often the connection of two emphatic phrases is brought about by giving the precedence to the most prominent part of each and leaving the less prominent parts to follow in inconspicuous places:
     plúrés solent esse causae (Off. 1.28) , there are USUALLY SEVERAL reasons.
     quós ámísimus cívís, eós Mártis vís perculit (Marc. 17) , WHAT fellow-citizens we have LOST, have been stricken down by the violence of war.
     maximás tibi omnés grátiás agimus ( id. 33), we ALL render you the WARMEST thanks.
     haec rés úníus est propria Caesaris ( id. 11), THIS exploit belongs to C sar ALONE.
     obiúrgátiónés etiam nón numquam incidunt necessáriae (Off. 1.136) , OCCASIONS FOR REBUKE also SOMETIMES occur which are unavoidable.

Antithesis between two pairs of ideas is indicated by placing the pairs either (1) in the same order (anaphora) or (2) in exactly the opposite order (chiasmus):
     (1) rérum cópia verbórum cópiam gignit (De Or. 3.125) , ABUNDANCE of MATTER produces COPIOUSNESS of EXPRESSION.
     (2) légés supplició improbós afficiunt, défendunt ac tuentur bonós (Legg. 2.13) , the laws VISIT PUNISHMENTS upon the WICKED, but the GOOD they DEFEND and PROTECT.

NOTE.--Chiasmus is very common in Latin, and often seems in fact the more inartificial construction. In an artless narrative one might hear, "The women were all drowned, they saved the men."
     nón igitur útilitátem amícitia sed útilitás amícitiam cónsecúta est (Lael. 51) , it is not then that friendship has followed upon advantage, but advantage upon friendship. [Here the chiasmus is only grammatical, the ideas being in the parallel order.] (See also p. 395: longissimé, minimé, proximí.)

A modifier of a phrase or some part of it is often embodied within the phrase (cf. a):
     dé commúní hominum memoriá; (Tusc. 1.59), in regard to the UNIVERSAL memory of man.

A favorite order with the poets is the interlocked, by which the attribute of one pair comes between the parts of the other (synchysis):
     et superiectó pavidae natárunt aequore dammae (Hor. Od. 1.2.11) .

NOTE.--This is often joined with chiasmus: as,-- arma nóndum expiátís úncta cruóribus ( id. 2.1.5).

Frequently unimportant words follow in the train of more emphatic ones with which they are grammatically connected, and so acquire a prominence out of proportion to their importance:
     dictitábat sé hortulós aliquós emere velle (Off. 3.58) , he gave out that he wanted to buy some gardens. [Here aliquós is less emphatic than emere, but precedes it on account of the emphasis on hortulós.]

The copula is generally felt to be of so little importance that it may come in anywhere where it sounds well; but usually under cover of more emphatic words:
     cónsul ego quaesíví, cum vós mihi essétis in cónsilió; ( Rep. 3.28), as consul I held an investigation in which you attended me in council.
     falsum est id tótum ( id. 2.28), that is all false.

Many expressions have acquired an invariable order:
     rés pública; populus Rómánus; honóris causá; páce tantí virí.

NOTE.--These had, no doubt, originally an emphasis which required such an arrangement, but in the course of time have changed their shade of meaning. Thus, senátus populusque Rómánus originally stated with emphasis the official bodies, but became fixed so as to be the only permissible form of expression.

The Romans had a fondness for emphasizing persons, so that a name or a pronoun often stands in an emphatic place:
     [ díxit] vénálís quidem sé hortós nón habére (Off. 3.58) , [said] that he did n't have any gardens for sale, to be sure.

Kindred words often come together ( figúra etymologica):
     ita sénsim sine sénsú aetás senéscit (Cat. M. 38) , thus gradually, without being perceived, man's life grows old.

.Special Rules of .Arrangement

SECTION: #599. The following are special rules of arrangement:

The negative precedes the word it especially affects; but if it belongs to no one word in particular, it generally precedes the verb; if it is especially emphatic, it begins the sentence. (See example, 598. f. N.)

Itaque regularly comes first in its sentence or clause; enim, autem, véró, quoque, never first, but usually second, sometimes third if the second word is emphatic; quidem never first, but after the emphatic word; igitur usually second; né ... quidem include the emphatic word or words.

Inquam, inquit, are always used parenthetically, following one or more words. So often crédó, opínor, and in poetry sometimes precor.

(1) Prepositions (except tenus and versus) regularly precede their nouns; (2) but a monosyllabic preposition is often placed between a noun and its adjective or limiting genitive:
     quem ad modum; quam ob rem; mágnó cum metú; omnibus cum cópiís; núllá in ré; (cf. Sect: 598. i).

In the arrangement of clauses, the Relative clause more often comes first in Latin, and usually contains the antecedent noun:
     quós ámísimus cívís, eós Mártis vís perculit (Marc. 17) , those citizens whom we have lost, etc.

Personal or demonstrative pronouns tend to stand together in the sentence:
     cum vós mihi essétis in cónsilió; ( Rep. 3.28), when you attended me in counsel.

Structure of the Period

SECTION: #600. Latin, unlike modern languages, expresses the relation of words to each other by inflection rather than by position. Hence its structure not only admits of great variety in the arrangement of words, but is especially favorable to that form of sentence which is called a Period. In a period, the sense is expressed by the sentence as a whole, and is held in suspense till the delivery of the last word.

An English sentence does not often exhibit this form of structure. It was imitated, sometimes with great skill and beauty, by many of the earlier writers of English prose; but its effect is better seen in poetry, as in the following passage:
     High on a throne of royal state, which far
     Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind,
     Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand
     Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold,
     Satan exalted sat.--Paradise Lost, ii. 1-5.

But in argument or narrative, the best English writers more commonly give short clear sentences, each distinct from the rest, and saying one thing by itself. In Latin, on the contrary, the story or argument is viewed as a whole; and the logical relation among all its parts is carefully indicated.

SECTION: #601. In the structure of the Period, the following rules are to be observed:

In general the main subject or object is put in the main clause, not in a subordinate one:
     Hannibal cum recénsuisset auxilia Gádés profectus est (Liv. 21.21) , when Hannibal had reviewed the auxiliaries, he set out for Cadiz.
     Volscí exiguam spem in armís, aliá undique abscissá, cum tentássent, praeter cétera adversa, locó quoque iníquó ad púgnam congressí, iníquióre ad fugam, cum ab omní parte caederentur, ad precés á certámine versí déditó imperátóre tráditísque armís, sub iugum missí, cum singulís vestímentís, ígnóminiae cládisque pléní dímittuntur (Liv. 4.10) . [Here the main fact is the return of the Volscians. But the striking circumstances of the surrender etc., which in English would be detailed in a number of brief independent sentences, are put into the several subordinate clauses within the main clause so that the passage gives a complete picture in one sentence.]

Clauses are usually arranged in the order of prominence in the mind of the speaker; so, usually, cause before result; purpose, manner, and the like, before the act.

In coordinate clauses, the copulative conjunctions are frequently omitted (asyndeton). In such cases the connection is made clear by some antithesis indicated by the position of words.

A change of subject, when required, is marked by the introduction of a pronoun, if the new subject has already been mentioned. But such change is often purposely avoided by a change in structure,--the less important being merged in the more important by the aid of participles or of subordinate phrases:
     quem ut barbarí incendium effúgisse vídérunt, télís éminus missís interfécérunt (Nep. Alc. 10) , when the barbarians saw that he had escaped, THEY threw darts at HIM at long range and killed HIM.
     celeriter cónfectó negótió, in híberna legiónés redúxit (B. G. 6.3) , the matter was soon finished, AND he led the legions, etc.

So the repetition of a noun, or the substitution of a pronoun for it, is avoided unless a different case is required:
     dolórem sí nón potueró frangere occultábó; ( Phil. 12.21), if I cannot conquer the pain, I will hide IT. [Cf. if I cannot conquer I will hide the pain.]

The Romans were careful to close a period with an agreeable succession of long and short syllables. Thus,--
     quod scís nihil pródest, quod nescís multum obest (Or. 166) , what you know is of no use, what you do not know does great harm.

NOTE.--In rhetorical writing, particularly in oratory, the Romans, influenced by their study of the Greek orators, gave more attention to this matter than in other forms of composition. Quintilian (ix. 4.72) lays down the general rule that a clause should not open with the beginning of a verse or close with the end of one.


SECTION: #602. The poetry of the Indo-European people seems originally to have been somewhat like our own, depending on accent for its metre and disregarding the natural quantity of syllables. The Greeks, however, developed a form of poetry which, like music, pays close attention to the natural quantity of syllables; and the Romans borrowed their metrical forms in classical times from the Greeks. Hence Latin poetry does not depend, like ours, upon accent and rhyme; but is measured, like musical strains, by the length of syllables. Especially does it differ from our verse in not regarding the prose accent of the words, but substituting for that an entirely different system of metrical accent or ictus (see Sect: 611. a). This depends upon the character of the measure used, falling at regular intervals of time on a long syllable or its equivalent. Each syllable is counted as either long or short in Quantity; and a long syllable is generally reckoned equal in length to two short ones (for exceptions, see Sect: 608. c- e).

The quantity of radical (or stem) syllables--as of short a in péater or of long a in máter--can be learned only by observation and practice, unless determined by the general rules of quantity. Most of these rules are only arbitrary formulas devised to assist the memory; the syllables being long or short because the ancients pronounced them so. The actual practice of the Romans in regard to the quantity of syllables is ascertained chiefly from the usage of the poets; but the ancient grammarians give some assistance, and in some inscriptions long vowels are distinguished in various ways,-- by the apex, for instance, or by doubling (Sect: 10. e. N.).

Since Roman poets borrow very largely from the poetry and mythology of the Greeks, numerous Greek words, especially proper names, make an important part of Latin poetry. These words are generally employed in accordance with the Greek, and not the Latin, laws of quantity. Where these laws vary in any important point, the variations will be noticed in the rules below.


SECTION: #603. The following are General Rules of Quantity (cf. Sect: 9-11):

1 GAUL: emphatic as the subject of discourse, as with a title or the like.

2 Divided: opposed to the false conception (implied in the use of omnis) that the country called Gallia by the Romans is one. This appears more clearly from the fact that Caesar later speaks of the Gallí in a narrower sense as distinct from the other two tribes, who with them inhabit Gallia in the wider sense.

3 Parts: continuing the emphasis begun in dívísa. Not three parts as opposed to any other number, but into parts at all.

4 Inhabited: emphatic as the next subject, "The inhabitants of these parts are, etc.

5 One: given more prominence than it otherwise would have on accountof its close connection with quárum.

6 Another, etc.: opposed to one.

7 Their own, ours: strongly opposed to each other.

8 THESE (tribes): the main subject of discourse again, collecting under one head the names previously mentioned.

9 Language, etc.: these are the most prominent ideas, as giving the striking points which distinguish the tribes. The emphasis becomes natural in English if we say "these have a different language, different institutions, different laws.

10 All of them: the emphasis on all marks the distributive character of the adjective, as if it were úevery one has its own, etc.

11 GAULS: emphatic as referring to the Gauls proper in distinction from the other tribes.

12 Separated: though this word contains an indispensable idea in the connection, yet it has a subordinate position. It is not emphatic in Latin, as is seen from the fact that it cannot be made emphatic in English. The sense is: The Gauls lie between the Aquitani on the one side, and the Belgians on the other.

13 Of THESE: the subject of discourse.

14 All: emphasizing the superlative idea in "bravest; they, as Gauls, are assumed to be warlike, but the most so of all of them are the Belgians.

15 Farthest away: one might expect absunt (are away) to have a more emphatic place, but it is dwarfed in importance by the predominance of the main idea, the effeminating influences from which the Belgians are said to be free. It is not that they live farthest off that is insisted on, but that the civilization of the Province etc., which would soften them, comes less in their way. It is to be noticed also that absunt has already been anticipated by the construction of cultú and still more by longissimé, so that when it comes it amounts only to a formal part of the sentence. Thus,--"because the civilization etc. of the Province (which would soften them) is farthest from them.

16 LEAST: made emphatic here by a common Latin order, the chiasmus (Sect: 598. f).

17 Traders: the fourth member of the chiasmus, opposed to cultú and húmánitáte.

18 Such things as: the importance of the nature of the importations overshadows the fact that they are imported, which fact is anticipated in traders.

19 Soften: cf. what is said in note 15, p. 394. They are brave because they have less to soften them, their native barbarity being taken for granted.

20 Nearest: the same idiomatic prominence as in noteabove, but varied by a special usage combining chiasmus and anaphora (Sect: 598. f).

21 Across the Rhine: i.e. and so are perfect savages.

22 Incessantly: the continuance of the warfare becomes the all-important idea, as if it were "and not a day passes in which they are not at war with them.

23 So called from the Greek letter ch (chi), on account of the criss-cross arrangement of the words. Thus, a b


SECTION: #604. The Quantity of Final Syllables is as follows:

Monosyllables ending in a vowel are long: as, mé, tú, hí, né.

1. The attached particles -ne, -que, -ve, -ce, -pte, and re- (ré d-) are short; sé- (séd-) and dé - are long. Thus, sécédit, séditió, exercitumqueredúcit, dímittó. But re- is often long in réligió ( relligió), rétulí ( rettulí), répulí ( reppulí).

Nouns and adjectives of one syllable are long: as, sól, ós ( óris), bós, pár, vás ( vásis), vér, vé s.

Exceptions.--cor, fel, lac, mel, os ( ossis), vas (védis), vir, tot, quot.

Most monosyllabic Particles are short: as, in, in, cis, nec. But crás, cúr, én, nón, quín, sín--with adverbs in c: as, híc, húc, síc--are long.

Final a in words declined by cases is short, except in the ablative sin gular of the first declension; in all other words final a is long. Thus, eéa stelléa (nominative), cum eá stellá (ablative); frústrá, vocá (imperative), posteá, trígintá.

Exceptions.--eiA, ita, quiia, put&put; a (suppose); and, in late use, triginta etc.

Final e is short: as in núbe, dúcite, saepé .

Exceptions.--Final e is long--1. In adverbs formed from adjectives of the first and second declension, with others of like form: as, alté, longé, miseré, aperté, saepissimé. So feré, fermé.

But it is short in bene, male; ínferne, superne.

2. In nouns of the fifth declension: as, fidé (also famé), facié, hodié, quáré ( quá ré).

3. In Greek neuters plural of the second declension: as, cété; and in some other Greek words: Phoebé, Circ é, Andromaché, etc.

4. In the imperative singular of the second conjugation: as, vidé.

But sometimes cave, habe, tace, vale, vide(cf. Sect: 629. b. 1).

Final i is long: as in turrí, fílí, audé .

Exceptions.--Final i is common in mihi, tibi, sibi, ibi, ubi; and short in nisi, quasi, sícuti, cui (when making two syllables), and in Greek vocatives: as, Alexi.

Final o is common: but long in datives and ablatives; also in nouns of the third declension. It is almost invariably long in verbs before the time of Ovid.

Exceptions.- -cito, modo (dummod ), immo, profecto, ego, duo, cedo(the imperative); so sometimes octo, ílico, etc., particularly in later writers.

Final u is long. Final y is short

Final as, es, os, are long; final is, as, ys, are short: as, nefás, rúpés, serv ós (accusative), honós; hostis, amícus, Tethys.

Exceptions.--1. as is short in Greek plural accusatives: as, lampadéas; and in anéas.

2. es is short in the nominative of nouns of the third declension (lingual) having a short vowel in the stem: as, míles (-é tis), obses (- dis),--except abiés,ariés, pariés, pés; in the present of esse (es, adé s); in the preposition penes, and in the plural of Greek nouns: as, hé róes, lampades.

3. os is short in comps, imps; in the Greek nominative ending: as, barbits; in the old nominative of the second declension: as, servs (later servus).

4. is in plural cases is long: as in bonís, nóbís, vóbís, omnís (accusative plural).

5. is is long in the verb forms fís, sís, vís (with quívís etc.), velís, málís, nólís, edís; in the second person singular of the present indicative active in the fourth conjugation: as, audís; and sometimes in the forms in - eris (future perfect indicative or perfect subjunctive).

6. us is long in the genitive singular and nominative, accusative, and vocative plural of the fourth declension; and in nouns of the third declension having ú (long) in the stem: as, virtús (- útis), incús (- dis). But pecus, -udis.

Of other final syllables, those ending in a single consonant are short Thus, améat, amátur; dónec, féac, procul, iubé ar.

Exceptions.-- híc (also hé c); alléc; the ablatives illóc, etc.; certain adverbs in -c: as, illíc, istúc; lién, and some Greek nouns: as, áér, aethér, crátér.

1 The quantity of the stem-vowel may be seen in the genitive singular.

Perfects and Perfect Participles

SECTION: #605. Perfects and Perfect Participles of two syllables have the first syllable long: as, iúví, iútum (iuvó), vídí, vísum (videó); fúgí (fugió); véní (venió).

Exceptions.--bibí, dedé , fidí, scidí, stetí, stití, tulí; citum, déatum,é tum, litum, quitum, réatum, rutum, séatum, situm, stéatum. In some compounds of stó, státum is found (long), as praestátum.

In reduplicated perfects the vowel of the reduplication is short; the vowel of the following syllable is, also, usually short: as, cecidí (céadó), didicí ( discó), pupugé ( pungó), cucurré ( curró), tetendí ( tendó),mmrdé ( mordeó). But cecídí from caedó, pepédí from pédó.



SECTION: #606. Rules for the Quantity of Derivatives are:

Forms from the same stem have the same quantity: as, éa mó, éamávisté ; genus, generis.

Exceptions.--1. bós, lár, más, pár, pés, sál,--also arbós,--have a long vowel in the nominative, though the stem-vowel is short (cf. genitive bvis etc.).

2. Nouns in -or, genitive - óris, have the vowel shortened before the final r: as, honr. (But this shortening is comparatively late, so that in early Latin these nominatives are often found long.)

3. Verb-forms with vowel originally long regularly shorten it before final m, r, or t: as, amé m, amer, dícerer, amé t (compare amémus), díceré t, audit, fit.

NOTE.--The final syllable in t of the perfect was long in old Latin, but is short in the classic period.

4. A few long stem-syllables are shortened: as, ácer, éacerbus. So dé-ieró and pé-ieró, weakened from iúró.

Forms from the same root often show inherited variations of vowel quantity (see Sect: 17): as, dícó (cf. maledé cus); dúcó (dux, d cis); fídó (perfé dus) vóx, vócis (vcó); léx, légis (legó).

Compounds retain the quantity of the words which compose them as, oc-cidó (céadó), oc- cídó ( caedó), in-íquus ( aequus).

NOTE.-- Greek words compounded with pro have o short: as, prphé ta, prlgus. Some Latin compounds of pró have o short: as, pr ficíscor, prfiteor. Compounds with ne vary: as, nefás, negó, nequeó, néquam.


SECTION: #607. The essence of Rhythm in poetry is the regular recurrence of syllables pronounced with more stress than those intervening. To produce this effect in its perfection, precisely equal times should occur between the recurrences of the stress. But, in the application of rhythm to words, the exactness of these intervals is sacrificed somewhat to the necessary length of the words; and, on the other hand, the words are forced somewhat in their pronunciation, to produce more nearly the proper intervals of time. In different languages these adaptations take place in different degrees; one language disregarding more the intervals of time, another the pronunciation of the words.

The Greek language early developed a very strict rhythmical form of poetry, in which the intervals of time were all-important. The earliest Latin, on the other hand, --as in the Saturnian and Fescennine verse,--was not so restricted. But the purely metrical forms were afterwards adopted from the Greek, and supplanted the native forms of verse. Thus the Latin poetry with which we have to do follows for the most part Greek rules, which require the formal division of words (like music) into measures of equal times, technically called Feet. The strict rhythm was doubtless more closely followed in poetry that was sung than in that which was declaimed or intoned. In neither language, however, is the time perfectly preserved, even in single measures: and there are some cases in which the regularity of the time between the ictuses is disturbed.

The Greeks and Romans distinguished syllables of two kinds in regard to the time required for their pronunciation, a long syllable having twice the metrical value of a short one. But it must not be supposed that all long syllables were of equal length, or even that in a given passage each long had just twice the length of the contiguous shorts. The ratio was only approximate at best, though necessarily more exact in singing than in recitation. Nor are longs and shorts the only forms of syllables that are found. In some cases a long syllable was protracted, so as to have the time of three or even of four shorts, and often one long or two shorts were pronounced in less than their proper time, though they were perhaps distinguishable in time from one

short (see Sect: 608. c, d). Sometimes a syllable naturally short seems to have been slightly prolonged, so as to represent a long, though in most (not all) cases the apparent irregularity can be otherwise explained. In a few cases, also, a pause takes the place of one or more syllables to fill out the required length of the measure. This could, of course, take place only at the end of a word: hence the importance of Caesura and Diaeresis in prosody (Sect: 611. b, c).


SECTION: #608. Rhythm consists of the division of musical sound into equal intervals of time called Measures or Feet.

The most natural division of musical time is into measures consisting of either two or three equal parts. But the ancients also distinguished measures of five equal parts.

NOTE.--The divisions of musical time are marked by a stress of voice on one or the other part of the measure. This stress is called the Ictus (beat), or metrical accent (see Sect: 611. a).

The unit of length in Prosody is one short syllable. This is called a Mora. It is represented by the sign , or in musical notation by the eighth note or quaver

A long syllable is regularly equal to two morae, and is represented by the sign , or by the quarter note or crotchet

A long syllable may be protracted, so as to occupy the time of three or four morae. Such a syllable, if equal to three mor , is represented by the sign [Figure] (or dotted quarter [Figure] ); if equal to four, by [Figure] (or the half note or minim, [Figure] ).

A long syllable may be contracted, so as to take practically the time of a short one. Such a syllable is sometimes represented by the sign >.

A short syllable may be contracted so as to occupy less than one mora.

A pause sometimes occurs at the end of a verse or a series of verses, to fill up the time. A pause of one mora in a measure is indicated by the sign ^; one of two moraeby the sign [macrcirc].

One or more syllables are sometimes placed before the proper beginning of the measure. Such syllables are called an Anacrúsis or prelude.

The anacrusis is regularly equal to the unaccented part of the measure.

NOTE.--Narrative poetry was written for rhythmical recitation, or chant, with instrumental accompaniment; and Lyrical poetry for rhythmical melody, or singing. It must be borne in mind that in ancient music--which in this differs widely from modern--the rhythm of the melody was identical with the rhythm of the text. The lyric poetry was to be sung; the poet was musician and composer, as well as author. To this day a poet is said conventionally to "sing.

Thus a correct understanding of the rhythmical structure of the verse gives us the time, though not the tune, to which it was actually sung. The exact time, however, as indicated by the succession of long and short syllables, was varied according to certain laws of so-called "Rhythmic" as will be explained below. In reading ancient verse it is necessary to bear in mind not only the variations in the relative length of syllables, but the occasional pause necessary to fill out the measure; and to remember that the rhythmical accent is the only one of importance, though the words should be distinguished carefully, and the sense preserved. Poetry should not be scanned, but read metrically.

SECTION: #612. A single line of poetry--that is, a series of feet set in a recognized order--is called a Verse.

NOTE.--Most of the common verses originally consisted of two series (hemistichs), but the joint between them is often obscured. It is marked in Iambic and Trochaie Tetrameter by the Diaeresis, in Dactylic Hexameter by the Caesura.

A verse lacking a syllable at the end is called Catalectic, that is, having a pause to fill the measure; when the end syllable is not lacking, the verse is called Acatalectic, and has no such pause.

A final syllable, regularly short, is sometimes lengthened before a pause:it is then said to be long by Diastole:
     nostrórum obruimur,-- oriturque miserrima caedés.-- Aen. 2.411.

The last syllable of any verse may be indifferently long or short (syllaba anceps).

Scansion and Elision

To divide the verse into its appropriate measures, according to the rules of quantity and versification, is called scanning or scansion ( scánsió, a climbing or advance by steps, from scandó).

NOTE.--In reading verse rhythmically, care should be taken to preserve the measure or time of the syllables, but at the same time not to destroy or confuse the words themselves, as is often done m scanning.

In scanning, a vowel or diphthong at the end of a word (unless an interjection) is partially suppressed when the next word begins with a vowel or with h. This is called Elision (bruising).

In reading it is usual entirely to suppress elided syllables. Strictly, however, they should be sounded lightly.

In early Latin poetry a final syllable ending in s often loses this letter even before a consonant (cf. Sect: 15.7):
     senió cónfectus quiéscit.--Enn. (Cat. M. 14).

NOTE.--Elision is sometimes called by the Greek name Synal"pha (smearing). Rarely a syllable is elided at the end of a verse when the next verse begins with a vowel: this is called Synapheia (binding).

A final m, with the preceding vowel, is suppressed in like manner when the next word begins with a vowel or h: this is called Ecthlipsis (squeezing out):
     mónstrum horrendum, ínforme, ingéns, cui lúmen adémptum.
     -- Aen. 3.658.

NOTE 1.--Final m has a feeble nasal sound, so that its partial suppression before the initial vowel of the following word was easy.

NOTE 2.--The monosyllables dó, dem, spé, spem, sim, stó, stem, quí (plural), and monosyllabic interjections are never elided; nor is an iambic word elided in dactylic verse. Elision is often evaded by skilful collocation of words.

Elision is sometimes omitted when a word ending in a vowel has a special emphasis, or is succeeded by a pause. This omission is called Hiatus (gaping).

NOTE.--The final vowel is sometimes shortened in such cases.


1 The word Verse (versus) signifies a turning back, i.e. to begin again in like manner, as opposed to Prose (prorsus or próversus), which means straight ahead.

2 This usage is comparatively rare, most cases where it appears to be found being caused by the retention of an originally long quantity.

3 The practice of Elision is followed in Italian and French poetry, and is sometimes adopted in English, particularly in the older poets: T' inveigle and invite th' unwary sense.--Comus 538.

SECTION: #613. A verse receives its name from its dominant or fundamental foot: as, Dactylic, Iambic, Trochaic, Anap"stic; and from the number of measures (single or double) which it contains: as, Hexameter, Tetrameter, Trimeter, Dimeter.

NOTE.--Trochaic, Iambic, and Anapaestic verses are measured not by single feet, but by pairs (dipodia), so that six Iambi make a Trimeter.

SECTION: #614. A Stanza, or Strophe, consists of a definite number of verses ranged in a fixed order.

Many stanzas are named after some eminent poet: as, Sapphic (from Sappho), Alcaic (from Alcaeus), Archilochian (from Archilochus), Horatian (from Horace), and so on.


Dactylic Hexameter

SECTION: #615. The Dactylic Hexameter, or Heroic Verse, consists theoretically of six dactyls. It may be represented thus: [Figure]

NOTE.--The last foot is usually said to be a spondee, but is in reality a trochee standing for a dactyl, since the final syllable is not measured.

For any foot, except the fifth, a spondee may be substituted.

Rarely a spondee is found in the fifth foot; the verse is then called spondaic and usually ends with a word of four syllables.

Thus in Ecl. 4.49the verse ends with incrémentum.

The hexameter has regularly one principal c "sura--sometimes two-- almost always accompanied by a pause in the sense.

1. The principal caesura is usually after the thesis (less commonly in the arsis) of the third foot, dividing the verse into two parts in sense and rhythm. See examples in d.

2. It may also be after the thesis (less commonly in the arsis) of the fourth foot. In this case there is often another caesura in the second foot, so that the verse is divided into three parts: Aen. 5.277.

NOTE.--Often the only indication of the principal among a number of caesuras is the break in the sense.

A caesura occurring after the first syllable of a foot is called masculine. A caesura occurring after the second syllable of a foot is called feminine (as in the fifth foot of the third and fourth verses in d). A caesura may also be found in any foot of the verse, but a proper caesural pause could hardly occur in the first or sixth.

When the fourth foot ends a word, the break (properly a diaeresis) is sometimes improperly called bucolic caesura, from its frequency in pastoral poetry.

The first seven verses of the Aeneid, divided according to the foregoing rules, will appear as follows. The principal caesura in each verse is marked by double lines: Arma virumque cano .....etc.

1. The feminine caesura is seen in the following:

.-- Aen. 6.131.

NOTE.--The Hexameter is thus illustrated in English verse:
     Over the sea, past Crete, on the Syrian shore to the southward,
     Dwells in the well-tilled lowland a dark-haired thiop people,
     Skilful with needle and loom, and the arts of the dyer and carver,
     Skilful, but feeble of heart; for they know not the lords of Olympus,
     Lovers of men; neither broad-browed Zeus, nor Pallas Athenc,
     Teacher of wisdom to heroes, bestower of might in the battle;
     Share not the cunning of Hermes, nor list to the songs of Apollo,
     Fearing the stars of the sky, and the roll of the blue salt water.
     --Kingsley's Andromeda.

Dactylic Hexameter

SECTION: #616. The Elegiac Stanza consists of two verses,--a Hexameter followed by a Pentameter.

The Pentameter verse is the same as the Hexameter, except that it omits the last half of the third foot and of the sixth foot: [Figure]

The Pentameter verse is therefore to be scanned as two half-verses, the second of which always consists of two dactyls followed by a single syllable.

The Pentameter has no regular Caesura; but the first half-verse must always end with a word (di"resis, Sect: 611. c), which is followed by a pause to complete the measure.

The following verses will illustrate the forms of the Elegiac Stanza:
     cum subit | illí|us || trís|tissi méa | noctis i|mágó quá mn | supré|mum [macrcirc] || tempus in | urbefu|it, [macrcirc]
     cum repe|tó noc|tem || quá | tot mihi | cáréa ré |líquí, lábitur | ex cu|lís [macrcirc] || nunc quque| guttéa me|ís. [macrcirc]
     iam prpe| lúx éade|rat || quá | mé dis|cédere| Caesar fínibus | extré|mae [macrcirc] || iusseréat | Ausni|ae. [macrcirc]
     --Ov. Trist. 1.3.

NOTE.--The Elegiac Stanza differs widely in character from hexameter verse (of which it is a mere modification) by its division into Distichs, each of which must have its own sense complete. It is employed in a great variety of compositions,--epistolary, amatory, and mournful,--and was especially a favorite of the poet Ovid. It has been illustrated in English verse, imitated from the German:
     In the Hex|ameter | rises || the | fountain's | silvery | column;
     In the Pen|tameter | aye || falling in | melody | back.

1 Called pentameter by the old grammarians, who divided it, formally, into five feet (two dactyls or spondees, a spondee, and two anapaests), as follows: [ Figure]

2 The time of this pause, however, may be filled by the protraction of the preceding syllable: [Figure]

Other Dactylic Verses

SECTION: #617. Other dactylic verses or half-verses are occasionally used by the lyric poets.

The Dactylic Tetrameter alternates with the hexameter, forming the Alcmanian Strophe, as follows:
     Hor. Od. 1.7(so 28; Ep. 12).

The Dactylic Penthemim (five half-feet) consists of half a pentameter verse. It is used in combination with the Hexameter to form the First Archilochian Strophe:
     diffú|géreOd. 4.7.

For the Fourth Archilochian Strophe (Archilochian heptameter, alternating with iambic trimeter catalectic), see Sect: 626. 11.


Iambic Trimeter

SECTION: #618. The Iambic Trimeter is the ordinary verse of dramatic dialogue. It consists of three measures, each containing a double Iambus (iambic dipody). The caesura is usually in the third foot. [Figure]

NOTE.--The sign [gtbreve] [acutemacr] denotes possible substitution of an irrational spondee (>[acutemacr]) for an iambus ([acutemacr]).

The Iambic Trimeter is often used in lyric poetry (1) as an independent system, or (2) alternating with the Dimeter to form the Iambic Strophe, as follows: -Hor. Epod. 17.

The last two lines may be thus translated, to show the movement in English: -Hor. Epod. 2.

In the stricter form of Iambic Trimeter an irrational spondee (> [acutemacr]) or its equivalent (a cyclic anapaest [acutemacr] or an apparent dactyl > [acutebreve] Sect: 609. e) may be regularly substituted for the first iambus of any dipody A tribrach ( [acutebreve] ) may stand for an iambus anywhere except in the last place. In the comic poets any of these forms or the proceleusmatic ( [acutebreve] ) may be substituted in any foot except the last:

The Choliambic (lame Iambic) substitutes a trochee for the last iambus: [Figure]
     aequé -Catul. 23.15, 16.

NOTE.--The verse may also be regarded as trochaic with anacrusis: as,-- [Figure]

The Iambic Trimeter Catalectic is represented as follows: [Figure]

It is used in combination with other measures (see Sect: 626. 11), and is shown in the following: -Hor. Od. 1.4.

or in English:
     On purple peaks a deeper shade descending.-- Scott.

1 The greater freedom of substitution in the comedy is due to the fact that the verse is regarded as made up of separate feet rather than of dipodies.

Other Iambic Measures

SECTION: #619. Other forms of Iambic verse are the following:

The Iambic Tetrameter Catalectic ( Septénárius). This consists of seven and a half iambic feet, with diaeresis after the fourth and with the same substitutions as in Iambic Trimeter:
     nam Ter. And. 690, 691.

The metrical scheme of these two verses may be represented as follows: [Figure]

The Iambic Tetrameter Acatalectic ( Octónárius). This consists of right full iambic feet with the same substitutions as in Iambic Trimeter. Like the Septenarius it is used in lively dialogue: -Ter. Ph. 720, 721.

The Iambic Dimeter. This may be either acatalectic or catalectic.

1. The Iambic Dimeter Acatalectic consists of four iambic feet. It is used in combination with some longer verse (see Sect: 618. a).

2. The Iambic Dimeter Catalectic consists of three and a half iambic feet. It is used only in choruses: Sen. Med. 850-853.

NOTE.--Owing to the fact that in modern music each measure begins with a downward beat, some scholars regard all these forms of Iambic verse as Trochaic verse with anacrusis (Sect: 618. c. N.).


SECTION: #620. The most common form of Trochaic verse is the Tetrameter Catalectic ( Septénárius), consisting of four dipodies, the last of which lacks a syllable. There is regularly diaeresis after the fourth foot:

In musical notation: --Ter. And. 319.

In English verse:

Tcll me nt in mornful nmbers || lfe is bt an cmpty drem.
     -- Longfellow.

In the stricter form of the Septenarius substitutions are allowed only in the even feet, but in comedy the tribrach [acutebreve] , or an irrational spondee [acutemacr] >, cyclic dactyl [acutemacr] , or apparent anapaest [acutebreve] >, may be substituted for any of the first six feet; a tribrach for the seventh: -Pl. Am. 443-446.

The metrical scheme of these four verses is as follows: [Figure]

The Trochaic Tetrameter Acatalectic ( Octónárius), consisting of four complete dipodies, occurs in the lyrical parts of comedy.

Substitutions as in the Septenarius are allowed except in the last foot.

Some other forms of trochaic verse are found in the lyric poets, in eombination with other feet, either as whole lines or parts of lines: -Hor Od. 2.18.


SECTION: #621. Different measures may be combined in the same verse in two different ways. Either (1) a series of one kind is simply joined to a series of another kind (compare the changes of rhythm not uncommon in modern music); or (2) single feet of other measures are combined with the prevailing measures, in which case these odd feet are adapted by changing their quantity so that they become irrational (see Sect: 609.e).

When enough measures of one kind occur to form a series, we may suppose a change of rhythm; when they are isolated, we must suppose adaptation. Of the indefinite number of possible combinations but few are found in Latin poetry.

SECTION: #622. The following verses, combining different rhythmical series, are found in Latin lyrical poetry:

1. Greater Archilochian (Dactylic Tetrameter; Trochaic Tripody): Hor. Od. 1.4.

NOTE.--It is possible that the dactyls were cyclic; but the change of measure seems more probable.

2. Verse consisting of Dactylic Trimeter catalectic (Dactylic Penthemim); Iambic Dimeter:-Hor. Epod. 11.2.


SECTION: #623. Trochaic verses, containing in regular prescribed positions irrational measures or irrational feet (cf. Sect: 609. e), are called Logoaedic. The principal logoaedic forms are:/p>

1. Logoaedic Tetrapody (four feet): GLYCONIC.

2. Logoaedic Tripody (three feet): PHERECRATIC (often treated as a syncopated Tetrapody Catalectic).

3. Logoaedic Dipody (two feet): this may be regarded as a short Pherecratic.

NOTE.--This mixture of irrational measures gives an effect approaching that of prose: hence the name Logoaedic ( logos, aoid<). These measures originated in the Greek lyric poetry, and were adopted by the Romans. All the Roman lyric metres not belonging to the regular iambic, trochaic, dactylic, or Ionic systems, were constructed on the basis of the three forms given above: viz., Logoaedic systems consisting respectively of four, three, and two feet. The so-called Logoaedic Pentapody consists of five feet but is to be regarded as composed of two of the others.

SECTION: #624. Each logoaedic form contains a single dactyl,which may be either in the first, second, or third place. The verse may be catalectic or acatalectic:

Glyconic Pherecratic [Figure]

NOTE.--The shorter Pherecratic (dipody) ([acutemacr] | [acutemacr]), if catalectic, appears t<
    > be a simple Choriambus ( | ^); and, in general, the effect of the loga"di<
    > forms is Choriambic. In fact, they were so regarded by the later Greek and Latin metricians, and these metres have obtained the general name of Choriambic. But they are not true choriambic, though they may very likely have been felt to be such by the composer, who imitated the forms without much thought of their origin. They may be read (scanned), therefore, on that principle. But it is better to read them as logoaedic measures; and that course is followed here.

SECTION: #625. The verses constructed upon the several Logoaedic form or models are the following:

1. Glyconic (Second Glyconic, catalectic):-

NOTE.--In this and most of the succeeding forms the foot preceding the dactyl is always irrational in Horace, consisting of an irrational spondee (>).

2. Aristophanic (First Pherecratic): -Hor. Od. 1.8.

NOTE.--It is very likely that this was made equal in time to the preceding <
    > protracting the last two syllables:

3. Adonic (First Pherecratic, shortened): [Figure] --Hor.

4. Pherecratic (Second Pherecratic): --Hor.

5. Lesser Asclepiadic (Second Pherecratic with syncope and First Pherecratic catalectic): -Hor.

6. Greater Asclepiadic (the same as 5, with a syncopated Logoaedic Dipody interposed): --Hor.

7. Lesser Sapphic (Logoaedic Pentapody, with dactyl in the third place): Hor.

8. Greater Sapphic (Third Glyconic; First Pherecratic): Hor.

9. Lesser Alcaic (Logoaedic Tetrapody, two irrational dactyls, two trochees): -Hor.

10. Greater Alcaic (Logoaedic Pentapody, catalectic, with anacrusis, and dactyl in the third place,--compare Lesser Sapphic): -Hor.

NOTE.--Only the above logoaedic forms are employed by Horace.

11. Phalaecean (Logoaedic Pentapody, with dactyl in the second place): -Catull. xl.

12. Glyconic Pherecratic (Second Glyconic with syncope, and Second Pherecratic): -Catull. xvii.


SECTION: #626. The Odes of Horace include nineteen varieties of stanza. These are:

1. Alcaic, consisting of two Greater Alcaics (10), one Trochaic Dimeter with anacrusis, and one Lesser Alcaic (9): -Od. 3.3.

(Found in Odes. i. 9, 16, 17, 26, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37; ii. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20; iii. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 17, 21, 23, 26, 29; iv. 4, 9, 14, 15.)

NOTE.--The Alcaic Strophe is named after the Greek poet Alcaeus of Lesbos, and was a special favorite with Horace, of whose Odes thirty-seven are in this form. It is sometimes called the Horatian Stanza.

2. Sapphic (minor), consisting of three Lesser Sapphics (7) and one Adonic (3): -Od. 1.2.

(Found in Od. i. 2, 10, 12, 20, 22, 25, 30, 32, 38; ii. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16; iii. 8, 11, 141820, 22, 27; iv. 2, 6, 11; Carm. Saec.)

NOTE.--The Sapphic Stanza is named after the poetess Sappho of Lesbos, and was a great favorite with the ancients. It is used by Horace in twenty-five Odes-- more frequently than any other except the Alcaic.

3. Sapphic (major), consisting of one Aristophanic (2) and one Greater Sapphic (8): -Od. 1.8.

4. Asclepiadean I (minor), consisting of Lesser Asclepiadics (5): (Found in Od. i. 1; 3.30; 4.8.)

5. Asclepiadean II, consisting of one Glyconic (1) and one Lesser Asclepiadic (5): -Od. 1.3.
     (Found in Od. i. 3, 13, 19, 36; iii. 9, 15, 19, 24, 25, 28; iv. i, 3.)

6. Asclepiadean III, consisting of three Lesser Asclepiadics (5) and one Glyconic (1): -Od. 1.24.
     (Found in Od. i. 6, 15, 24, 33; 2.12; 3.10, 16; iv. 5, 12.)

7. Asclepiadean IV, consisting of two Lesser Asclepiadics (5), one Pherecratic (4), and one Glyconic (1): -Od. 3.13.
     (Found in Od. i. 5, 14, 21, 23; iii. 7, 13; 4.13.)

8. Asclepiadean V (major), consisting of Greater Asclepiadics (6): -Od. 1.11.
     (Found in Od. 1.11, 18; 4.10.)

9. Alcmanian, consisting of Dactylic Hexameter (Sect: 615) alternating with Tetrameter (Sect: 617. a). (Od. i. 7, 28; Epod. 12.)

10. Archilochian I, consisting of a Dactylic Hexameter alternating with a Dactylic Penthemim (see Sect: 617. b). (Od. 4.7.)

11. Archilochian IV, consisting of a Greater Archilochian (heptameter, Sect: 622. 1), followed by Iambic Trimeter Catalectic (Sect: 618. d). The stanza consists of two pairs of verses: Od. 1.4.

12. Iambic Trimeter alone (see Sect: 618). (Epod. 17.)

13. Iambic Strophe (see Sect: 618. a). (Epod. 1-10.)

14. Dactylic Hexameter alternating with Iambic Dimeter: -Epod. 15. (So in Epod. 14.)

15. Dactylic Hexameter with Iambic Trimeter (Sect: 618): -Epod. 16.

16. Verse of Four Lesser Ionics (Sect: 609. c. 2):
     miserárum est Od. 3.12.

17. Iambic Trimeter (Sect: 618); Dactylic Penthemim (Sect: 617. b); Iambic Dimeter: Epod. 11.

18. Dactylic Hexameter; Iambic Dimeter; Dactylic Penthemim (Sect: 617. b): -Epod. 13.

19. Trochaic Dimeter, Iambic Trimeter, each catalectic (see Sect: 620. c).

1 Different Greek poets adopted fixed types in regard to the place of the dacty<
    > and so a large number of verses arose, each following a strict law, which were im<
    > tated by the Romans as distinct metres.

2 The figures refer to the foregoing list (Sect: 625).

SECTION: #627. Other lyric poets use other combinations of the abovementioned verses:

a. Glyconics with one Pherecratic (both imperfect): -Catull. xxxiv.

b. Sapphics, in a series of single lines, closing with an Adonic: -Sen. Herc. Oet. 1600-1606.

c. Sapphics followed by Glyconics, of indefinite number ( id. Herc. Fur. 830-874, 875-894).

SECTION: #628. Other measures occur in various styles of poetry.

Anapaestic (Sect: 609. b. 2) verses of various lengths are found in dramatic poetry. The spondee, dactyl, or proceleusmatic may be substituted for the anapaest: -Pl. Trin. 1115-1119.

Bacchiac (Sect: 609. d. 4) verses (five-timed) occur in the dramatic poets,-- very rarely in Terence, more commonly in Plautus,--either in verses of two feet ( Dimeter) or of four (Tetrameter). They are treated very freely, as are

all measures in early Latin. The long syllables may be resolved, or the molossus (three longs) substituted: - Pl. Trin. 223-226.

Cretic measures (Sect: 609. d. 1) occur in the same manner as the Bacchiac, with the same substitutions. The last foot is usually incomplete: Saturnian Verse. In early Latin is found a rude form of verse, not borrowed from the Greek like the others, but as to the precise nature of which scholars are not agreed.

1. According to one view the verse is based on quantity, is composed of six feet, and is divided into two parts by a caesura before the fourth thesis. Each thesis may consist of a long syllable or of two short ones, each arsis of a short syllable, a long syllable, or two short syllables; but the arsis, except at the beginning of the verse and before the caesura, is often entirely suppressed, though rarely more than once in the same verse:

2. According to another theory the Saturnian is made up, without regard to quantity, of alternating accented and unaccented syllables; but for any unaccented syllable two may be substituted, and regularly are so substituted in the second foot of the verse: dabunt malum metelli / Naevio poetae


SECTION: #629. The prosody of the earlier poets differs in several respects from that of the later.

At the end of words s, being only feebly sounded, does not make position with a following consonant; it sometimes disappeared altogether. This usage continued in all poets till Cicero's time (Sect: 15. 7).

A long syllable immediately preceded or followed by the ictus may be shortened (iambic shortening):

In a few isolated words position is often disregarded.Such are ille, immo, inde, iste, mnis, né mpe, quippe, unde.

The original long quantity of some final syllables is retained.

1. The ending -or is retained long in nouns with long stem-vowel (original r- stems or original s-stems): Ovid. Am. 548).

2. The termination - es (-itis) is sometimes retained long, as in mílés, superstés.

3. All verb-endings in -r, -s, and -t may be retained long where the vowel is elsewhere long in inflection: Pl. Truc. 2.4.79).

e. Hiatus (Sect: 612. g) is allowed somewhat freely, especially at a pause in the sense, or when there is a change of speaker.


Reckoning of Time

SECTION: #630. The Roman Year was designated, in earlier times, by the names of the Consuls; but was afterwards reckoned from the building of the City ( ab urbe conditá, annó urbis conditae), the date of which was assigned by Varro to a period corresponding with B.C. 753. In order, therefore, to reduce Roman dates to those of the Christian era, the year of the city is to be subtracted from 754: e.g. A.U.C. 691 (the year of Cicero's consulship) corresponds to B.C. 63.

Before Caesar's reform of the Calendar (B.C. 46), the Roman year consisted of 355 days: March, May, Quíntílis ( July), and October having each 31 days, February having 28, and each of the remainder 29. As this calendar year was too short for the solar year, the Romans, in alternate years, at the discretion of the pontificés, inserted a month of varying length ( ménsis intercaláris) after February 23, and omitted the rest of February.

The " Julian year" by Caesar's reformed Calendar, had 365 days, divided into months as at present. Every fourth year the 24th of February (VI. Kal. Márt.) was counted twice, giving 29 days to that month: hence the year was called bissextílis. The month Quíntílis received the name Iúlius ( July), in honor of Julius Caesar; and Sextílis was called Augustus (August), in honor of his successor. The Julian year (see below) remained unchanged till the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar (A.D. 1582), which omits leap-year three times in every four hundred years.

SECTION: #631. Dates, according to the Roman Calendar, are reckoned as follows:

The first day of the month was called Kalendae ( Calends).

NOTE.: i> Kalendae is derived from caláre, to call,--the Calends being the day on which the pontiffs publicly announced the New Moon in the Comitia Caláta. This they did, originally, from actual observation.

On the fifteenth day of March, May, July, and October, but the thirteenth of the other months, were the Idús ( Ides), the day of Full Moon.

On the seventh day of March, May, July, and October, but the fifth of the other months, were the Nónae (Nones or ninths).

From the three points thus determined, the days of the month were reckoned backwards as so many days before the Nones, the Ides, or the Calends. The point of departure was, by Roman custom, counted in the reckoning, the second day being three days before, etc. This gives the following rule for determining the date:

If the given date be Calends, add two to the number of days in the month preceding,--if Nones or Ides, add one to that of the day on which they fall,--and from the number thus ascertained subtract the given date. Thus,--
     VIII. Kal. Feb. (31 + 2 - 8) = Jan. 25.
     IV. Nón. Már. (7 + 1 - 4) = Mar. 4.
     IV. Id. Sept. (13 + 1 - 4) = Sept. 10.

NOTE.--The name of the month appears as an adjective in agreement with Kalendae, Nónae, Id s.

For peculiar constructions in dates, see Sect: 424. g.

The days of the Roman month by the Julian Calendar, as thus ascertained, are given in the following table:

January February March April


2. IV. Nón. Ián. IV. Nón. Feb. VI. Nón. Márt. IV. Nón. Apr.

3. III. Nón. Ián. III. Nón. Feb. V. Nón. Márt. III. Nón. Apr.

4. príd. Nón. Ián. príd. Nón. Feb. IV. Nón. Márt. príd. Nón. Apr.

5. N0N. IáN. N0N. FEB. III. Nón. Márt. N0N. APRILéS

6. VIII. Id. Ián. VIII. Id. Feb. príd. Nón. Márt. VIII. Id. Apr.

7. VII. Id. Ián. VII. Id. Feb. NON. MARTIAE VII. Id. Apr.

8. VI. Id. Ián. VI. Id. Feb. VIII. Id. Márt. VI. Id. Apr.

9. V. Id. Ián. V. Id. Feb. VII. Id. Márt. V. Id. Apr.

10. IV. Id. Ián. IV. Id. Feb. VI. Id. Márt. IV. Id. Apr.

11. III. Id. Ián. III. Id. Feb. V. Id. Má rt. III. Id. Apr.

12. príd. Id. Ián. príd. Id. Feb. IV. Id. Márt. príd. Id. Apr.


14. XIX. Kal. Feb. XVI. Kal. Mártiás príd. Id. Márt. XVIII. Kal. Máiás.

15. XVIII. Kal. Feb. XV. Kal. Mártiás IDS MáRTIAE XVII. Kal. Máiás.

16. XVII. Kal. Feb. XIV. Kal. Mártiás XVII. Kal. Aprílís. XVI. Kal. Máiás.

17. XVI. Kal. Feb. XIII. Kal. Mártiás XVI. Kal. Aprílís. XV. Kal. Máiás.

18. XV. Kal. Feb. XII. Kal. Mártiás XV. Kal. Aprílís. XIV. Kal. Máiás.

19. XIV. Kal. Feb. XI. Kal. Mártiás XIV. Kal. Aprílís. XIII. Kal. Máiás.

20. XIII. Kal. Feb. X. Kal. Mártiás XIII. Kal. Aprílís. XII. Kal. Máiás.

21. XII. Kal. Feb. IX. Kal. Mártiás XII. Kal. Aprílís. XI. Kal. Máiás.

22. XI. Kal. Feb. VIII. Kal. Mártiás XI. Kal. Aprílís. X. Kal. Máiás.

23. X. Kal. Feb. VII. Kal. Mártiás X. Kal. Aprílís. IX. Kal. Máiás.

24. IX. Kal. Feb. VI. Kal. Mártiás IX. Kal. Aprílís. VIII. Kal. Máiás.

25. VIII. Kal. Feb. V. Kal. Mártiás VIII. Kal. Aprílís. VII. Kal. Máiás.

26. VII. Kal. Feb. IV. Kal. Mártiás VII. Kal. Aprílís. VI. Kal. Máiás.

27. VI. Kal. Feb. III. Kal. Mártiás VI. Kal. Aprílís. V. Kal. Máiás.

28. V. Kal. Feb. príd. Kal. Mártiás V. Kal. Aprílís. IV. Kal. Máiás.

29. IV. Kal. Feb. [príd. Kal. Márt. in IV. Kal. Aprílís. III. Kal. Máiás.

30. III. Kal. Feb. leap-year, the VI. III. Kal. Aprílís. príd. Kal. Máiás.

31. príd. Kal. Feb. Kal. (24th) being príd. Kal. Aprílís. (So June, Sept.,

(So Aug., Dec.) counted twice.] (So May, July, Oct.) Nov.)

NOTE.--Observe that a date before the Julian Reform (B.C. 46) is to be found not by the above table, but by taking the earlier reckoning of the number of days in the month.

.Measures of Value, etc.

SECTION: #632. The money of the Romans was in early times wholly of copper. The unit was the as, which was nominally a pound in weight, but actually somewhat less. It was divided into twelve unciae (ounces).

In the third century B.C. the as was gradually reduced to one-half of its original value. In the same century silver coins were introduced,--the dénárius and the séstertius. The denarius = 10 asses; the sestertius = 21/2 asses.

SECTION: #633. The Sestertius was probably introduced at a time when the as had been so far reduced that the value of the new coin (2 1/2 asses) was equivalent to the original value of the as. Hence, the Sestertius (usually abbreviated to HS or HS) came to be used as the unit of value, and nummus, coin, often means simply séstertius. As the reduction of the standard went on, the sestertius became equivalent to 4 asses. Gold was introduced later, the aureus being equal to 100 sesterces. The approximate value of these coins is seen in the following table:
     2 1/2 asses = 1 séstertius or nummus, value nearly 5 cents (2 1/2 d.).
     10 asses or 4 séstertií = 1 dénarius. value nearly 20 cents (10 d.).
     1000 séstertií = 1 séstertium ... value nearlly 50.00 (10).

NOTE.--The word séstertius is a shortened form of sémis-tertius, the third one, a half. The abbreviation
    >S or HS = duo et sémis, two and a half.

SECTION: #634. The séstertium (probably originally the genitive plural of séstertius depending on mílle) was a sum of money, not a coin; the word is inflected regularly as a neuter noun: thus, tria séstertia = 150.00.

When séstertium is combined with a numeral adverb, centéna mília, hundreds of thousands, is to be understood: thus deciéns séstertium ( deciéns HS) = deciéns centéna mília séstertium =

50,000. Séstertium in this combination may also be inflected: deciéns séstertií, séstertió, etc.

In the statement of large sums séstertium is often omitted as well as centéna mília: thus sexágiéns (Rosc. Am. 2) signifies, sexágiéns [ centéna mília séstertium] = 6,000,000 sesterces= 300,000 (nearly).

SECTION: #635. In the statement of sums of money in Roman numerals, a line above the number indicates thousands; lines above and at the sides also, hundred-thousands. Thus HS DC=600 séstertií; HS DC= 600,000 séstertií, or 600 séstertia; HS |DC|=60,000,000 séstertií, or 60,000 séstertia.

SECTION: #636. The Roman Measures of Length are the following: --
     12 inches (unciae) =1 Roman Foot ( pés: 11.65 English inches).
     1 1/2 Feet=1 Cubit (cubitum).--2 1/2 Feet=1 Step (gradus).
     5 Feet=1 Pace (passus).--1000 Paces ( mílle passuum)= 1 Mile.

The Roman mile was equal to 4850 English feet.

The iúgerum, or unit of measure of land, was an area of 240 ( Roman) feet long and 120 broad; a little less than 2/3 of an English acre.

SECTION: #637. The Measures of Weight are:/p>

12 unciae (ounces) =one pound (libra, about 3/4 lb. avoirdupois).

Fractional parts (weight or coin) are :/p>

1/12, uncia. 5/12, quíncunx. 3/4, dódr áns.

1/6, sextáns. 1/2, sémis. 5/6, dextáns.

1/4, quadráns. 7/12, septunx. 11/12, deunx.

1/3, triéns. 2/3, bés or bessis. 12/12, as.

The Talent (talentum) was a Greek weight ( talanton) = 60 librae.

SECTION: #638. The Measures of Capacity are --
     12 cyathí =1 sextárius (nearly a pint).
     16 sextárií=1 modius (peck).
     6 sextárií=1 congius (3 quarts, liquid measure).
     8 congií = 1 amphora (6 gallons).

1 The two principal theories only are given. There are numerous variations, particularly of the second theory here stated.

2 Before the Latin language was used in literature, it had become much changed by the loss of final consonants and the shortening of final syllables under the influence of accent. In many cases this change was still in progress in the time of the early poets. This tendency was arrested by the study of grammar and by literature, but shows itself again in the Romance languages.

3 Cf. ambó (also a dual, p. 59, footnote), in which the ó is retainedbecause of the length of the first syllable.

4 Scholars are not yet agreed upon the principle or the extent of this irregularity.

5 The extent of this license is still a question among scholars; but in the present state of texts it must sometimes be allowed.



SECTION: #639. Many of these terms are pedantic names given by early grammarians to forms of speech used naturally by writers who were not conscious that they were using figures at all--as, indeed, they were not. Thus when one says, "It gave me no little pleasure" he is unconsciously using litotes; when he says, "John went up the street, James down" antithesis; when he says, "High as the sky" hyperbole. Many were given under a mistaken notion of the nature of the usage referred to. Thus méd and téd (Sect: 143. a. N.) were supposed to owe their d to paragoge, súmpsí its p to epenthesis. Such a sentence as "See my coat, how well it fits!"was supposed to be an irregularity to be accounted for by prolepsis.

Many of these, however, are convenient designations for phenomena which often occur; and most of them have an historic interest, of one kind or another.

SECTION: #640.

Grammatical Terms

Anacoluthon: a change of construction in the same sentence, leaving the first part broken or unfinished.

Anastrophe: inversion of the usual order of words.

Apodosis: the conclusion of a conditional sentence (see Protasis).

Archaism: an adoption of old or obsolete forms.

Asyndeton: omission of conjunctions (Sect: 323. b).

Barbarism: adoption of foreign or unauthorized forms.

Brachylogy: brevity of expression.

Crasis: contraction of two vowels into one (Sect: 15. 3).

Ellipsis: omission of a word or words necessary to complete the sense.

Enallage: substitution of one word or form for another.

Epenthesis: insertion of a letter or syllable.

Hellenism: use of Greek forms or constructions.

Hendiadys ( hen dia duoin): the use of two nouns, with a conjunction, instead of a single modified noun.

Hypallage: interchange of constructions.

Hysteron proteron: a reversing of the natural order of ideas.

This term was applied to cases where the natural sequence of events is violated in language because the later event is of more importance than the earlier and so comes first to the mind. This was supposed to be an artificial embellishment in Greek, and so was imitated in Latin. It is still found in artless narrative; cf. "Bred and Born in a Brier Bush"(Uncle Remus).

Metathesis: transposition of letters in a word.

Paragoge: addition of a letter or letters to the end of a word.

Parenthesis: insertion of a phrase interrupting the construction.

Periphrasis: a roundabout way of expression (circumlocution).

Pleonasm: the use of needless words.

Polysyndeton: the use of an unnecessary number of copulative conjunctions.

Prolepsis: the use of a word in the clause preceding the one where it would naturally appear (anticipation).

Protasis: a clause introduced by a conditional expression (if, when, whoever), leading to a conclusion called the Apodosis (Sect: 512).

Syncope: omission of a letter or syllable from the middle of a word.

Synesis ( cónstrúctió ad sénsum): agreement of words according to the sense, and not the grammatical form (Sect: 280. a).

Tmesis: the separation of the two parts of a compound word by other words (cutting).

This term came from the earlier separation of prepositions (originally adverbs) from the verbs with which they were afterwards joined; so in per ecastor scítus puer, a very fine boy, egad! As this was supposed to be intentional, it was ignorantly imitated in Latin; as in cere- comminuit -brum ( Ennius).

Zeugma: the use of a verb or an adjective with two different words, to only one of which it strictly applies (yoking).

SECTION: #641.

Rhetorical Figures

Allegory: a narrative in which abstract ideas figure as circumstances, events, or persons, in order to enforce some moral truth.

Alliteration: the use of several words that begin with the same sound.

Analogy: argument from resemblances.

Anaphora: the repetition of a word at the beginning of successive clauses (Sect: 598. f).

Antithesis: opposition, or contrast of parts (for emphasis: Sect: 598. f).

Antonomasia: use of a proper for a common noun, or the reverse:
     sint Maecénátés, nón deerunt, Flacce, Marónés, so there be patrons (like Maecenas), poets (like Virgil) will not be lacking, Flaccus (Mart.Mart. 8.56.5 ).
     illa furia et pestis, that fury and plague (i.e. Clodius); Homéromasté x, scourge of Homer (i.e. Zoilus).

Aposiopesis: an abrupt pause for rhetorical effect.

Catachresis: a harsh metaphor ( abúsió, misuse of words).

Chiasmus: a reversing of the order of words in corresponding pairs of phrases (Sect: 598. f).

Climax: a gradual increase of emphasis, or enlargement of meaning.

Euphemism: the mild expression of a painful or repulsive idea:
     sí quid eí acciderit, if anything happens to him (i.e. if he dies).

Euphony: the choice of words for their agreeable sound.

Hyperbaton: violation of the usual order of words.

Hyperbole: exaggeration for rhetorical effect.

Irony: the use of words which naturally convey a sense contrary to what is meant.

Litotes: the affirming of a thing by denying its contrary (Sect: 326. c).

Metaphor: the figurative use of words, indicating an object by some resemblance.

Metonymy: the use of the name of one thing to indicate some kindred thing

Onomatop"ia: a fitting of sound to sense in the use of words.

Oxymoron: the use of contradictory words in the same phrase:
     ínsániéns sapientia, foolish wisdom.

Paronomasia: the use of words of like sound.

Prosopop"ia: personification.

Simile: a figurative comparison (usually introduced by like, or as).

Synchysis: the interlocked order (Sect: 598. h).

Synecdoche: the use of the name of a part for the whole, or the reverse.

SECTION: #642.

Terms of Prosody

Acatalectic: complete, as a verse or a series of feet (Sect: 612. a).

Anaclasis: breaking up of rhythm by substituting different measures.

Anacrusis: the unaccented syllable or syllables preceding a verse (Sect: 608. g)

Antistrophe: a series of verses corresponding to one which has gone before (cf. strophe).

Arsis: the unaccented part of a foot (Sect: 611).

Basis: a single foot preceding the regular movement of a verse.

C"sura: the ending of a word within a metrical foot ( Sect: 611. b).

Catalectic: see Catalexis.

Catalexis: loss of a final syllable (or syllables) making the series catalectic (incomplete, Sect: 612. a).

Contraction: the use of one long syllable for two short (Sect: 610).

Correption: shortening of a long syllable, for metrical reasons.

Di"resis: the coincidence of the end of a foot with the end of a word within the verse (Sect: 611. c).

Dialysis: the use of i (consonant) and v as vowels ( sila = silva, Sect: 603. f. N.4).

Diastole: the lengthening of a short syllable by emphasis (Sect: 612. b).

Dimeter: consisting of two like measures.

Dipody: consisting of two like feet.

Distich: a system or series of two verses.

Ecthlipsis: the suppression of a final syllable in -m before a word beginning with a vowel (Sect: 612. f.).

Elision: the cutting off of a final before a following initial vowel (Sect: 612. e).

Heptameter: consisting of seven feet.

Hexameter: consisting of six measures.

Hexapody: consisting of six feet.

Hiatus: the meeting of two vowels without contraction or elision (Sect: 612. g).

Ictus: the metrical accent (Sect: 611. a).

Irrational: not conforming strictly to the unit of time (Sect: 609. e).

Logoaedic: varying in rhythm, making the effect resemble prose (Sect: 623).

Monometer: consisting of a single measure.

Mora: the unit of time, equal to one short syllable (Sect: 608. a).

Pentameter: consisting of five measures.

Pentapody: consisting of five feet.

Penthemimeris: consisting of five half-feet.

Protraction: extension of a syllable beyond its normal length (608. c).

Resolution: the use of two short syllables for one long (Sect: 610).

Strophe: a series of verses making a recognized metrical whole (stanza), which may be indefinitely repeated.

Syn"resis: i (vowel) and u becoming consonants before a vowel (Sect: 603. c. N., f. N.4).

Synaleipha: the same as elision (Sect: 612. e. N.).

Synapheia: elision between two verses (Sect: 612. e. N.).

Syncope: loss of a short vowel.

Synizesis: the running together of two vowels without full contraction (Sect: 603 c. N.).

Systole: shortening of a syllable regularly long.

Tetrameter: consisting of four measures.

Tetrapody: consisting of four feet.

Tetrastich: a system of four verses.

Thesis: the accented part of a foot (Sect: 611).

Trimeter: consisting of three measures.

Tripody: consisting of three feet.

Tristich: a system of three verses.


William Harris
Prof. Em. Middlebury College