7#~(  d4x *.  Allen and Greenough Part I: FORMS (searchable version)

Go to Part II: SYNTAX




Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar

.eds. J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, A. A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge, Ginn and Company, 1903




PART FIRST: WORDS AND FORMS



.ALPHABET



SECTION: #1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English (which is in fact borrowed from it) except that it does not contain J, U, and W.

NOTE 1.--The Latin alphabet was borrowed in very early times from a Greek alphabet (though not from that most familiar to us) and did not at first contain the letters G and Y. It consisted of capital letters only, and the small letters with which we are familiar did not come into general use until the close of the eighth century of our era.

NOTE 2.--The Latin names of the consonants were as follows:-B, be (pronounced bay); C, ce (pronounced kay); D, de (day); F, ef; G, ge (gay); H, ha; K, ka; L, el; M, em; N, en; P, pe (pay); Q, qu (koo); R, er; S, es; T, te (tay); X, ix; Z, zeta (the Greek name, pronounced dzayta). The sound of each vowel was used as its name.

The character C originally meant G, a value always retained in the abbreviations C. (for Gáius) and Cn. (for Gnaeus).

NOTE.--In early Latin C came also to be used for K, and K disappeared except before a in a few words, as Kal. ( Kalendae), Karthágó. Thus there was no distinction in writing between the sounds of g and k. Later this defect was remedied by forming (from C) the new character G. This took the alphabetic place formerly occupied by Z, which had gone out of use. In Cicero's time (see N. D. 2.93), Y (originally a form of V) and Z were introduced from the ordinary Greek alphabet to represent sounds in words derived from the Greek, and they were put at the end of the Latin alphabet.

I and V were used both as vowels and as consonants (see Sect: 5).

NOTE.--V originally denoted the vowel sound u (oo), and F stood for the sound of our consonant w. When F acquired the value of our f, V came to be used for the sound of w as well as for the vowel u.

In this book i is used for both vowel and consonant i, u for vowel u, and v for consonant u:-iús, vir, iuvenis.


.Classification of Sounds



SECTION: #2. The simple Vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y.

The Diphthongs are ae, au, ei, eu, oe, ui, and, in early Latin, ai, oi, ou. In the diphthongs both vowel sounds are heard, one following the other in the same syllable.



SECTION: #3. Consonants are either voiced ( sonant) or voiceless ( surd). Voiced consonants are pronounced with the same vocal murmur that is heard in vowels; voiceless consonants lack this murmur.

1. The voiced consonants are b, d, g, l, r, m, n, z, consonant i, v.

2. The voiceless consonants are p, t, c (k, q), f, h, s, x.



SECTION: #4. Consonants are further classified as in the following table:

LABIALS DENTALS PALATALS

Voiced ( mediae) b d g

Mutes Voiceless ( tenues) p t c (k, q)

Aspirates phth ch

Nasals m n n (before c, g, q)

Liquids l, r

Fricatives (Spirants) fs, z

Sibilants s, z

Semivowels v consonant i

Double consonants are x (= cs) and z (= dz); h is merely a breathing.

1. Mutes are pronounced by blocking entirely, for an instant, the passage of the breath through the mouth, and then allowing it to escape with an explosion (distinctly heard before a following vowel). Between the explosion and the vowel there may be a slight puff of breath (h), as in the Aspirates (ph, th, ch).

2. Labials are pronounced with the lips, or lips and teeth.

3. Dentals (sometimes called Linguals) are pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching or approaching the upper front teeth.

4. Palatals are pronounced with a part of the upper surface of the tongue touching or approaching the palate.

5. Fricatives (or Spirants) are consonants in which the breath passes continuously through the mouth with audible friction.

6. Nasals are like voiced mutes, except that the mouth remains closed and the breath passes through the nose.



SECTION: #5. The vowels i and u serve as consonants when pronounced rapidly before a vowel so as to stand in the same syllable.Consonant i has the sound of English consonant y; consonant u (v) that of English consonant w.

Consonant i and u (v) are sometimes called Semivowels.

NOTE 1.--The Latin alphabet did not distinguish between the vowel and consonant sounds of i and u, but used each letter ( I and V) with a double value. In modern books i and u are often used for the vowel sounds, j and v for the consonant sounds; but in printing in capitals J and U are avoided: IVLIVS ( Iúlius). The characters J and U are only slight modifications of the characters I and V. The ordinary English sounds of j and v did not exist in classical Latin, but consonant u perhaps approached English v in the pronunciation of some persons.

NOTE 2.--In the combinations qu, gu, and sometimes su, u seems to be the consonant (w). Thus, aqua, anguis, cónsuétus (compare English quart, anguish, suave). In these combinations, however, u is reckoned neither as a vowel nor as a consonant.


.ORTHOGRAPHY



SECTION: #6. Latin spelling varied somewhat with the changes in the language and was never absolutely settled in all details.

Thus, we find lubet, vortó, as earlier, and libet, vertó, as later forms. Other variations are optumus and optimus, gerundus and gerendus.

The spelling of the first century of our era, known chiefly from inscriptions, is tolerably uniform, and is commonly used in modern editions of the classics.

After v (consonant u), o was anciently used instead of u ( voltus, servos), and this spelling was not entirely given up until the middle of the first century of our era.

The older quo became cu in the Augustan period; in the second century of our era the spelling quu established itself in some words:
cum, older quom;equos, ecus, later equus; sequontur, secuntur, later sequuntur; similarly exstinguont, exstingunt, later exstinguunt.

NOTE.--In most modern editions the spelling quu is adopted, except in cum.

Between consonant i and a preceding a, e, o, or u, an i was developed as a transient sound, thus producing a diphthong ai, ei, etc., before the consonant i. In such cases but one i was written: as, aio (for ai-io), maius (for *mai-ius), peius (for *pei-ius).

Similarly in compounds of iació but one i was written (as, con-ició, not con-iició); but the usual pronunciation probably showed consonant i followed by vowel i (see Sect: 11. e).

NOTE.--Some variations are due to later changes in Latin itself, and these are not now recognized in classical texts.

1. Unaccented ti and ci, when followed by a vowel, came to be pronounced alike; hence nuntió was later spelled with a c and dició with a t.

2. The sound of h was after a time lost and hence this letter was often omitted (as, aréna for haréna) or mistakenly written (as, humor for umor).

3. The diphthong ae early in the time of the Empire acquired the value of long open e (about like English e in there), and similarly oe after a time became a long close e (about like the English ey in they); and so both were often confused in spelling with e: as, coena or caena for the correct form céna.


.SYLLABLES



SECTION: #7. Every Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs:

aci-cé, mo-né, fí-li-us, fe-ró-ci-tá-te.

In the division of words into syllables a single consonant (including consonant i and v) between two vowels is written and pronounced with the following vowel. Doubled consonants are separated:

pa-ter, mí-li-tés, in-iú-ri-a, dí-vi-dó; mit-tó, tol-ló.

NOTE 1.--Some extend the rule for single consonants to any consonant group (as sp, st, gn) that can begin a word. In this book, dé x-it, sax-um, etc. are preferred to dí-xit, sa-xum; the pronunciation was probably díc-sit, sac-sum.

NOTE 2.--A syllable ending with a vowel or diphthong is called open: all others are called close. Thus in pa-ter the first syllable is open, the second close.

In compounds the parts are separated:

ab-est, ob-látus, dis-cernó, du-plex, dí-stó.


.Pronunciation



SECTION: #8. The so-called Roman Pronunciation of Latin aims to represent approximately the pronunciation of classical times.

.VOWELS: á as in father
é as in idea

é      as eh? (prolonged)
a      as in date
e      as in  eh? (clipped) or e in net.
í      as in machine

.DIPHTHONGS:

ae     like ay
ei     as in eight
oe     like oy in boy
eu     as eh'oo
au     like ow in now
ui     as oo'ee.

Consonants are the same as in English, except that



c and g are as in come, get, never as in city, gem.

s as in sea, lips, never as in ease.

Consonanta; i is like y in young

v (consonant u) like w in wing.

nasalization of the preceding vowel, which was also lengthened; and final m in an unaccented syllable probably had a similar nasalizing effect on the preceding vowel.

ph, th, ch, are properly like p, t, k, followed by h (which may, for convenience, be neglected); but ph probably became like (or nearly like) f soon after the classical period, and may be so pronounced to distinguish it from p.

z is as dz in adze.

bs is like ps

bt is like pt.

NOTE. Latin is sometimes pronounced with the ordinary English sounds of the letters. The English pronunciation should be used in Roman names occurring in English (as, Julius Caesar); and in familiar quotations, as, e pluribus unum; viva voce; vice versa; a fortiori; veni, vidi, vici, etc.


.QUANTITY



SECTION: #9. The Quantity of a Vowel or a Syllable is the time occupied in pronouncing it. Two degrees of Quantity are recognized, long and short.

In syllables, quantity is measured from the beginning of the vowel or diphthong to the end of the syllable.



SECTION: #10. Vowels are either long or short by nature, and are pronounced accordingly (Sect: 8).

A vowel before another vowel or h is short: as in via, nihil.

A diphthong is long: as in aedés, foedus. So, also, a vowel derived from a diphthong: as in exclúdó (from *ex-claudó).

A vowel formed by contraction is long: as in níl (from nihil).

A vowel before ns, nf, gn, is long: as in cónstáns, ínferó, mágnus.

NOTE.--But the quantity of the vowel before gn is not certain in all cases.

A vowel before nd, nt, is regularly short: as in amandus, amant.

In this book all vowels known to be long are marked (á, é, etc.), and short vowels are left unmarked (a, e, etc.). Vowels marked with both signs at once occur sometimes as long and sometimes as short.

NOTE.--The Romans sometimes marked vowel length by a stroke above the letter (called an apex), as ; and sometimes the vowel was doubled to indicate length. An I made higher than the other letters was occasionally used for í. But none of these devices came into general use {



SECTION: #11. The Quantity of the Syllable is important for the position of the accent and in versification.

A syllable containing a long vowel or a diphthong is said to be long by nature: as, má-ter, aes, au-a.

A syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants (except a mute before l or r) or by a double consonant (x, z) is said to be long by position, but the vowel is pronounced short: as, est, ter-a, sax-um, Me-zen-tius.

NOTE.--When a consonant is doubled the pronunciation should show this distinctly. Thus in mit-tó both t's should be pronounced as in out-talk (not merely a single t as in better).

A syllable containing a short vowel followed by a mute before l or r is properly short, but may be used as long in verse. Such a syllable is said to be common.

NOTE 1.--In syllables long by position, but having a short vowel, the length is partly due to the first of the consonants, which stands in the same syllable with the vowel. In syllables of "common"quantity (as the first syllable of patrem) the ordinary pronunciation was pa-trem, but in verse pat-rem was allowed so that the syllable could become long.

NOTE 2.--In final syllables ending with a consonant, and containing a short vowel, the quantity in verse is determined by the following word: if this begins with a vowel the final consonant is joined to it in pronunciation; if it begins with a consonant the syllable is long by position.

NOTE 3.--In rules for quantity h is not counted as a consonant, nor is the apparently consonantal u in qu, gu, su (see Sect: 5. N. 2).

A syllable whose vowel is a, e, o, or u, followed by consonant i, is long whether the vowel itself is long or short: as, ai-ió, mai-ior, pe-ius.

In such cases the length of the syllable is indicated in this book by a circumflex on the vowel.

NOTE.--The length of a syllable before consonant i is due to a transitional sound (vowel i) which forms a diphthong with the preceding vowel: as, ai-ó (for ai-ió), ma ior (for mai-ior). See Sect: 6. c.

In some compounds of iació (as, in-ició) the consonant i of the simple verb was probably pronounced (though not written). Thus the first syllable was long by position: as, in-ició (for in-iició). See Sect: 6. d.

In such cases the length of the syllable is not indicated in this book by a circumflex on the vowel.

When a syllable is long by position the quantity of the vowel is not always determinable. The vowel should be pronounced short unless it is known to be long.

NOTE.--The quantity of a vowel under these circumstances is said to be hidden. It is often determined with a greater or less degree of certainty by inscriptional evidence (see Sect: 10. N.) or by other means. In this book, the quantity of all such vowels known to be long is marked. 7]


.ACCENT



SECTION: #12. Words of two syllables are accented on the first syllable: as, Róma, fi'des, tan'gó.

Words of more than two syllables are accented on the Penult if that is long (as, amí'cus, mone'tur, contin'git); otherwise on the Antepenult (as, do'minus, ala'cris, dissociá'bilis).

When an enclitic is joined to a word, the accent falls on the syllable next before the enclitic, whether long or short: as, dea'que, amáre've, tibi'ne, ita'que (and ... so), as distinguished from i'taque (therefore). So (according to some) ex'inde, ec'quandó etc.

Exceptions: 1. Certain apparent compounds of fació retain the accent of the simple verb: as, benefa'cit, calefa'cit (see Sect: 266. a).

NOTE.--These were not true compounds, but phrases.

2. In the second declension the genitive and vocative of nouns in -ius and the genitive of those in -ium retain the accent of the nominative: as, Corné:'lí, Vergi'lí, inge'ní (see Sect: 49. c).

3. Certain words which have lost a final vowel retain the accent of the complete words: as, illíc for illíce, pródúc for pródúce, sati'n for sati'sne.


.Combinations



SECTION: #13. In some cases adjacent words, being pronounced together, are written as one: únusquisque ( únus quisque), síquis ( sí quis), quáré ( quá ré), quamobrem ( quam ob rem; cf. quás ob rés), réspública ( rés pública), iúsiurandum ( iús iúrandum), paterfamiliá s ( pater familiás).

NOTE.--Sometimes a slight change in pronunciation resulted, as, especially in the old poets, before est in homóst ( homó est), perículumst ( perículum est), ausust ( ausus est), quálist ( quális est). Similarly there occur vín', scín' for vísne, scísne, sís ( sí vís), sódés ( sí audés), súltis ( sí vultis). Compare in English somebody, to breakfast; he's, I've, thou'rt.

Phonetic Changes



SECTION: #14. Latin, the language of the ancient Romans, was properly, as its name implies, the language spoken in the plain of Latium, lying south of the Tiber, which was the first territory occupied and governed by the Romans. It is a descendant of an early form of speech commonly called Indo-European (by some Indo-Germanic), from which are also descended most of the important languages now in use in Europe, including among others English, German, the Slavic and the Celtic languages, and further some now or formerly spoken in Asia, as Sanskrit, Persian, Armenian. Greek likewise 8]

belongs to the same family. The Romance (or Romanic) languages, of which the most important are Italian, French, Provencal, Spanish, Portuguese, and Roumanian, are modern descendants of spoken Latin.

The earliest known forms of Latin are preserved in a few inscriptions. These increase in number as we approach the time when the language began to be used in literature; that is, about B.C. 250. It is the comparatively stable language of the classical period (B.C. 80-A.D. 14) that is ordinarily meant when we speak of Latin, and it is mainly this that is described in this book.



SECTION: #15. Among the main features in the changes of Latin from the earliest stages of the language as we know it up to the forms of classical Latin may be mentioned the following:


.Vowel Changes

1. The old diphthong ai became the classical ae ( aedílis for old aidílis), old oi became oe or ú ( únus for old oinos), and old ou became ú ( dúcó for old doucó).

2. In compound verbs the vowel a of the simple verb often appears as i or e, and ae similarly appears as í:
     fació, factum, but cónfició, cónfectum; caedó, but occídó, and similarly cecídí, perfect of caedó (cf. cadó, occidó; cecidí, perfect of cadó).

NOTE.--This change is commonly ascribed to an accentuation on the first syllable, which seems to have been the rule in Latin before the rule given above (see Sect: 12) became established. The original Indo-European accent, however, was not limited by either of these principles; it was probably a musical accent so-called, consisting in a change of pitch, and not merely in a more forcible utterance of the accented syllable.

3. Two vowels coming together are often contracted:
     cógó for co-agó; prómó for pro-emó; níl for nihil; débeó for dé-hibed ( dé-habeó).


.Consonant Changes

4. An old s regularly became r between two vowels (rhotacism), passing first through the sound of (English) z:
     eram (cf. est); generis, genitive of genus.

NOTE.--Final s sometimes became r by analogy: as, honor (older honós), from the analogy of honóris, etc.

5. A dental (t, d) often became s, especially when standing next to t, d, or s: as, equestris for equettris, cásus for cadtus (cf. 6, below).

6. Many instances of assimilation, partial or complete, are found:
     cessí for ced-sí; summus for supmus; scríptus for scré btus (b unvoicing to p before the voiceless t); and in compound verbs (see Sect: 16). 9]

Dissimilation, the opposite kind of change, prevented in some cases the repetition of the same sound in successive syllables:

Thus, parília for palília (from Palés); merídiés for medídi és; nátúrális with suffix -ális (after r), but populáris with -áris (after l).

7. Final s was in early Latin not always pronounced; as, plénu fidéí.

NOTE.--Traces of this pronunciation existed in Cicero's time. He speaks of the omission of final s before a word beginning with a consonant as "countrified"( subrústicum).

8. A final consonant often disappears: as, virgó for virgón; lac for lact; cor for cord.

9. G, c, and h unite with a following s to form x: as, réx for régs; dux for ducs; tráxí for trahsí.

10. G and h before t become c: as, réctum for regtum; áctum for agtum; tráctum for *trahtum. /p>

11. Between m and s or m and t, a p is often developed: as, súmpsí for súmsé ; émptum for émtum.



SECTION: #16. In compounds with prepositions the final consonant in the preposition was often assimilated to the following consonant, but usage varied considerably.

There is good authority for many complete or partial assimilations; as, for ad, acc-, agg-, app-, att-, instead of adc-, adg-, etc. Before a labial consonant we find com- (comb-, comp-, comm-), but con- is the form before c, d, f, g, cons. i, q, s, t, cons. v; we find conl- or coll-, conr- or corr-; có- in cónectó, cóníveó, cónítor, cónúbium. In usually changes to im- before p, b, m. Ob and sub may assimilate b to a following c, f, g, or p; before s and t the pronunciation of prepositions ending in b doubtless had p; surr-, summ-, occur for subr-, subm-. The inseparable amb- loses b before a consonant. Circum often loses its m before i. The s of dis becomes r before a vowel and is assimilated to a following f; sometimes this prefix appears as dí-. Instead of ex we find ef- before f (also ecf-). The d of red and séd is generally lost before a consonant. The preposition is better left unchanged in most other cases.


.Vowel Variations



SECTION: #17. The parent language showed great variation in the vowel sounds of kindred words. /p>

This variation is often called by the German name Ablaut. It has left considerable traces in the forms of Latin words, appearing sometimes as a difference of quantity in the same vowel (as, u, ú; e, é), sometimes as a difference in the vowel itself (as, e, o; i, ae): 12
     tegó, I cover, toga, a robe; pendó, I weigh, pondus, weight; fidés, faith, fídus, faithful, foedus, a treaty; miser, wretched, maestus, sad; dare, to give, dónum, a gift; regó, I rule, réx, a king; dux, a leader, dúcó (for older doucó), I lead. Compare English drive, drove (drave), driven; bind, bound, band; sing, sang, sung; etc.


.Kindred .Cognate Forms



SECTION: #18. Both Latin and English have gone through a series of phonetic changes, different in the two languages, but following definite laws in each. Hence both preserve traces of the older speech in some features of the vowel system, and both show certain correspondences in consonants in words which each language has inherited from the old common stock. Only a few of these correspondences can be mentioned here.



SECTION: #19. The most important correspondences in consonants between Latin and English, in cognate words, may be seen in the following table: /p>

LATIN ---------------------------ENGLISH

p: ------------pater // f: ------ father, earlier fader /p>

f from bh: ------ feró, fráter // -b: to bear, brother

b from bh: ------ lubet, libet v, // f: love, lief

t: tú, ------ tenuis // th: thou, thin /p>

d: ------ duo, dent- // t: -- two, tooth

f from dh:------ fació // d: do

d from dh:------ medius // d: mid

b from dh: ------ ruber // d: red

c: ------ ------ cord-, cornú // h: heart, horn

qu: ---------------quod // wh: what

g:------ ------ genus, gustus // c, k, ch:------ kin, choose

h (from gh): ----- hortus, haedus // y, g: yard, goat

cons. i: ------ iugum // y: yoke

v: ------ ------ --ventus, ovis // w: wind, ewe

v from gv:------ vívus (for *gvívos), venió (for gvemió ). qu, c, k: // quick, come


NOTE 1.--Sometimes a consonant lost in Latin is still represented in English: as, niv- (for sniv-), Eng. snow; á nser (for hánser), Eng. goose.

NOTE 2.--From these cases of kindred words in Latin and English must be carefully distinguished those cases in which the Latin word has been taken into English either directly or through some one of the modern descendants of Latin, especially French. Thus fació is kindred with Eng. do, but from the Latin participle ( factum) of this verb comes Eng. fact, and from the French descendant (fait) of factum comes Eng. feat.

1 Strictly, a labio-dental, pronounced with the under lip touching the upper teeth.

2 The aspirates are almost wholly confined to words borrowed from the Greek. In early Latin such borrowed sounds lost their aspiration and became simply p, t, c.

3 Palatals are often classed as (1) velars, pronounced with the tongue touching or rising toward the soft parate (in the back part of the mouth), and (2) palatals, in which the tongue touches crrises toward the hard palate (farther forward in the mouth). Compare the initial consonants in key and cool, whispering the two words, and it will be observed that before e and i the k is sounded farther forward in the mouth than before a, o, or u

4 Compare the English word Indian as pronounced in two syllables or in three.

5 In such words it is possible that the preceding consonant was labialized and that no distinct and separate consonant u was heard.

6 The spelling quum is very late and without authority.

7 The Penult is the last syllable but one; the Antepenult, the last but two.

8 A similar change can be seen in English: as, were (cf. was), lorn (cf. lose).

9 Really for *traghsí. The h of trahó represents an older palatal sound (see Sect: 19).

10 Really for traghtum. These are cases of partial assimilation (cf. 6, above).

11 This variation was not without regularity, but was confined within definite limits.

12 In Greek, however, it is more extensively preserved.

13 The Indo-European parent speech had among its consonants voiced aspirates (bh, dh, gh). All these suffered change in Latin, the most important results being, for bh, Latin f, b (English has b, v, or f); for dh, Latin f, b, d (English has d); for gh, Latin h, g ( English has y, g). The other mutes suffered in Latin much less change, while in English, as in the other Germanic languages, they have all changed considerably in accordance with what has been called Grimm's Law for the shifting of mutes.

14 Theth in father is a late development. The older form fader seems to show an exception to the rule that Englishth corresponds to Latin t. The primitive Germanic form was doubtless in accordance with this rule, but, on account of the position of the accent, which in Germanic was not originally on the first syllable in this word, the consonant underwent a secondary change to d.

15 But to the group st of Latin corresponds also English st; as in Latin stó, English stand.


.PARTS OF SPEECH



SECTION: #20. Words are divided into eight Parts of Speech: Nouns, Adjectives (including Participles), Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections.

A Noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea: as, Caesar; Róma, Rome; domus, a house; virtús, virtue.

Names of particular persons and places are called Proper Nouns; other nouns are called Common.

NOTE.--An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality or idea: as, audácia, boldness; senectús, old age. A Collective Noun is the name of a group, class, or the like: as, turba, crowd; exercitus, army.

An Adjective is a word that attributes a quality: as, bonus, good; fortis, brave, strong.

NOTE 1.--A Participle is a word that attributes quality like an adjective, but, being derived from a verb, retains in some degree the power of the verb to assert: as, Caesar cónsul creátus, Caesar having been elected consul.

NOTE 2.--Etymologically there is no difference between a noun and an adjective, both being formed alike. So, too, all names originally attribute quality, and any common name can still be so used. Thus, King William distinguishes this William from other Williams, by the attribute of royalty expressed in the name king.

A Pronoun is a word used to distinguish a person, place, thing, or idea without either naming or describing it: as, is, he; quí, who; nós, we.

Nouns and pronouns are often called Substantives.

A Verb is a word which is capable of asserting something: as, sum, I am; amat, he loves.

NOTE.--In all modern speech the verb is usually the only word that asserts anything, and a verb is therefore supposed to be necessary to complete an assertion. Strictly, however, any adjective or noun may, by attributing a quality or giving a name, make a complete assertion. In the infancy of language there could have been no other means of asserting, as the verb is of comparatively late development.

An Adverb is a word used to express the time, place, or manner of an assertion or attribute: as, splendidé mendáx, gloriously false; hodié nátus est, he was born to-day.

NOTE.--These same functions are often performed by cases (see Sect: 214-217) of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, and by phrases or sentences. In fact, all adverbs were originally cases or phrases, but have become specialized by use.

A Preposition is a word which shows the relation between a noun or pronoun and some other word or words in the same sentence: as, per agrós it, he goes over the fields; é plúribus únum, one out of many.

NOTE.--Most prepositions are specialized adverbs (cf. Sect: 219). The relations expressed by prepositions were earlier expressed by case-endings.

A Conjunction is a word which connects words, or groups of words, without affecting their grammatical relations: as, et, and; sed, but.

NOTE.--Some adverbs are also used as connectives. These are called Adverbial Conjunctions or Conjunctive (Relative) Adverbs: as, ubi, where; dónec, until.

Interjections are mere exclamations and are not strictly to be classed as parts of speech. Thus,--heus, halloo! ó, oh!

NOTE.--Interjections sometimes express an emotion which affects a person or thing mentioned, and so have a grammatical connection like other words: as, vae victís, woe to the conquered (alas for the conquered)!


.INFLECTION



SECTION: #21. Latin is an inflected language.

Inflection is a change made in the form of a word to show its grammatical relations.

Inflectional changes sometimes take place in the body of a word, or at the beginning, but oftener in its termination:
     vóx, a voice; vócis, of a voice; vocó, I call; vocat, he calls; vocet, let him call; vocávit, he has called; tangit, he touches; tetigit, he touched.

Terminations of inflection had originally independent meanings which are now obscured. They correspond nearly to the use of prepositions, auxiliaries, and personal pronouns in English.

Thus, in vocat, the termination is equivalent to he or she; in vócis, to the preposition of; and in vocet the change of vowel signifies a change of mood.

Inflectional changes in the body of a verb usually denote relations of tense or mood, and often correspond to the use of auxiliary verbs in English:
     frangit, he breaks or is breaking; frégit, he broke or has broken; mordet, he bites; momordit, he bit.



SECTION: #22. The inflection of Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Participles to denote gender, number, and case is called Declension, and these parts of speech are said to be declined.

The inflection of Verbs to denote voice, mood, tense, number, and person is called Conjugation, and the verb is said to be conjugated.

NOTE.--Adjectives are often said to have inflections of comparison. These are, however, properly stem-formations made by derivation (p. 55, footnote).



SECTION: #23. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are not inflected and are called Particles.

NOTE.--The term Particle is sometimes limited to such words as num, - ne, an (interrogative), nón, né (negative), sí (conditional), etc., which are used simply to indicate the form or construction of a sentence.


.Root, Stem, and Base



SECTION: #24. The body of a word, to which the terminations are attached, is called the Stem.

The Stem contains the idea of the word without relations; but, except in the first part of a compound (as, arti-fex, artificer), it cannot ordinarily be used without some termination to express them.

Thus the stem vóc- denotes voice; with -s added it becomes vóx, a voice or the voice, as the subject or agent of an action; with -is it becomes vócis, and signifies of a voice.

NOTE.--The stem is in many forms so united with the termination that a comparison with other forms is necessary to determine it.



SECTION: #25. A Root is the simplest form attainable by analysis of a word into its component parts.

Such a form contains the main idea of the word in a very general sense, and is common also to other words either in the same language or in kindred languages.

Thus the root of the stem vóc-is voc, which does not mean to call, or I call, or calling, but merely expresses vaguely the idea of calling, and cannot be used as a part of speech without terminations. With á-it becomes vocá-, the stem of vocáre (to call); with áv-it is the stem of vocávit (he called); with áto- it becomes the stem of vocátus (called); with átión- it becomes the stem of vocátiónis (of a calling). With its vowel lengthened it becomes the stem of vóx, vóc-is (a voice: that by which we call). This stem vóc-, with -ális added, means belonging to a voice; with -ula, a little voice.

NOTE.--In inflected languages, words are built up from Roots, which at a very early time were used alone to express ideas, as is now done in Chinese. Roots are modified into Stems, which, by inflection, become fully formed words. The process by which roots are modified, in the various forms of derivatives and compounds, is called Stem-building. The whole of this process is originally one of composition, by which significant endings are added one after another to forms capable of pronunciation and conveying a meaning.

Roots had long ceased to be recognized as such before the Latin existed as a separate language. Consequently the forms which we assume as Latin roots never really existed in Latin, but are the representatives of forms used carlier.



SECTION: #26. The Stem may be the same as the root: as in duc-is, of a leader, fer-t, he bears; but it is more frequently formed from the root.

1. By changing or lengthening its vowel: as in scob-s, sawdust (SCAB, shave); rég-is, of a king (REG, direct); vóc-is, of a voice (VOC, call).

2. By the addition of a simple suffix (originally another root): as in fugá-, stem of fuga, flight (FUG + á-); regi-s, you rule (REG + stem-ending e/o-); sini-t, he allows (SI + ne/o-).

3. By two or more of these methods: as in dúci-t, he leads (DUC + stemending e/o-).

4. By derivation and composition, following the laws of development peculiar to the language. (See Sect: 227 ff.)



SECTION: #27. The Base is that part of a word which is unchanged in inflection: as, serv- in servus; méns- in ménsa; ígn- in ígnis.

The Base and the Stem are often identical, as in many consonant stems of nouns (as, rég- in rég-is). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional termination. Thus the stem of servus is servo-; that of mensa, ménsá-; that of ígnis, ígni-.



SECTION: #28. Inflectional terminations are variously modified by combination with the final vowel or consonant of the Stem, and thus the various forms of Declension and Conjugation (see Sect: 36, 164) developed.

1 The only proper inflections of verbs are those of the personal endings; and the changes here referred to are strictly changes of stem, but have become a part of the system of inflections.

2 Another exception is the imperative second person singular in -e (as, rege).

3 For example, the root STA is found in the Sanskrit <
    >, Latin sistere and stáre, German fteben, and English stand.

4 These suffixes are Indo-European stem-endings.


.GENDER



SECTION: #29. The Genders distinguished in Latin are three: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.



SECTION: #30. The gender of Latin nouns is either natural or grammatical.

Natural Gender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted: as, puer (M.), boy; puella (F.), girl; réx (M.), king; régína (F.), queen.

NOTE 1.--Many nouns have both a masculine and a feminine form to distinguish sex: as, cervus, cerva, stag, doe; cliéns, clienta, client; victor, victríx, conqueror.

Many designations of persons (as nauta, sailor) usually though not necessarily male are always treated as masculine. Similarly names of tribes and peoples are masculine: as, Rómání, the Romans; Persae, the Persians.

NOTE 2.--A few neuter nouns are used to designate persons as belonging to a class: as, mancipium , your slave (your chattel).

Many petenames of girls and boys are neuter in form: as, Paegnium, Glycerium.

NOTE 3.--Names or classes or collections of persons may be of any gender: as, exercitus (M.), aciés (F.), and agmen (N.), army; operae (F. plur.), workmen; cópiae (F. plur.), troops, senátus (M.), senate; cohors (F.), cohort; concilium (N.), council.

Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no actual sex exists in the object. It is shown by the form of the adjective joined with the noun: as, lapis mágnus (M.), a great stone; manus mea (F.), my hand.


.Gender (grammatical)



SECTION: #31. Names of Male beings, and of Rivers, Winds, Months, and Mountains, are masculine:
     pater, father; Iúlius, Julius; Tiberis, the Tiber; auster, south wind; Iánuárius, January; Apennínus, the Apennines.

NOTE.--Names of Months are properly adjectives, the masculine noun ménsis, month, being understood: as, Iánuárius, January.

A few names of Rivers ending in - a (as, Allia), with the Greek names Léthé and Styx, are feminine; others are variable or uncertain.

Some names of Mountains are feminine or neuter, taking the gender of their termination: as, Alpés (F.), the Alps; Sóracte (N.).



SECTION: #32. Names of Female beings, of Cities, Countries, Plants, Trees, and Gems, of many Animals (especially Birds), and of most abstract Qualities, are feminine:

máter, mother; Iúlia, Julia; Róma, Rome; Italia, Italy; rosa, rose; pínus, pine; sapphírus, sapphire; anas, duck; véritás, truth.

Some names of Towns and Countries are masculine: as, Sulmó, Gabií (plur.); or neuter as, Tarentum, Illyricum.

A few names of Plants and Gems follow the gender of their termination: as, centauréum (N.), centaury; acanthus (M.), bearsfoot; opalus (M.), opal.

NOTE.--The gender of most of the above may also be recognized by the terminations, according to the rules given under the several declensions. The names of Roman women were usually feminine adjectives denoting their géns or house (see Sect: 108. b).



SECTION: #33. Indeclinable nouns, infinitives, terms or phrases used as nouns, and words quoted merely for their form, are neuter:

fás, right; nihil, nothing; gummí, gum; scíre tuum, your knowledge (to know); tríste valé, a sad farewell; hóc ipsum, this very thing; diú, very long



SECTION: #34. Many nouns may be either masculine or feminine, according to the sex of the object. These are said to be of Common Gender: as, exsul, exile; bós, ox or cow; paréns, parent.

NOTE.--Several names of animals have a grammatical gender, independent of sex. These are called epicene. Thus lepus, hare, is always masculine, and vulpés, fox, is always feminine.


.NUMBER AND CASE



SECTION: #35.

Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, and Participles are declined in two Numbers, singular and plural; and in six Cases, nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, vocative.

The Nominative is the case of the Subject of a sentence.

The Genitive may generally be translated by the English Possessive, or by the Objective with the preposition of.

The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object (Sect: 274). It may usually be translated by the Objective with the preposition to or for.

The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object of a verb (Sect: 274). It is used also with many of the prepositions.

The Ablative may usually be translated by the Objective with from, by, with, in, or at. It is often used with prepositions.

The Vocative is the case of Direct Address.

All the cases, except the nominative and vocative, are used as objectcases; and are sometimes called Oblique Cases ( cásús oblíquí).

In names of towns and a few other words appear traces of another case (the Locative), denoting the place where: as, Rómae, at Rome; rúrí, in the country.

NOTE.--Still another case, the Instrumental, appears in a few adverbs (Sect: 215. 4).


.DECLENSION OF NOUNS



SECTION: #36. Declension is produced by adding terminations originally significant to different forms of stems, vowel or consonant. The various phonetic corruptions in the language have given rise to the several declensions. Most of the case-endings, as given in Latin, contain also the final letter of the stem.

Adjectives are, in general, declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed with them; but they have several peculiarities of inflection (see Sect: 109 ff.).



SECTION: #37. Nouns are inflected in five Declensions, distinguished by the final letter (characteristic) of the Stem, and by the case-ending of the Genitive Singular.


.DECLENSIONS OF THE 5 Types

                     SING.
Decl. 1  Nom sg.           -a
Decl. 2  Nom sg.-          -o/u
Decl. 2  Nom sg.            --
Decl. 3  Nom sg.           -u
Decl. 4  Nom sg.           -ié
     PLUR.
Decl. 1  Gen Sg.           -ae
Decl. 2  Gen Sg.           -rum
Decl. 3 Gen Sg.            -is
Decl. 4 Gen Sg.            -ús
Decl. 5 Gen Sg.            -iés

The Stem of a noun may be found, if a consonant stem, by Decl. 3 omitting the case-ending; if a vowel stem, by substituting Decl. 4 for the case-ending the characteristic vowel.



SECTION: #38. The following are General Rules of Declension:

The Vocative is always the same as the Nominative, except in the singular of nouns and adjectives in -us of the second declension, which have - e in the vocative. It is not included in the paradigms, unless it differs from the nominative.

In neuters the Nominative and Accusative are always alike, and in the plural end in -á.

The Accusative singular of all masculines and feminines ends in -m; the Accusative plural in -s.

In the last three declensions (and in a few cases in the others) the Dative singular ends in -í.

The Dative and Ablative plural are always alike.

The Genitive plural always ends in -um.

Final -i, -o, -u of inflection are always long; final -a is short, except in the Ablative singular of the first declension; final -e is long in the first and fifth declensions, short in the second and third. Final -is and -us are long in plural cases.


.Case-endings of the Five Declensions



SECTION: #39. The regular Case-endings of the several declensions are the following:

Endings of the Five Declensions

Nendg.jpg


.FIRST DECLENSION (á-STEMS)



SECTION: #40. The Stem of nouns of the First Declension ends in á-. The Nominative ending is -a (the stem-vowel shortened), except in Greek nouns.



SECTION: #41. Latin nouns of the First Declension are thus declined:

stella, F., star

STEM stellá-


   SINGULAR
Nom                   stella
Gen.                  stellae
Dat.                  stellae
Acc.                  stellam
Abl.                  stellá
Voc.                  stella
    PLURAL
Nom                   stellae
Gen.                  stellárum
Dat.                  stellís
Acc.                  stellás
Abl.                  stellís
Voc.                  stellae

The Latin has no article; hence stella may mean a star, the star, or simply star.




.Gender in the First Declension



SECTION: #42. Nouns of the first declension are Feminine.

Exceptions: Nouns masculine from their signification: as, nauta, sailor. So a few family or personal names: as, Múréna, Dolábella, Scaevola; also, Hadria, the Adriatic.

Case-Forms in the First Declension



SECTION: #43. a. The genitive singular anciently ended in -áí (dissyllabic), which is occasionally found: as, auláí. The same ending sometimes occurs in the dative, but only as a diphthong.

An old genitive in -ás is preserved in the word familiás, often used in the combinations pater ( máter, fílius, fília) familiás, father, etc., of a family (plur. patrés familiás or familiárum).

The Locative form for the singular ends in -ae; for the plural in - ís (cf. p. 34, footnote): as, Rómae, at Rome; Athénís, at Athens.

The genitive plural is sometimes found in -um instead of -árum, especially in Greek patronymics, as, Aeneadum, sons of Aeneas, and in compounds with -caela and -gena, signifying dwelling and descent: as, caelicolum, celestials; Tróiugenum, sons of Troy; so also in the Greek nouns amphora and drachma.

The dative and ablative plural of dea, goddess, fília, daughter, end in an older form -ábus (deábus, fíliábus) to distinguish them from the corresponding cases of deus, god, and fílius, son ( deís, fíliís). So rarely with other words, as, líberta, freed-woman; múla, she-mule; equa, mare. But, except when the two sexes are mentioned together (as in formulas, documents, etc.), the form in -ís is preferred in all but dea and fília.

NOTE 1.--The old ending of the ablative singular (-ád) is sometimes retained in early Latin: as, praidád, booty (later, praedá).

NOTE 2.--In the dative and ablative plural -eis for -ís is sometimes found, and -iís (as in taeniís) is occasionally contracted to -ís (taenís); so regularly in words in -áia (as, Báís from Báiae).

Greek Nouns of the First Declension



SECTION: #44. Many nouns of the First Declension borrowed from the Greek are entirely Latinized (as, aula, court); but others retain traces of their Greek case-forms in the singular.

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    músicae
                  Dat.                   músicae
                  Acc.                   músicam
                  Abl.                   músicá
                  Voc.                   músicae
          

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    eptomé
                  Gen.                   epitomés
                  Dat.                   epitomé
                  Acc.                   epitomén
                  Abl.                   epitomé
                  Voc.
           

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    Aeneás
                  Gen.                   Aenéae
                  Dat.                   Aenéae
                  Acc.                   Aenéán
                  Abl.                   Aenéá
                  Voc.                   Aenéá
                        PLURAL
                  Nom                    Aeneadae
                  Gen.                   Aeneadarum
                  Dat.                   Aeneadis
                  Acc.                   Aeneadas
                  Abl.                   Aeneadis
                  Voc.                   Aeneadae

There are (besides proper names) about thirty-five of these words, several being names of plants or arts: as, crambé, cabbage; músicé, music. Most have also regular Latin forms: as, cométa; but the nominative sometimes has the a long.

Greek forms are found only in the singular; the plural, when it occurs, is regular: as, cométae, -árum, etc.

Many Greek nouns vary between the first, the second, and the third declensions: as, Boótae (genitive of Boótes, -is), Thúcydidás (accusative plural of Thúcydidés, -is). See Sect: 52. a and Sect: 81.

NOTE.--The Greek accusative Scípiadam, from Scípiadés, descendant of the Scipios, is found in Horace.

1 Scaevola is really a feminine adjective, used as a noun, meaning little left hand; but, being used as the name of a man (originally a nickname), it became masculine. Original genders are often thus changed by a change in the sense of a noun.


.SECOND DECLENSION (o-STEMS)



SECTION: #45. The Stem of nouns of the Second Declension ends in o-: as, viro- (stem of vir, man), servo- (stem of servus or servos, slave), bello- (stem of bellum, war).

The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s in masculines and feminines, and m in neuters, the vowel o being weakened to u (see Sect: 6. a, 46. N.1).

In most nouns whose stem ends in ro- the s is not added in the Nominative, but o is lost, and e intrudes before r,if not already present: as, ager, stem agro-; cf. puer, stem puero-.

Exceptions: erus, hesperus, iúniperus, mórus, numerus, taurus, umerus, uterus, vé rus, and many Greek nouns.

The stem-vowel o has a variant form e,which is preserved in the Latin vocative singular of nouns in -us: as, serve, vocative of servus, slave.

NOTE.--In composition this -e- appears as -i. Thus,--belli- ger, warlike (from bell- o/e-, stem of bellum, war).



SECTION: #46. Nouns of the Second Declension in -us (- os) and -um (-om) are thus declined:

servus, M., slave bellum, N., war Pompeiius, M., Pompey

STEM servo- STEM bello- STEM Pompéio-



Masculine. . servus (- os) -

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    servus (os)
                  Gen.                   serví
                  Dat.                   servó
                  Acc.                   servum (-om)
                  Abl.                   servó
                  Voc.                   serve
            PLURAL
                  Nom                    serví
                  Gen.                   servórum
                  Dat.                   servís
                  Acc.                   servós
                  Abl.                   servís
                  Voc.                   serví

Neuter

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    bellum
                  Gen.                   bellí
                  Dat.                   belló
                  Acc.                   bellum
                  Abl.                   belló
                  Voc.                   bellum
            PLURAL
                  Nom                    bella
                  Gen.                   bellórum
                  Dat.                   bellís
                  Acc.                   bella
                  Abl.                   bellís
                  Voc.                   bella

NOTE 1.--The earlier forms for nominative and accusative were - os, -om, and these were always retained after u and v up to the end of the Republic. The terminations s and m are sometimes omitted in inscriptions: as, Cornélio for Cornélios, Corneliom.

NOTE 2.--Stems in quo-, like equo-, change qu to c before u. Thus,--ecus (earlier equos), equí, equó, ecum (earlier equom), eque. Modern editions disregard this principle.



SECTION: #47. Nouns of the Second Declension in -er and -ir are thus declined:

puer, M., boy ager, M., field vir, M., man

STEM Masc.puero- STEM Masc.viro-

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    puer
                  Gen.                   puerí
                  Dat.                   pueró
                  Acc.                   puerum
                  Abl.                   pueró
                  Voc.                   puere
            PLURAL
                  Nom                    puerí
                  Gen.                   puerórum-
                  Dat.                   puerís
                  Acc.                   puerós
                  Abl.                   puerís
                  Voc.                   puerí

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    vir
                  Gen.                   virí
                  Dat.                   viró
                  Acc.                   virum
                  Abl.                   viró
                  Voc.                   vir
            PLURAL
                  Nom                    virí
                  Gen.                   virórum
                  Dat.                   virís
                  Acc.                   virós
                  Abl.                   virís
                  Voc.                   virí

NOTE.--When e belongs to the stem, as in puer, it is retained throughout; other, wise it appears only in the nominative and vocative singular, as in ager.

Gender in the Second Declension



SECTION: #48. Nouns ending in -us (- os), -er, -ir, are Masculine; those ending in -um (-on) are Neuter.

Exceptions: Names of countries and towns in -us (- os) are Feminine: as, Aegyptus, Corinthus. Also many names of plants and gems, with the following: alvus, belly; carbasus, linen (pl. carbasa, sails, N.); colus, distaff; humus, ground: vannus, winnowing-shovel.

Many Greek nouns retain their original gender: as, arctus (F.), the Polar Bear; methodus (F.), method.

The following in -us are Neuter; their accusative (as with all neuters) is the same as the nominative: pelagus, sea; vírus, poison; vulgus (rarely M.), the crowd. They are not found in the plural, except pelagus, which has a rare nominative and accusative plural pelagé.

NOTE.--The nominative plural neuter cété, sea monsters, occurs; the nominative singular cétus occurs in Vitruvius.

Case-Forms in the Second Declension



SECTION: #49. a. The Locative form of this declension ends for the singular in - í: as, humí, on the ground; Corinthí, at Corinth; for the plural, in - ís: as, Philippís, at Philippi (cf. p. 34, footnote).

The genitive of nouns in - ius or -ium ended, until the Augustan Age, in a single - í: as, fílí, of a son; Pompeií, of Pompey ( Pompeiius); but the accent of the nominative is retained: as, inge' ní, of genius.

Proper names in - ius have - í in the vocative, retaining the accent of the nominative: as, Vergi'lí. So also, fílius, son; genius, divine guardian: as, audí, mí fílí, hear, my son.

Adjectives in -ius form the vocative in -ie, and some of these are occasionally used as nouns: as, Lacedaemonie, O Spartan.

NOTE.--Greek names in -íus have the vocative -íe: as, Lyrcíus, vocative Lyrcíe.

The genitive plural often has -um or (after v) -om (cf. Sect: 6. a) instead of - órum, especially in the poets: as, deum, superum, dívom, of the gods; virum, of men. Also in compounds of vir, and in many words of money, measure, and weight: as, Sévirum, of the Seviri; nummum, of coins; iúgerum, of acres.

The original ending of the ablative singular (-o d) is sometimes found in early Latin: as, Gnaivód (later, Gnaeó), Cneius.

Proper names in -áius, - eiius, -éius (as, Aurunculeiius, Bóí), are declined like Pompeiius. (N Sg deus N.Pl dei

NOTE.--The vocative singular of deus does not occur in classic Latin, but is said to have been dee; deus (like the nominative) occurs in the Vulgate. For the genitive plural, dívum or dívom (from dívus, divine) is often used.



SECTION: #50. The following stems in ero-, in which e belongs to the stem, retain the e throughout and are declined like puer (Sect: 47):

adulter, adulterer; gener, son-in-law; puer, boy;

socer, father-in-law; vesper, evening; Líber, Bacchus.

Also, the adjective líber, free, of which líberí, children, is the plural (Sect: 111. a), and compounds in - fer and -ger (stem fero-, gero-): as, lucifer, morning star; armiger, squire.

An old nominative socerus occurs. So vocative puere, boy, as if from *puerus (regularly puer).

Vir, man, has genitive virí; the adjective satur, sated, has saturí; vesper, evening, has ablative vespere (locative vesperí, in the evening).

Mulciber, Vulcan, has -beré and -brí in the genitive. The barbaric names Hiber and Celtibér retain é throughout.



SECTION: #51. The following, not having e in the stem, insert it in the nominative singular and are declined like ager (Sect: 47):

ager, field, stem agro-; coluber, snake; magister, master;

aper, boar; conger, sea eel; minister, servant;

arbiter, judge; culter, knife; oleaster, wild olive;

auster, south wind; faber, smith; onager (-grus), wild ass;

cancer, crab; fiber, beaver; scomber (-brus), mackerel.

caper, goat; liber, book;

Greek Nouns of the Second Declension



SECTION: #52. Greek nouns of the Second Declension end in - os, - ós, masculine or feminine, and in -on neuter.

They are mostly proper names and are declined as follows in the Singular, the Plural, when found, being regular:

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    Dél os
                  Gen.                   Délí
                  Dat.                   Déló
                  Acc.                   Délon
                  Abl.                   Déló
                  Voc.                   Dél e
          

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    Ilion
                  Gen.                   Ilií
                  Dat.                   Ilió
                  Acc.                   Ilion
                  Abl.                   Ilió
                  Voc.                   Ilion


Many names in - és belonging to the third declension have also a genitive in - í: as, Thúcydides, Thúcydidí (compare Sect: 44. b).

Several names in -er have also a nominative in -us: as, Teucer or Teucrus. The name Panthús has the vocative Panthú (Sect: 81. 3).

The genitive plural of certain titles of books takes the Greek termination -ón: as, Geórgicón, of the Georgics.

The termination -oe (for Greek -oi) is sometimes found in the nominative plural: as, Adelphoe, the Adelphi (a play of Terence).

Greek names in -eus (like Orpheus) have forms of the second and third declensions (see Sect: 82).

1 Compare the English chamber from French chambre.

2 Compare Greek agros, which shows the original o of the stem.

3 By so-called Ablaut (see Sect: 17. a).

4 The genitive in -ií occurs once in Virgil, and constantly in Ovid, but was probably unknown to Cicero.


.THIRD DECLENSION (CONSONANT AND i-STEMS)



SECTION: #53. Nouns of the Third Declension end in
a, e, í, ó, y, c, l, n, r, s, t, x.



SECTION: #54. Stems of the Third Declension are classed as follows:

I. Consonant Stems a. Mute stems. b. Liquid and Nasal stems.

II. I-Stems a. Pure i-stems. b. Mixed i-stems.



SECTION: #55. The Nominative is always derived from the stem.

The variety in form in the Nominative is due to simple modi fications of the stem, of which the most important are.

1. Combination of final consonants: as of c (or g) and s to form x; dux, ducis, stem duc-; réx, régis, stem reg-.

2. Omission of a final consonant: as of a final nasal; leó, leónis, stem león-; órátió, órátiónis, stem ó rátión-.

3. Omission of a final vowel: as of final i; calcar, calcáris, stem calcá ri-.

4. Change of vowel in the final syllable : as of a to e; prínceps (for -caps), príncipis, stem pré ncip- (for -cap-).


.CONSONANT STEMS

Mute Stems



SECTION: #56. Masculine and Feminine Nouns with mute stems form the Nominative by adding s to the stem.

A labial (p) is retained before s: as, príncep- s.

A lingual (t, d) is dropped before s: as, mé les (stem mílit-), cústós (stem cústód-).

A palatal (c, g) unites with s to form x: as, dux (for *duc-s), réx (for reg-s).

In dissyllabic stems the final syllable often shows e in the nominative and i in the stem: as, prínceps, stem pré ncip- (for -cap-).



SECTION: #57. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

prínceps, C., chief rádíx, F., root míles, M., soldier

STEM pré ncip- "chief"



                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    prínceps
                  Gen.                   príncip is
                  Dat.                   príncip í
                  Acc.                   príncip em
                  Abl.                   príncip e
                  Voc.                   prínceps
            PLURAL
                  Nom                    príncip és
                  Gen.                   préincipum
                  Dat.                   príncipibus
                  Acc.                   príncip és
                  Abl.                   príncipibus
                  Voc.                   príncip és

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    rádíx
                  Gen.                   rádíc is
                  Dat.                   rádíc í
                  Acc.                   rádíc em
                  Abl.                   rádíc e
                  Voc.                   rádíx
            PLURAL
                  Nom                    rádíc és
                  Gen.                   rádé cum
                  Dat.                   rádícibus
                  Acc.                   rádíc és
                  Abl.                   rádícibus
                  Voc.                   rádíc és

                     SINGULAR
                  Nom                    míles
                  Gen.                   mílit is
                  Dat.                   mílit í
                  Acc.                   mílit em
                  Abl.                   mílit e
                  Voc.                   míles
            PLURAL
                  Nom                    mílit és
                  Gen.                   militum
                  Dat.                   mílitibus
                  Acc.                   mílit és
                  Abl.                   mílitibus
                  Voc.                   mílit és

                 SINGULAR
                  Nom                    cústós
                  Gen.                   cústód is
                  Dat.                   cústód í
                  Acc.                   cústód em
                  Abl.                   cústód e
                  Voc.
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    cústód és
                  Gen.                   cústódum
                  Dat.                   cústódibus
                  Acc.                   cústód és
                  Abl.                   cústódibus
                  Voc.                   cústód és

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    dux
                  Gen.                   ducis
                  Dat.                   ducí
                  Acc.                   ducem
                  Abl.                   duce
                  Voc.                   dux
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    ducés
                  Gen.                   ducum
                  Dat.                   ducibus
                  Acc.                   ducés
                  Abl.                   ducibus
                  Voc.                   duc és

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    réx
                  Gen.                   rég s
                  Dat.                   régí
                  Acc.                   régem
                  Abl.                   rége
                  Voc.                   réx
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    régés
                  Gen.                   regum
                  Dat.                   regibus
                  Acc.                   régés
                  Abl.                   regibus
                  Voc.                   régés

In like manner are declined--
     ariés, - etis (M.), ram; comes, - itis (c.), companion; lapis, -idis (M.), stone; iúdex, -icis (M.), judge; corníx, -ícis (F.), raven, and many other nouns.



SECTION: #58. Most mute stems are Masculine or Feminine. Those that are neuter have for the Nominative the simple stem. But:

Lingual Stems (t, d) ending in two consonants drop the final mute: as, cor (stem cord-), lac (stem lact-). So also stems in éa t- from the Greek: as, poé ma (stem poémat-).

The stem capit- shows u in the nominative (caput for capot).



SECTION: #59. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

cor, N., heart caput, N., head poéma, N., poem

STEM cord- STEM capit- STEM poemat-

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    cor
                  Gen.                   cordis
                  Dat.                   cord í
                  Acc.                   cor
                  Abl.                   corde
                  Voc.                   cor
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    cord a
                  Gen.                   cordum
                  Dat.                   cordibus
                  Acc.                   cord a
                  Abl.                   cordibus
                  Voc.                   cord a

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    caput
                  Gen.                   capitis
                  Dat.                   capiti
                  Acc.                   caput
                  Abl.                   capite
                  Voc.                   caput
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    capita
                  Gen.                   capiyum
                  Dat.                   capitibus
                  Acc.                   capita
                  Abl.                   capitibus
                  Voc.                   capita

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    poéma
                  Gen.                   poémat is
                  Dat.                   poémat í
                  Acc.                   poéma
                  Abl.                   poémat e
                  Voc.                   poéma
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    poémat a
                  Gen.                   poématum
                  Dat.                   poématum
                  Acc.                   poémat a
                  Abl.                   poématum
                  Voc.                   poémat a



SECTION: #60. The following irregularities require notice:

Greek neuters with nominative singular in - a (as poéma) frequently end in - ís in the dative and ablative plural, and rarely in - órum in the genitive plural; as, poématís (for poématibus), poématórum (for poématum).

A number of monosyllabic nouns with mute stems want the genitive plural (like cor). See Sect: 103. g. 2.


.Liquid and Nasal Stems (l, n, r)



SECTION: #61. In Masculine and Feminine nouns with liquid and nasal stems the Nominative is the same as the stem.

Exceptions are the following:

1. Stems in ón- drop n in the nominative: as in legió, stem legión-.

2. Stems in din- and gin- drop n and keep an original ó in the nominative: as in virgó, stem virgin-.

3. Stems in in- (not din- or gin-) retain n and have e instead of i in the nominative: as in cornicen, stem cornicin-.

4. Stems in tr- have -ter in the nominative: as, pater, stem patr-.



SECTION: #62. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

cónsul, M., consul leó, M., lion virgó, F., maiden pater, M., father

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    cónsul
                  Gen.                   cónsul is
                  Dat.                   cónsul í
                  Acc.                   cónsul em
                  Abl.                   cónsul e
                  Voc.                   cónsul
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    cónsul és
                  Gen.                   cónsulum
                  Dat.                   cónsulibus
                  Acc.                   cónsul és
                  Abl.                   cónsulibus
                  Voc.                   cónsul és

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    leó
                  Gen.                   leónis
                  Dat.                   leóní
                  Acc.                   leónem
                  Abl.                   leóne
                  Voc.                   leó
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    león és
                  Gen.                   leónum
                  Dat.                   leónibus
                  Acc.                   leónés
                  Abl.                   leónibus
                  Voc.                   león és

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    virgó
                  Gen.                   virginis
                  Dat.                   virginí
                  Acc.                   virginem
                  Abl.                   virgine
                  Voc.                   virgó
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    virginés
                  Gen.                   virginum
                  Dat.                   virginibus
                  Acc.                   virginés
                  Abl.                   virginibus
                  Voc.                   virginés

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    pater
                  Gen.                   patris
                  Dat.                   patri
                  Acc.                   patrem
                  Abl.                   patre
                  Voc.                   pater
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    patrés
                  Gen.                   patrum
                  Dat.                   patribus
                  Acc.                   patrés
                  Abl.                   patribus
                  Voc.                   patrés

NOTE 1.--Stems in ll-, rr- (N.) lose one of their liquids in the nominative: as, far, farris; mel, mellis.

NOTE 2.--A few masculine and feminine stems have a nominative in -s as well as in -r: as, honós or honor, arbós or arbor.

NOTE 3.-- Canis, dog, and iuvenis, youth, have - is in the nominative.



SECTION: #63. In Neuter nouns with liquid or nasal stems the Nominative is the same as the stem.

Exceptions: 1. Stems in in- have e instead of i in the nominative: as in nómen, stem nómin-.

2. Most stems in er- and or- have -us in the nominative: as, genus, stem gener-.



SECTION: #64. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

nomen, N., name genus, N., race corpus, N., body aequor, N., sea

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    nómen
                  Gen.                   nómin is
                  Dat.                   nómin í
                  Acc.                   nómen
                  Abl.                   nómin e
                  Voc.                   nómen
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    nómin a
                  Gen.                   nóminum
                  Dat.                   nóminibus
                  Acc.                   nómin a
                  Abl.                   nóminibus
                  Voc.                   nómin a

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    genus
                  Gen.                   generis
                  Dat.                   generi
                  Acc.                   genus
                  Abl.                   genere
                  Voc.                   genus
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    genera
                  Gen.                   generum
                  Dat.                   generibus
                  Acc.                   genera
                  Abl.                   generibus
                  Voc.                   gener a

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    corpus
                  Gen.                   corporis
                  Dat.                   corpori
                  Acc.                   corpus
                  Abl.                   corpore
                  Voc.                   corpus
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    corpora
                  Gen.                   corporum
                  Dat.                   corporibus
                  Acc.                   corpore
                  Abl.                   corporibus
                  Voc.                   corpora

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    aequor
                  Gen.                   aequoris
                  Dat.                   aequori
                  Acc.                   aequor
                  Abl.                   aequore
                  Voc.                   aequor
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    aequor a
                  Gen.                   aequorum
                  Dat.                   aequoribus
                  Acc.                   aequora
                  Abl.                   aequoribus
                  Voc.                   aequora

So also are declined opus, - eris, work; pígnus, - eris or - oris, pledge, etc.

NOTE.--The following real or apparent liquid and nasal stems have the genitive plural in -ium, and are to be classed with the i-stems: imber, linter, úter, venter; glís, más, mús, [ rén]; also vírés (plural of vís: see Sect: 79).


The i-STEMS



SECTION: #65. Nouns of this class include:

1. Pure i-Stems:

Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic nouns in - is and four in -er.

Neuters in - e, -al, and -ar.

2. Mixed i-Stems, declined in the singular like consonant stems, the plural like i-stems.

1 These differences depend in part upon special phonetic laws, in accordance with which vowels in weakly accented or unaccented syllables are variously modified, and in part upon the influence of analogy.

2 These differences depend in part upon special phonetic laws, in accordance with which vowels in weakly accented or unaccented syllables are variously modified, and in part upon the influence of analogy.

3 These, no doubt, had originally ter- in the stem, but this had become weakened to tr- in some of the cases even in the parent speech. In Latin only the nominative and vocative singular show the e. But cf. Máspitris and Máspiteris (Má[r]s-piter), quoted by Priscian as old forms.

4 These were originally s-stems (cf. Sect: 15. 4).

5 I.e. having the same number of syllables in the nominative and genitive singular.


.Pure I-Stems --Pure



SECTION: #66. Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic nouns in - is form the Nominative singular by adding s to the stem.

Four stems in bri- and tri- do not add s to form the nominative, but drop i and insert e before r. These are imber, linter, úter, venter.



SECTION: #67. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

sitis, F., thirst turris, F., tower ígnis, M., fire imber, M., rain

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    sitis
                  Gen.                   sitis
                  Dat.                   siti
                  Acc.                   sitim
                  Abl.                   siti
                  Voc.                   sitis

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    turris
                  Gen.                   turris
                  Dat.                   turri
                  Acc.                   turrim (-em)
                  Abl.                   turrí
                  Voc.                   turris
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    turrés
                  Gen.                   turrium
                  Dat.                   turribus
                  Acc.                   turrés
                  Abl.                   turribus
                  Voc.                   turrés

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    ígnis
                  Gen.                   ígnis
                  Dat.                   ígni
                  Acc.                   ígnem
                  Abl.                   ígne
                  Voc.                   ígnis
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    ígnés
                  Gen.                   ígnium
                  Dat.                   ígnibus
                  Acc.                   ígnés
                  Abl.                   ígnibus
                  Voc.                   ígnés

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    imber
                  Gen.                   imbris
                  Dat.                   imbri
                  Acc.                   imbrem
                  Abl.                   imbre
                  Voc.                   imber
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    imbrés<
                  Gen.                   imbrium<
                  Dat.                   imbribus
                  Acc.                   imbrés<
                  Abl.                   imbribus
                  Voc.                   imbrés<



SECTION: #68. In Neuters the Nominative is the same as the stem, with final i changed to e: as, mare, stem mari-. But most nounsin which the i of the stem is preceded by ál or ár lose the final vowel and shorten the preceding á: as, animéa l, stem animáli-.

Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar have - í in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive plural, and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural: as, animal, animálí, -ia, -ium.



SECTION: #69. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:


                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    sedíle
                  Gen.                   sedílis
                  Dat.                   sedílí
                  Acc.                   sedíle
                  Abl.                   sedíle
                  Voc.                   sedíle
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    sedília
                  Gen.                   sedílium
                  Dat.                   sedílibus
                  Acc.                   sedília
                  Abl.                   sedílibus
                  Voc.                   sedília

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    animal
                  Gen.                   animális
                  Dat.                   animálí
                  Acc.                   animal
                  Abl.                   animálí
                  Voc.                   animal
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    animália
                  Gen.                   animálium
                  Dat.                   animálibus
                  Acc.                   animália
                  Abl.                   animálibus
                  Voc.                   animália

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    calcar
                  Gen.                   calcáris
                  Dat.                   calcárí
                  Acc.                   calcar
                  Abl.                   calcárí
                  Voc.                   calcar
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    calcária
                  Gen.                   calcárium
                  Dat.                   calcáribus
                  Acc.                   calcária
                  Abl.                   calcáribus
                  Voc.                   calcária

1 Such are animal, bacchánal, bidental, capital, cervícal, cubital, lupercal, minútal, puteal, quadrantal, toral, tribúnal, vectígal; calcar, cochlear, exemplar, lacúnar, laquear, túcar, luminar, lupánar, palear, pulvínar, torcular. Cf. the plurals dentália, frontália, genuália, spónsália; altária, plantária, speculária, tálária; also many names of festivals, as, Sáturnália.

2 Exceptions are augurále, colláre, fócále, návále, penetrále, rámále, scútále, tíbiále; alveáre, capilláre. cochleáre.


.Mixed i-Stems



SECTION: #70. Mixed i-stems are either original i-stems that have lost their i-forms in the singular, or consonant stems that have assumed i- forms in the plural.

NOTE.--It is sometimes impossible to distinguish between these two classes.



SECTION: #71. Mixed i-stems have -em in the accusative and - e in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitiveand - ís or - és in the accusative plural. They include the following:

1. Nouns in - és, gen. - is.

2. Monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a consonant: as, ars, póns, arx.

3. Polysyllables in -ns or -rs: as, cliéns, cohors.

4. Nouns in -tás, genitive - tátis (genitive plural usually -um): as, cívitás.

5. Penát és, optimátés, and nouns denoting birth or abode (patrials) in -ás, - ís, plural -átés, - ítés: as, Arpínás, plural Arpínátés; Quiré s, plural Quirítés.

6. The following monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a vowel: dós, fraus, glís, lís, más, mús, nix, nox, strix, vís.



SECTION: #72. Nouns of this class are thus declined:

núbés, F., cloud urbs, F., city nox, F., night cliéns, M., client aetás, F., age

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    núbés
                  Gen.                   núbis
                  Dat.                   núbí
                  Acc.                   núbem
                  Abl.                   núbe
                  Voc.                   núbés
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    núbés
                  Gen.                   núbium
                  Dat.                   núbibus
                  Acc.                   núbés
                  Abl.                   núbibus
                  Voc.                   núbés

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    urbs
                  Gen.                   urbis
                  Dat.                   urbí
                  Acc.                   urbem
                  Abl.                   urbe
                  Voc.                   urbs
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    urbés
                  Gen.                   urbium
                  Dat.                   urbibus
                  Acc.                   urbés
                  Abl.                   urbibus
                  Voc.                   urbium

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    nox
                  Gen.                   noctis
                  Dat.                   noctí
                  Acc.                   noctem
                  Abl.                   nocte
                  Voc.                   nox
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    noctés
                  Gen.                   noctium
                  Dat.                   noctibus
                  Acc.                   noctés
                  Abl.                   noctibus
                  Voc.                   noctés

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    cliéns
                  Gen.                   clientis
                  Dat.                   clientí
                  Acc.                   clientem
                  Abl.                   clientem
                  Voc.                   cliéns
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    clientés
                  Gen.                   clientium
                  Dat.                   clientibus
                  Acc.                   clientés
                  Abl.                   clientibus
                  Voc.                   clientés

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    aetás
                  Gen.                   aetátis
                  Dat.                   aetátí
                  Acc.                   aetátem
                  Abl.                   aetáte
                  Voc.                   aetás
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    aetátés
                  Gen.                   aetátum
                  Dat.                   aetátibus
                  Acc.                   aetátés
                  Abl.                   aetátibus
                  Voc.                   aetátés

1 There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having -ium, some -um, and some both.

2 These are acínacés, aedés, alcés, caedés, cautés, cládés, compáges, contágés, famés, félés, fidés (plural), indolés, lábés, lués, mélés, mólés, núbés, palumbés, prólés,própáges, púbés, sédés, saepés, sordés, strágés, strués, subolés, tábés, torqués, tudés, vátés, vehés, veprés, verrés, vulpés; aedés has also nominative aedis.

3 There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having -ium, some -um, and some both.

4 Rarely clientum.

5 Also aetátium. Cf.Sect: 71. 4.

Summary of i-Stems



SECTION: #73. The i-declension was confused even to the Romans themselves, nor was it stable at all periods of the language, early Latin having i-forms which afterwards disappeared. There was a tendency in nouns to lose the i-forms, in adjectives to gain them. The nominative plural (-ís)was most thoroughly lost, next the accusative singular (-im), next the ablative (-í); while the genitive and accusative plural (-ium, - ís) were retained in almost all.



SECTION: #74. I-stems show the i of the stem in the following forms:

They have the genitive plural in -ium (but some monosyllables lack it entirely). For a few exceptions, see Sect: 78.

All neuters have the nominative and accusative plural in -ia.

The accusative plural (M. or F.) is regularly - ís.

The accusative singular (M. or F.) of a few ends in -im (Sect: 75).

The ablative singular of all neuters, and of many masculines and feminines, ends in - í (see Sect: 76).



SECTION: #75. The regular case-ending of the Accusative singular of i- stems (M. or F.) would be -im: as, sitis, sitim (cf. stella, -am; servus, -um); but in most nouns this is changed to - em (following the consonant declension).

The accusative in -im is found exclusively:

1. In Greek nouns and in names of rivers.

2. In búris, cucumis, rávis, sitis, tussis, vís.

3. In adverbs in -tim (being accusative of nouns in -tis), as, partim; and in amussim.

The accusative in -im is found sometimes in febris, puppis, restis, turris, secúris, sémentis, and rarely in many other words.



SECTION: #76. The regular form of the Ablative singular of i-stems would be - í: as, sitis, sití; but in most nouns this is changed to - e.

The ablative in - í is found exclusively:

1. In nouns having the accusative in -im (Sect: 75); also secúris.

2. In the following adjectives used as nouns: aequális, annális, aquális, cónsuláris, gentílis, moláris, prímipíláris, tribúlis.

3. In neuters in - e, -al, -ar: except baccar, iubar, réte, and sometimes mare.

The ablative in - í is found sometimes:

1. In avis, clávis, febris, fínis, ígnis,imber, lúx, návis, ovis, pelvis, puppis, sémentis, strigilis, turris, and occasionally in other words.

2. In the following adjectives used as nouns: affínis, bipennis, canális, familiáris, nátális, rívális, sapiéns, tridéns, trirémis, vócális.

NOTE 1.--The ablative of famés is always fam é (Sect: 105. e). The defective máne has sometimes mání (Sect: 103. b. N.) as ablative.

NOTE 2.--Most names of towns in - e (as, Praeneste, Tergeste) and Sóracte, a mountain, have the ablative in - e. Caere has Caerete.

NOTE 3.--Canis and iuvenis have cane, iuvene



SECTION: #77. The regular Nominative plural of i-stems is -és,but - ís is occasionally found. The regular Accusative plural - ís is common, but not exclusively used in any word. An old form for both cases is -eis (diphthong).



SECTION: #78. The following have -um (not -ium) in the genitive plural:

1. Always,-- canis, iuvenis,ambágés, mare (once only, otherwise wanting), volucris; regularly, sédés, vátés.

2. Sometimes,-- apis, caedés, cládés, ménsis, strués, subolés.

3. Very rarely,--patrials in -ás, -átis; - ís, - ítis; as, Arpínás, Arpínátum, Samné s, Samnítum.


.Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension

(Editor: In the original format these are in a table, here you can find the same forms in plain text format.)

SECTION: #79. In many nouns the stem is irregularly modified in the nominative or other cases. Some peculiar forms are thus declined:

bós, C.--- senex, M. ---caró, F. ---os, N. ---vís, F.

SINGULAR

NOM. bós ----senex ----caró ----os ----vís

GEN. bov is ----sen is---- carn is ----oss is ----vís (rare)

DAT. bov í ----sen í ----carn í ----oss í---- ví (rare)

ACC. bov em ----sen em ----carn em ----os ----vim

ABL. bov e ----sen e---- carn e---- oss e---- ví

PLURAL

NOM. bov és---- sen és---- carn és ----oss a ----vír és

GEN. boum ----senum ----carnium ----ossium ----vírium

DAT. bóbus---- senibus---- carnibus---- ossibus---- víribus

ACC. bov és ----sen és---- carn és ----oss a ----vír ís (- és

ABL. bóbus---- senibus ----carnibus---- ossibus ----víribus




SINGULAR

NOM. sús------Iuppiter------nix------iter

GEN. su is ------Iov is ------niv is ------itiner is

DAT. su í------ Iov í------ niv í ------itiner í

ACC. su em ------Iov em ------niv em ------iter

ABL. su e------ Iov e ------niv e------ itiner e

PLURAL

NOM. su és ------niv és ------itiner a

GEN. suum ------nivium ------itinerum

DAT. súibus ------ nivibus ------itineribus

ACC. sués------ niv és------ itiner a

ABL. súibus ------ nivibus ------itineribus




Two vowel-stems in ú-, grú- and sú-, which follow the third declension, add s in the nominative, and are inflected like mute stems: grús has also a nominative gruis; sús has both suibus and súobus in the dative and ablative plural, grús has only gruibus.

In the stem bov- (bou-) the diphthong ou becomes ó in the nominative (bós, bovis).

In náv- (nau-) an i is added (návis, - is), and it is declined like turris (Sect: 67).

In Iov- (= Zeus) the diphthong (ou) becomes ú in Iú-piter (for -péa ter), genitive I ovis, etc.; but the form Iuppiter is preferred.

In iter, itineris (N.), iecur, iecinoris (iecoris) (N.), supelléx, supellectilis (F.), the nominative has been formed from a shorter stem; in senex, senis, from a longer; so that these words show a combination of forms from two distinct stems.

In nix, nivis the nominative retains a g from the original stem, the g uniting with s, the nominative ending, to form x. In the other cases the stem assumes the form niv- and it adds i in the genitive plural.

Vás (N.), vásis, keeps s throughout; plural vása, vásórum. A dative plural vásibus also occurs. There is a rare singular vásum.


.The Locative Case



SECTION: #80. The Locative form for nouns of the third declension ends in the singular in - í or - é, in the plural in -ibus: as, rúrí, in the country; Cartháginí or Carthágine, at Carthage; Trallibus, at Tralles.

Greek Nouns of the Third Declension



SECTION: #81. Many nouns originally Greek--mostly proper names-- retain Greek forms of inflection. So especially:

1. Genitive singular in - os, as, tigridos.

2. Accusative singular in - a, as, aethera.

3. Vocative singular like the stem, as, Periclé, Orpheu, Atlá.

4. Nominative plural in -es, as, héróé s.

5. Accusative plural in -és, as: héróés.



SECTION: #82. Some of these forms are seen in the following examples:

hérós, M., hero lampas, F., torch basis, F., base tigris, C., tiger náis, F., naiad

SINGULAR

NOM. hérós -----lampas ----- bas is -----tigr is -----náis

GEN. héró is -----lampad os ----- bas eós -----tigr is(-id os) -----náid os

DAT. héró í -----lampad í -----bas í -----tigr í ----- náid í

ACC. héró a -----lampad a ----- bas in -----tigr in(-id a) -----náid a

ABL. héró e -----lampad e vbas í -----tigr í(-id e) -----náid e

PLURAL

NOM. -----héróes -----lampades -----bas és -----tigr és ----- náides

GEN. héróum -----lampadum -----basium(- eón) -----tigrium -----náidum

D.A.héróibus -----lampadibus -----basibus -----tigribus -----náidibus

ACC. héróéa s -----lampadéa s ----- bas ís((-- eis) -----tigr ís(-idé a s) -----náidé a s




PROPER NAMES



NOM. Dídó ------Simoís ------Capys

GEN. Dídónis(Dédús) ------Simoentis ------ Capy os

DAT. Dídóní(Dídó) ------ Simoentí ------Capy í

ACC. Dídón em(-ó) ------ Simoenta ------Capyn

ABL. Dídón e(-ó) ------Simoente ------Capyé

VOC. Dídó ------Simoís ------Capy




NOM. Orpheus ------Periclés------ Paris

GEN. Orphe í(-e ós)------ Pericl is(- í) ------Paridis

DAT. Orphe í(-e ó)------ Pericl í(- i)------ Parid í

ACC. Orphe a(-um) ------Periclem(- ea, - én) ------Parid em, Parim(-in)

ABL. Orphe ó ------Pericl e ------Parid e, Par í

VOC. Orpheu ------Periclés(- é) ------Pari




NOTE.--The regular Latin forms may be used for most of the above.



SECTION: #83. Other peculiarities are the following:

Delphínus, - í (M.), has also the form delphí n, - ínis; Salamís, - is (F.) has acc. Salamína.

Most stems in id- (nom. - is) often have also the forms of i-stems: as tigris, gen. -i dis (-i dos) or - is; acc. -i dem (-i da) or -im (- in); abl. -i de or - í. But many, including most feminine proper names, have acc. - idem (-ida); abl. -ide,--not -im or - í. (These stems are irregular also in Greek.)

Stems in on- sometimes retain -n in the nominative: as, Agamemnón (or Agamemnó), genitive -o nis, accusative -o na.

Stems in ont- form the nominative in -ón: as, horizón, Xenophón; but a few are occasionally Latinized into ón- (nom. - ó): as, Dracó, -ónis; Antiphó, -ónis.

Like Simo ís are declined stems in ant-, ent-, and a few in únt- (nominative in -ás, - ís, -ús): as, Atlá s, - antis; Trapezús, -untis.

Some words fluctuate between different declensions: as Orpheus between the second and the third.

-ón is found in the genitive plural in a few Greek titles of books: as, Metamorphóseón, of the Metamorphoses (Ovid's well-known poem); Geórgicón, of the Georgics (a poem of Virgil).

Gender in the Third Declension



SECTION: #84. The Gender of nouns of this declension must be learned by practice and from the Lexicon. Many are masculine or feminine by nature or in accordance with the general rules for gender (p. 15). The most important rules for the others, with their principal exceptions, are the following:



SECTION: #85. Masculine are nouns in -or, - ós, -er, -é s (gen. - itis), - ex (gen. -i cis): as, color, flós, imber, gurges ( gurgitis), vertex ( verticis).

Exceptions are the following:

Feminine are arbor; c ós, dós; linter.

Neuter are ador, aequor, cor, marmor; ós ( óris); also os ( ossis);

cadáver, iter, túber, úber, vér; and names of plants and trees in -er: as, acer, papáver.



SECTION: #86. Feminine are nouns in - ó, -ás, - és, - is, -ús, -x, and in -s preceded by a consonant: as, legió, cívitás, núbés, avis, virtús, arx, urbs. The nouns in - ó are mostly those in - dó and -gó, and abstract and collective nouns in -ió.

Exceptions are the following:

Masculine are leó, leónis; ligó,-ónis; sermó, -ónis; also cardó, harpagó margó, órdó, turbó; and concrete nouns in -ió: as, pugió, únió, papilió;

acínacés, ariés, celés, lebés, pariés, pés;

Nouns in - nis and -guis: as, ígnis, sanguis; also axis, caulis, collis, cucumis, énsis, fascis, follis, fústis, lapis, ménsis, orbis, piscis, postis, pulvis, vómis;

mús;

calix, fornix, grex, phoeníx, and nouns in - ex (gen. -icis) (Sect: 85);

déns, fóns, móns, póns.

NOTE.--Some nouns in - is and -ns which are masculine were originally adjectives or participles agreeing with a masculine noun: as, Aprílis (sc. ménsis), M., April; oriéns (sc. sól), M., the east; annális (sc. liber), M., the year-book.

Neuter are vás ( vásis); crús, iús, pús, rús, tús.



SECTION: #87. Neuter are nouns in - a, - e, -l, -n, -ar, -ur, -us: as, poéma, mare, animal, nómen, calcar, róbur, corpus; also lac and caput.

Exceptions are the following:

Masculine are sál, sól, pecten, vultur, lepus.

Feminine is pecus (gen. - udis).


.FOURTH DECLENSION



SECTION: #88. The Stem of nouns of the Fourth Declension ends in u-. This is usually weakened to i before -bus. Masculine and Feminine nouns form the nominative by adding s; Neuters have for nominative the simple stem, but with ú (long).



SECTION: #89. Nouns of the Fourth Declension are declined as follows:


                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    manus
                  Gen.                   manús
                  Dat.                   manuí(-ú)
                  Acc.                   manum
                  Abl.                   manú
                  Voc.                   manus
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    manús
                  Gen.                   man uum
                  Dat.                   man uum
                  Acc.                   manús
                  Abl.                   manuum
                  Voc.                   manús

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    lacus
                  Gen.                   lacús
                  Dat.                   lacuí(-ú)
                  Acc.                   lacum
                  Abl.                   lacú
                  Voc.
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    lacús
                  Gen.                   lacuum
                  Dat.                   lacubus  -ibus
                  Acc.                   lacús
                  Abl.                   lacubus  -ibus
                  Voc.                   lacús

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    genus
                  Gen.                   genús
                  Dat.                   genú
                  Acc.                   genus
                  Abl.                   genú
                  Voc.
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    genua
                  Gen.                   genuum
                  Dat.                   genibus
                  Acc.                   genua
                  Abl.                   genibus
                  Voc.                   genua

1 An old, though not the original ending (see p. 32. footnote 2).

2 Always in the formula aquá et ígní interdící (Sect: 401).

3 The Indo-European ending of the nominative plural, -es (preserved in Greek in consonant stems, as ortux, ortug- es), contracts with a stem-vowel and gives - és in the Latin i-declension (cf, the Greek plural oeis). This - és was extended to consonant stems in Latin.

4 Canis and iuvenis are really n-stems

5 Also Iúpiter.

6 The Indo-European locative singular ended in -i, which became -e in Latin. Thus the Latin ablative in - e is, historically considered, a locative. The Latin ablative in - í (from -íd) was an analogical formation (cf. - á from - ád, - ó from -ód), properly belonging to i-stems. With names of towns and a few other words, a locative function was ascribed to forms in - í (as, Cartháginí), partly on the analogy of the real locative of o-stems (as, Corinthí, Sect: 49. a); but forms in -e also survived in this use. The plural -bus is properly dative or ablative, but in forms like Trallibus it has a locative function. Cf. Philippís (Sect: 49. a), in which the ending - ís is, historically considered, either locative, or instrumental, or both, and Athénís (Sect: 43. c), in which the ending is formed on the analogy of o-stems.

7 Dative, héróisin (once only).

8 Some nouns of doubtful or variable gender are omitted.

9 Many nouns in - ó (gen. -ónis) are masculinby signification: as, geró, carrier restió, ropemaker: and family names (originally nicknames): as, Ciceró, Násó. See Sect: 236. c, 255.



SECTION: #90. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension in -us are Masculine.

Exceptions: The following are Feminine: acus, anus, colus, domus, ídús (plural), manus, nurus, porticus, quínquátrús (plural), socrus, tribus, with a few names of plants and trees. Also, rarely, penus, specus.



SECTION: #91. The only Neuters of the Fourth Declension are cornú, genú, pecú (Sect: 105. f), ver ú.

1 A few other neuters of this declension are mentioned by the ancient grammarians as occurring in certain cases.



SECTION: #92. The following peculiarities in case-forms of the Fourth Declension require notice:

A genitive singular in - í (as of the second declension) sometimes occurs in nouns in -tus: as, senátus, genitive senátí (regularly senátús).

In the genitive plural - uum is sometimes pronounced as one syllable, and may then be written -um: as, currum (Aen. 6.653) for curruum.

The dative and ablative plural in -ubus are retained in partus and tribus; so regularly in artus and lacus, and occasionally in other words; portus and specus have both -ubus and -ibus.

Most names of plants and trees, and colus, distaff, have also forms of the second declension: as, fícus, fig, genitive fícús or fící.

An old genitive singular in - uis or - uos and an old genitive plural in -uom occur rarely: as, senátuis, senátuos; fluctuom.

The ablative singular ended anciently in -úd (cf. Sect: 43. N. 1): as, magistrátúd.



SECTION: #93. Domus (F.), house, has two stems ending in u- and o-. Hence it shows forms of both the fourth and second declensions:

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    domus
                  Gen.                   domús (dom í, loc.)
                  Dat.                   domuí (dom ó)
                  Acc.                   domum
                  Abl.                   domó -ú
                  Voc.                   dome
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    domús domí
                  Gen.                   domuum (dom órum)
                  Dat.                   domibus
                  Acc.                   domús  domós
                  Abl.                   domibus
                  Voc.                   --

NOTE 1.--The Locative is domí (rarely domuí), at home.

NOTE 2.--The Genitive domí occurs in Plautus; domórum is late or poetic.



SECTION: #94. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension are formed from verb-stems, or roots, by means of the suffix -tus (- sus) (Sect: 238. b):
     cantus, song, CAN, canó, sing; cásus (for *cad-tus), chance, CAD, cadó, fall, exsulátus, exile, from exsuló, to be an exile (exsul).

Many are formed either from verb-stems not in use, or by analogy:
     cónsulátus (as if from *cónsuló, - áre), senátus, incestus.

The accusative and the dative or ablative of nouns in -tus (- sus) form the Supines of verbs (Sect: 159. b): as, spectátum, petítum; dictú, vísú.

Of many verbal derivatives only the ablative is used as a noun: as, iussú ( meó), by (my) command; so iniussú ( populí), without (the people's) order. Of some only the dative is used: as, dívísuí.


.FIFTH DECLENSION (e-STEMS)



SECTION: #95. The Stem of nouns of the Fifth Declension ends in é-, which appears in all the cases. The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s.



SECTION: #96. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are declined as follows:

rés, F., thing diés, M., day fidés, F., faith

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    rés
                  Gen.                   reí
                  Dat.                   reí
                  Acc.                   rem
                  Abl.                   ré
                  Voc.                   rés
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    rés
                  Gen.                   rérum
                  Dat.                   rebus
                  Acc.                   ré
                  Abl.                   rebus
                  Voc.                   rés

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    diés
                  Gen.                   diéí
                  Dat.                   diéí
                  Acc.                   diéí
                  Abl.                   dié
                  Voc.                   diés
                      PLURAL
                  Nom                    diés
                  Gen.                   diérum
                  Dat.                   diébus
                  Acc.                   diés
                  Abl.                   diébus
                  Voc.                   diés

                   SINGULAR
                  Nom                    fidés
                  Gen.                   fideí
                  Dat.                   fideí
                  Acc.                   fidem
                  Abl.                   fidé
                  Voc.                   fidés
                      PLURAL  ?
                  Nom                    fidés
                  Gen.                   fidérum<
                  Dat.                   fidibus
                  Acc.                   fidés
                  Abl.                   fidibus
                  Voc.                   fidés

NOTE.--The é of the stem is shortened in the genitive and dative singular of fidés, spés, rés, but in these it is found long in early Latin. In the accusative singular e is always short.

Gender in the Fifth Declension



SECTION: #97. All nouns of the Fifth Declension are Feminine, except diés (usually M.), day, and merídiés (M.), noon.

Diés is sometimes feminine in the singular, especially in phrases indicating a fixed time, and regularly feminine when used of time in general: as, cónstitútá dié, on a set day; longa diés, a long time.

Case-Forms in the Fifth Declension



SECTION: #98. The following peculiarities require notice:

Of nouns of the fifth declension, only diés and rés are declined throughout. Most want the plural, which is, however, found in the nominative or accusative in aciés, effigiés, é luviés, faciés, glaciés, seriés, speciés, spés.

The Locative form of this declension ends in - é. It is found only in certain adverbs and expressions of time:

hodié, to-day; dié quártó (old, quártí), the fourth day;

perendié, day after to-morrow; prídié, the day before.

The fifth declension is closely related to the first, and several nouns have forms of both: as, máteria, -ies; saevitia, -ies. The genitive and dative in - éí are rarely found in these words.

Some nouns vary between the fifth and the third declension: as, requiés, satiés (also satiás, genitive -átis), plébés (also plébs, genitive plébis), famés, genitive famis, ablative fame.

NOTE.--In the genitive and dative - éí (-eí) was sometimes contracted into -ei: as, tribúnus pléb ei, tribune of the people ( plébés). Genitives in - í and - é also occur: as, dií (Aen. 1.636) , plébí-scé tum, acié (B. G. 2.23) . A few examples of the old genitive in - és are found (cf. -ás in the first declension, Sect: 43. b). The dative has rarely -é, and a form in - í is cited.

1 The forms faciérum, speciérum, speciébus, spérum, spébus, are cited by grammarians, also spérés, spéribus, and some of these occur in late authors.


.DEFECTIVE NOUNS

Nouns wanting in the Plural



SECTION: #99. Some nouns are ordinarily found in the Singular number only ( singulária tantum). These are:

1. Most proper names: as, Caesar, Caesar; Gallia, Gaul.

2. Names of things not counted, but reckoned in mass: as, aurum, gold; áér, air; tríticum, wheat.

3. Abstract nouns: as, ambitió, ambition; fortitúdó, courage; calor, heat.



SECTION: #100. Many of these nouns, however, are used in the plural in some other sense.

The plural of a proper name may be applied to two or more persons or places, or even things, and so become strictly common:
     duodecim Caesarés, the twelve Caesars.
     Galliae, the two Gauls (Cis- and Transalpine).
     Castores, Castor and Pollux; Iovés, images of Jupiter.

The plural of names of things reckoned in mass may denote particular objects: as, aera, bronze utensils, nivés, snowflakes; or different kinds of a thing: as, áerés, airs (good and bad).

The plural of abstract nouns denotes occasions or instances of the quality, or the like:
     quaedam excellentiae, some cases of superiority; ótia, periods of rest; calórés, frígora, times of heat and cold.

Nouns wanting in the Singular



SECTION: #101. Some nouns are commonly or exclusively found in the Plural ( plúrália tantum). Such are:

1. Many names of towns: as, Athénae ( Athens), Thúrií, Philippí, Veiií.

2. Names of festivals and games: as, Olympia, the Olympic Games; Bacchánália, feast of Bacchus; Quínquátrús, festival of Minerva; lúdí Rómání, the Roman Games.

3. Names of classes: as, optimátés, the upper classes; máiórés, ancestors; líberí, children; penátés, household gods; Quirítés, citizens (of Rome).

4. Words plural by signification: as, arma, weapons; artús, joints; dívitiae, riches; scálae, stairs; valvae, folding-doors; forés, double-doors; angustiae, a narrow pass (narrows); moenia, city walls.

NOTE 1.--Some words, plural by signification in Latin, are translated by English nouns in the singular number: as, déliciae, delight, darling; faucés, throat; fidés, lyre (also singular in poetry); ínsidiae, ambush; cervícés, neck; viscera, flesh.

NOTE 2.--The poets often use the plural number for the singular, sometimes for metrical reasons, sometimes from a mere fashion: as, óra (for ós), the face; scéptra (for scéptrum), sceptre; silentia (for silentium), silence.



SECTION: #102. Some nouns of the above classes (Sect: 101. 1-4), have a corresponding singular, as noun or adjective, often in a special sense:

1. As noun, to denote a single object: as, Bacchánal, a spot sacred to Bacchus; optimás, an aristocrat.

2. As adjective: as, Cató Máior, Cato the Elder.

3. In a sense rare, or found only in early Latin: as, scála, a ladder, valva, a door; artus, a joint.

Nouns Defective in Certain Cases



SECTION: #103. Many nouns are defective in case-forms::

Indeclinable nouns, used only as nominative and accusative singular: fás, nefás, ínstar, nihil, opus (need), secus.

NOTE 1.--The indeclinable adjective necesse is used as a nominative or accusative.

NOTE 2.--The genitive nihilí and the ablative nihiló (from nihilum, nothing) occur.

Nouns found in one case only (monoptotes):

1. In the nominative singular: glós (F.).

2. In the genitive singular: dicis, naucí (N.).

3. In the dative singular: dívísuí (M.) (cf. Sect: 94. c).

4. In the accusative singular: amussim (M.); vénum (dative vénó in Tacitus).

5. In the ablative singular: pondó (N.); máne (N.); astú (M.), by craft; iussú, iniussú, nátú, and many other verbal nouns in -us (M.) (Sect: 94. c).

NOTE.--Máne is also used as an indeclinable accusative, and an old form mání is used as ablative. Pondó with a numeral is often apparently equivalent to pounds. A nominative singular astus and a plural astús occur rarely in later writers.

6. In the accusative plural: ínfitiás.

Nouns found in two cases only (diptotes):

1. In the nominative and ablative singular: fors, forte (F.).

2. In the genitive and ablative singular: spontis (rare), sponte (F.).

3. In the accusative singular and plural: dicam, dicás (F.).

4. In the accusative and ablative plural: forás, forís (F.) (cf. forés), used as adverbs.

Nouns found in three cases only (triptotes):

1. In the nominative, accusative, and ablative singular: impetus, -um, -ú (M.); lués, - em, - é (F.).

2. In the nominative, accusative, and dative or ablative plural: grátés, -ibus (F).

3. In the nominative, genitive, and dative or ablative plural: iúgera, -um, -ibus (N.); but iúgerum, etc., in the singular (cf. Sect: 105. b).

Nouns found in four cases only (tetraptotes):

In the genitive, dative, accusative, ablative singular: diciónis, - í, - em, - e (F.).

Nouns declined regularly in the plural, but defective in the singular:


1. Nouns found in the singular, in genitive, dative, accusative, ablative: frúgis, - í, - em, - e (F.); opis, - í (once only), - em, - e (F.; nominative Ops as a divinity).

2. Nouns found in the dative, accusative, ablative: precí, - em, - e (F.).

3. Nouns found in the accusative and ablative: cassem, - e (F.); sordem, - e (F.).

4. Nouns found in the ablative only: ambáge (F.); fauce (F.); obice (C.).

Nouns regular in the singular, defective in the plural:

1. The following neuters have in the plural the nominative and accusative only: fel ( fella), far ( farra), hordeum ( hordea), iús, broth ( iúra), mel ( mella), murmur ( murmura), pús ( púra), rús ( rúra), tús or thus (túra).

NOTE.--The neuter iús, right, has only iúra in classical writers, but a very rare genitive plural iúrum occurs in old Latin.

2. calx, cor, cós, crux, fax, faex, lanx, lúx, nex, ós ( óris),os ( ossis),páx, pix, rós, sál, sól, vas ( vadis), want the genitive plural.

3. Most nouns of the fifth declension want the whole or part of the plural (see Sect: 98. a).

Nouns defective in both singular and plural:

1. Noun found in the genitive, accusative, ablative singular; nominative, accusative, dative, ablative plural: vicis, - em, - e; - és, -ibus.

2. Noun found in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular; genitive plural wanting: dapis, - í, - em, - e; - és, -ibus.

1 Some early or late forms and other rarities are omitted.

2 The dative singular impetuí and the ablative plural impetibus occur once each.

3 The ablative plural óribus is rare, the classical idiombeing in óre omnium, in everybody's mouth, etc., not in óribus omnium.

4 The genitive plural ossium is late; ossuum (from ossua, plural of a neuter u-stem) is early and late.

5 An old nominative daps is cited.


.VARIABLE NOUNS



SECTION: #104. Many nouns vary either in Declension or in Gender.



SECTION: #105. Nouns that vary in Declension are called heteroclites.

Colus (F.), distaff; domus (F.), house (see Sect: 93), and many names of plants in -us, vary between the Second and Fourth Declensions.

Some nouns vary between the Second and Third: as, iúgerum, - í, - ó, ablative - ó or - e, plural - a, -um, -ibus; Mulciber, genitive -berí and - beris; sequester, genitive -trí and - tris; vás, vásis, and (old) vásum, - í (Sect: 79. e).

Some vary between the Second, Third, and Fourth: as, penus, penum, genitive pení and penoris, ablative penu.

Many nouns vary between the First and Fifth (see Sect: 98. c).

Some vary between the Third and Fifth. Thus,-- requiés has genitive - étis, dative wanting, accusative -étem or - em, ablative - é (once - éte); famés, regularly of the third declension, has ablative famé (Sect: 76. N. 1), and púbés (M.) has once dative púbé (in Plautus).

Pecus varies between the Third and Fourth, having pecoris, etc., but also nominative pecú, ablative pecú; plural pecua, genitive pecuum.

Many vary between different stems of the same declension: as, femur (N.), genitive - oris, also - inis (as from *femen); iecur (N.), genitive iecinoris, iocinoris, iecoris; múnus (N.), plural múnera and múnia.




SECTION: #106. Nouns that vary in Gender are said to be heterogeneous.

The following have a masculine form in -us and a neuter in -um: balteus, cáseus, clipeus, collum, cingulum, píleus, tergum, vállum, with many others of rare occurrence.

The following have in the Plural a different gender from that of the Singular:

balneum (N.), bath; balneae (F.), baths (an establishment).

caelum (N.), heaven; caelós (M. acc., Lucr.).

carbasus (F.), a sail; carbasa (N.) (- órum), sails.

délicium (N.), pleasure; déliciae (F.), pet.

epulum (N.), feast; epulae (F.), feast.

frénum (N.), a bit; fréní (M.) or fréna (N.), a bridle.

iocus (M.), a jest; ioca (N.), iocí (M.), jests.

locus (M.), place; loca (N.), locí (M., usually topics, passages in books).

rástrum (N.), a rake; rástrí (M.), rástra (N.), rakes.

NOTE.--Some of these nouns are heteroclites as well as heterogeneous.



SECTION: #107. Many nouns are found in the Plural in a peculiar sense:

aedés, - is (F.), temple--- aedés, -ium, house.

aqua (F.), water--- aquae, mineral springs, a watering-place.

auxilium (N.), help--- auxilia, auxiliaries.

bonum (N.), a good--- bona, goods, property.

carcer (M.), dungeon--- carcerés, barriers (of race-course).

castrum (N.), fort--- castra, camp.

comitium (N.), place of assembly--- comitia, an election (town-meeting).

cópia (F.), plenty--- cópiae, stores, troops.

fidés (F.), harp-string--- fidés, lyre.

fínis (M.), end--- fínés, bounds, territories.

fortúna (F.), fortune--- fortúnae, possessions.

grátia (F.), favor (rarely, thanks)--- grátiae, thanks (also, the Graces).

hortus (M.), a gardon--- hortí, pleasure-grounds.

impedímentum (N.) hindrance--- impedímenta, baggage.

littera (F.), letter (of alphabet)--- litterae, epistle, literature.

locus (M.), place [plural loca (N.)]--- locí,topics, places in books.

lúdus (M.), sport--- lúdí, public games.

mós (M.), habit, custom--- mórés, character.

nátális (M.), birthday--- nátálés, descent, origin.

opera (F.), work--- operae, day-laborers ("hands").

[ ops,] opis (F.), help (Sect: 103. f. 1)--- opés, resources, wealth.

pars (F.), part--- partés, part (on the stage), party.

róstrum (N.), beak of a ship--- róstra, speaker's platform.

sál (M. or N.), salt--- salés, witticisms.

tabella (F.), tablet--- tabellae, documents, records.

1 That is, "nouns of different inflections"(eteros, another, and klin?, to inflect).

2 That is, "of different genders"( heteros, another, and genos, gender).

3 In early writers the regular plural.

.NAMES OF PERSONS



SECTION: #108. A Roman had regularly three names: (1) the praenómen, or personal name; (2) the nómen, or name of the géns or house; (3) the cógnómen, or family name:

Thus in Márcus Tullius Ciceró we have--
     Márcus, the praenómen, like our Christian or given name;
     Tullius, the nómen, properly an adjective denoting of the Tullian géns (or house) whose original head was a real or supposed Tullus;
     Ciceró, the cógnómen, or family name, often in origin a nickname,--in this case from cicer, a vetch, or small pea.

NOTE.--When two persons of the same family are mentioned together, the cógnómen is usually put in the plural: as, Públius et Servius Sullae.

A fourth or fifth name was sometimes given as a mark of honor or distinction, or to show adoption from another géns.

Thus the complete name of Scipio the Younger was Públius Cornélius Scípió áfricánus Aemiliánus: é fricánus, from his exploits in Africa; Aemiliánus, as adopted from the Aemilian géns.

NOTE.--The Romans of the classical period had no separate name for these additions, but later grammarians invented the word ágnómen to express them.

Women had commonly in classical times no personal names, but were known only by the nómen of their géns.

Thus, the wife of Cicero was Terentia, and his daughter Tullia. A second daughter would have been called Tullia secunda or minor, a third daughter, Tullia tertia, and so on.

The commonest praenomens are thus abbreviated:

A. Aulus. L. Lúcius. Q. Quíntus.

App. (Ap.) Appius. M. Márcus. Ser. Servius.

C. (G.) Gáius ( Caius) (cf. Sect: 1. a). M'. Mánius. Sex. (S.) Sextus.

Cn. (Gn.) Gnaeus (Cneius). Mám. Mámercus. Sp. Spurius.

D. Decimus. N. ( Num.) Numerius T. Titus.

K. Kaesó (Caeso). P. Públius. Ti. (Tib.) Tiberius.

NOTE 1.--In the abbreviations C. and Cn., the initial character has the value or G (Sect: 1. a).

1 In stating officially the full name of a Roman it was customary to include the praenómina of the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, together with the name of the tribe to which the individual belonged. Thus in an inscription we find M. TVLLIVS M. F. M. N. M. PR. COR. CICERO, i.e. Márcus Tullius Márcí fílius Márcí nepós Márcí pronepós Cornéliá tribú Ciceró. The names of grandfather and great-grandfather as well as that of the tribe are usually omitted in literature. The name of a wife or daughter is usually accompanied by that of the husband or father in the genitive: as, Postumia Serví Sulpicií (Suet. Iul. 50) , Postumia, wife of Servius Sulpicius; Caecilia Metellí (Div. 1.104) , Caecilia, daughter of Metellus.


.ADJECTIVES



SECTION: #109. Adjectives and Participles are in general formed and declined like Nouns, differing from them only in their use.

1. In accordance with their use, they distinguish gender by different forms in the same word, and agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. Thus,--
     bonus puer, the good boy.
     bona puella, the good girl.
     bonum dónum, the good gift.

2. In their inflection they are either (1) of the First and Second Declensions, or (2) of the Third Declension.

FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS (á- AND o-STEMS)



SECTION: #110. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions (á- and o-stems) are declined in the Masculine like servus, puer, or ager; in the Feminine like stella; and in the Neuter like bellum.

The regular type of an adjective of the First and Second Declensions is bonus, - a, -um, which is thus declined:

bonus, bona, bonum, good

MASCULINE STEM bono----FEMININE STEM boná---- NEUTER STEM bono-

                    SINGULAR
NOM. bonus -----------bona -----------bonum
GEN. boní  ----------bonae -----------boní
DAT. bonó  ----------bonae -----------bonó
ACC. bonum -----------bonam -----------bonum
ABL. bonó  ----------boná -----bonó
VOC. bon e----------- bon a -----------bonum
                     PLURAL
NOM. boní ----------bonae  ----------bona
GEN. bonórum  ----------bonárum  ----------bonórum
DAT. bonís  ----------bonís  ----------bonís
ACC. bonós  ----------bonás   ----------bona
ABL. bonís  ----------bonís  ----------bonís  

NOTE.--Stems in quo- have nominative -cus (- quos), - qua, - cum (- quom), accusative - cum (- quom), - quam, - cum (- quom), to avoid quu- (see Sect: 6. b and 46. N. 2). Thus,:

NOM. propincus (-quos) propin qua propin cum (- quom)

GEN. propin quí propin quae propin quí, etc.

But most modern editions disregard this principle.

The Genitive Singular masculine of adjectives in - ius ends in - ií, and the Vocative in -ie; not in - í, as in nouns (cf. Sect: 49. b, c); as, Lacedaemonius, - ií, -ie.

NOTE.--The possessive meus, my, has the vocative masculine mí (cf. Sect: 145).



SECTION: #111. Stems ending in ro- preceded by e form the Nominative Masculine like puer (Sect: 47) and are declined as follows:

miser, misera, miserum, wretched

MASCULINE STEM misero- FEMININE STEM miserá- NEUTER STEM misero-

SINGULAR

NOM. miser--------- -- miser a -----------miserum

GEN. miserí -----------miserae -----------miserí

DAT. miseró -----------miserae -----------miseró

ACC. miserum -----------miseram -----------miserum

ABL. miseró -----------miserá -----------miseró

PLURAL

NOM. miserí -----------miserae -----------misera

GEN. miserórum --------miserárum --------miserórum

DAT. miserís ----------miserís ----------miserís

ACC. miserós ----------miserás -----------misera

ABL. miser ís ----------miser ís ----------miser ís



Like miser are declined asper, gibber, lacer, líber, prosper (also pros perus), satur (-ura, -urum), tener, with compounds of - fer and -ger: as, saetiger, - era, - erum, bristle-bearing; also, usually, dexter. In these the e belongs to the stem; but in dextra it is often omitted: as, dextra manus, the right hand.

NOTE.--Stems in éro- (as prócerus), with mórigerus, propé rus, have the regular nominative masculine in -us.

The following lack a nominative singular masculine in classic use: cétera, ínfera, postera, supera. They are rarely found in the singular except in certain phrases: as, posteró dié, the next day.

NOTE.--An ablative feminine in - ó is found in a few Greek adjectives: as, lectícá; octóphoró (Verr. 5.27) .



SECTION: #112. Stems in ro- preceded by a consonant form the Nominative Masculine like ager (Sect: 47) and are declined as follows:

niger, nigra, nigrum, black

MASCULINE STEM nigro- FEMININE STEM nigrá- NEUTER STEM nigro-

-----------SINGULAR

NOM. niger -----------nigra -----------nigrum

GEN. nigrí -----------nigrae -----------nigrí

DAT. nigró -----------nigrae -----------nigró

ACC. nigrum -----------nigram -----------nigrum

ABL. nigr acute; -----------nigrá -----------nigró

-----------PLURAL

NOM. nigrí ------------nigrae -----------nigra

GEN. nigrórum ---------nigr árum -------nigrórum

DAT. nigrís -----------nigr ís ----------nigrís

ACC. nigrós -----------nigrás -----------nigra

ABL. nigrís -----------nigrís ----------nigrís

Like niger are declined aeger, áter, créber, faber, glaber, integer, lúdicer, macer, piger, pulcher, ruber, sacer, scaber, sinister, taeter, vafer; also the possessives noster, vester (Sect: 145).



SECTION: #113. The following nine adjectives with their compounds have the Genitive Singular in - íus and the Dative in - í in all genders:

alius (N. aliud), other. tótus, whole. alter, -teríus, the other.

núllus, no, none. úllus, any. neuter, -tríus, neither.

sólus, alone. únus, one. uter, -tríus, which (of two).

Of these the singular is thus declined:

NOM. únus ------------úna ------------únum

GEN. ún íus ----------úníus ----------ún íus

DAT. ún í------------ úní------------ ún í

ACC. únum --------- -únam -------------únum

ABL. ún ó ------------ún á ------------ún ó




NOM. uter --------- utr a --------- utrum

GEN. utríus -------- utríus --------- utr íus

DAT. utrí --------- utrí --------- utrí

ACC. utrum --------- utram --------- utrum

ABL. ut ó --------- utrá--------- utró




NOM. alius --------- ali a --------- aliud

GEN. al íus--------- al íus --------- al íus

DAT. ali í ------- -- ali í --------- ali í

ACC. alium -------- - aliam --------- aliud

ABL. alió ------- -- alió --------- aliá ó




NOM. alter ------- --alter a ------- --alterum

GEN. alter íus ------- alter íus ------- -alter íus

DAT. alter í ------- --alter í ------- --alter í

ACC. alterum------- -- alteram ------- --alterum

ABL. alter ó ------- --alter á ------- --alter ó




The plural of these words is regular, like that of bonus (Sect: 110).

The genitive in - íus, dative in - í, and neuter in -d are pronominal in origin (cf. illíus, illí, illud, and Sect: 146).

The i of the genitive ending - íus, though originally long, may be made short in verse; so often in alterius and regularly in utriusque.

Instead of alíus, alteríus is commonly used, or in the possessive sense the adjective aliénus, belonging to another, another's.

In compounds--as alteruter--sometimes both parts are declined, sometimes only the latter. Thus, alterí utrí or alterutrí, to one of the two.

NOTE.--The regular genitive and dative forms (as in bonus) are sometimes found in some of these words: as, genitive and dative feminine, aliae; dative masculine, alió. Rare forms are alis and alid (for alius, aliud).


.THIRD DECLENSION ADJECTIVE (CONSONANT AND i-STEMS)



SECTION: #114. Adjectives of the Third Declension are thus classified:

1. Adjectives of Three Terminations in the nominative singular,--one for each gender: as, ácer, ácris, ácre.

2. Adjectives of Two Terminations,--masculine and feminine the same: as, levis (M., F.), leve (N.).

3. Adjectives of One Termination,--the same for all three genders: as, atróx.

Adjectives of two and three terminations are true i-stems and hence retain in the ablative singular - í, in the neuter plural -ia, in the genitive plural -ium, and in the accusative plural regularly - ís (see Sect: 73 and 74).

Adjectives of Three and of Two Terminations



SECTION: #115. Adjectives of Three Terminations are thus declined:

ácer, ácris, ácre, keen, STEM ácri-

SINGULAR

NOM. ácer -------------ácr is ----------ácr e

GEN. ácr is ----------ácr is ------------ácr is

DAT. ácr í -----------ácr í ---------- ácr í

ACC. ácr em ----------ácr em -----------ácr e

ABL. ácr í ----------- ácr í ---------- ácr í

PLURAL

NOM. ácr és ----------ácr és -----------ácria

GEN. ácrium -----------ácrium ------------ácrium

DAT. ácribus ----------ácribus ----------ácribus

ACC. ácr ís (-és) -----ácr ís (- és)-----ácria

ABL. ácribus ----------ácribus ----------ácribus



Like ácer are declined the following stems in ri-:

DAT.
     alacer, campester, celeber, equester, palúster, pedester, puter, salúber, silvester, terrester, volucer. So

ACC.also names of months in - ber: as, Octóber (cf. Sect: 66).

ABL.

NOTE 1.--This formation is comparatively late, and hence, in the poets and in early Latin, either the masculine or the feminine form of these adjectives was sometimes used for both genders: as, coetus alacris (Enn.). In others, as faenebris, fúnebris, illústris, lúgubris, mediocris, muliebris, there is no separate masculine form at all, and these are declined like levis (Sect: 116).

NOTE 2.-- Celer, celeris, celere, swift, has the genitive plural celerum, used only as a noun, denoting a military rank. The proper name Celer has the ablative in - e.



SECTION: #116. Adjectives of Two Terminations are thus declined:

There will be a masculine and a Neuter form, only. But the forms of some are doubtful.

Like ácer are declined the following stems in ri-:
alacer, campester, celeber, equester, palúster, pedester, puter, salúber, silvester, terrester, volucer. So also names of months in - ber: as, Octóber (cf. Sect: 66).

NOTE 1.--This formation is comparatively late, and hence, in the poets and in early Latin, either the masculine or the feminine form of these adjectives was sometimes used for both genders: as, coetus alacris (Enn.). In others, as faenebris, fúnebris, illústris, lúgubris, mediocris, muliebris, there is no separate masculine form at all, and these are declined like levis (Sect: 116).

NOTE 2.-- Celer, celeris, celere, swift, has the genitive plural celerum, used only as a noun, denoting a military rank. The proper name Celer has the ablative in - e.

levis, leve, light, STEM levi-

MASC./FEM ----------------------NEUTER

SINGULAR

NOM. levis ----------------leve

GEN. levis ---------------levis

DAT. leví ----------------leví

ACC. levem ---------------leve

ABL. leví ----------------leví

PLURAL

NOM. levés ---------------levia

GEN. levium ---------------levium

DAT. levibus ---------------levibus

ACC. levís (- és) ----------levia

ABL. levibus ----------------levibus




NOTE.--Adjectives of two and three terminations sometimes have an ablative in - e in poetry, rarely in prose.

Adjectives of One Termination



SECTION: #117. The remaining adjectives of the third declension are Consonant stems; but most of them, except Comparatives, have the following forms of i-stems:

- í in the ablative singular (but often - e)

-ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter

ium in the genitive plural

- ís (as well as - és) in the accusative plural masculine and feminine.



In the other cases they follow the rule for Consonant stems.

These adjectives, except stems in l- or r-, form the nominative singular from the stem by adding s: as, atróx (stem atróc- + s), egéns (stem egent- + s).

Here belong the present participles in -ns (stem nt-): as, amáns, monéns. They are declined like egéns (but cf. Sect: 121).



SECTION: #118. Adjectives of one termination are declined as follows:

atróx, fierce, STEM atróc- egéns, needy, STEM egent-

SINGULAR

M. N. M. N.

NOM. atróx atróx ---------------egéns egens

GEN. atróc is atróc is ------------egent is egent is

DAT. atróc í atróc í -------------egent í egent í

ACC. atróc em atróx ---------------egent em egéns

ABL. atróc í(-e) atróc í (- e)--------egent í (-e) egent í(- )

PLURAL

NOM. atróc és atrócia ------------egent és egentia

GEN. atrócium atrócium ------------gentium egentium

DAT. atrócibus atrócibus ----------egentibus egentibus

ACC. atrócís(-és) atrócia ------------egent ís(-és) egentia

ABL. atrócibus atrócibus ----------egentibus egentibus






SECTION: #119. Other examples are the following:

concors, harmonious STEM concord- praeceps, headlong STEM praecipit-

............SINGULAR

M., F. N. M., F. N.

NOM. concors concors ----------praeceps praeceps

GEN. concord is concord is -------praecipit is praecipit is

DAT. concord í concord í --------praecipit í praecipit í

ACC. concord em concors ----------praecipit em praeceps

ABL. concord í concord í ---------praecipit í praecipit í

............PLURAL

NOM. concord és concordia -------praecipit és praecipitia

GEN. concordium concordium ------[ praecipitium]

DAT. concordibus concordibus -----praecipitibus praecipitibus

ACC. concord ís/-és concordia -------0raecipit ís/ és praecipitia

ABL. concordibus concordibus -----praecipitibus praecipitibus

iéns, going STEM eunt- pár, equal STEM par- díves, rich STEM dívit-




SINGULAR

M., F. N. M., F. N. M., F. N.

NOM. iens iens -------------pár pár ------------díves díves

GEN. eunt is eunt is -------par is par is -------dívit is dívit is

DAT. eunt í eunt í ---------par í par í-------- dívit í dívit í

ACC. eunt em iéns ---------par em pár----------dívit em díves

ABL. eunt e/-í eunt e/-í-- -par í par í --------dívit e dívit e

PLURAL

NOM. eunt és euntia ---------par és paria -----------dívit és [dítia]

GEN. euntium euntium ---------parium parium ---------dívitum d ívitum

DAT. euntibus euntibus -------paribus paribus -------dívitibus dívitibus

ACC. eunt ís/-és euntia ------par ís/-és paria ------dívit ís /-és [divites]

ABL. euntibus euntibus -------paribus paribus-------- dívitibus dívitibus







úber, fertile STEM uber- vetus, old STEM veter-

SINGULAR

NOM. úber úber -------------------vetus vetus

GEN. úber is úber is -------------veter is veter is

DAT. úber í úber í ----------------veter í veter í

ACC. úber em úber -----------------veter em vetus

ABL. úber íúber í -----------------veter e (- í) veter e (- í)

PLURAL

NOM. úber és úber a --------------veter és veter a

GEN. úberum úberum ---------------veterum veterum

DAT. úberibus úberibus -----------veteribus veteribus

ACC. úber és úber a-------------- veter és veter a

ABL. úberibus úberibus-- ---------veteribus veteribus




NOTE.--Of these vetus is originally an s-stem. In most s-stems the r has intruded self into the nominative also, as bi-corpor (for *bi-corpos), dégener (for de-genes).




.Comparatives: Declension



SECTION: #120. Comparatives are declined as follows:

melior, better STEM meliór- for meliós------ plús, more STEM plur- for plús- There is a Masc./Fem. and a separate Neuter for melius. But plus has just one form

SINGULAR

NOM. melior melius --------------plús

GEN. meliór is meliór is -----------plúr is

DAT. meliór í meliór í ------------pluri

ACC. meliór em melius --------------plús

ABL. meliór e (- í) meliór e (- í) ------plúr e

PLURAL

NOM. meliór és meliór a plúr és --------------plúr a

GEN. meliórum meliórum ----------------------plúrium plúrum

DAT. melióribus melióribus plúribus ----------plúribus

ACC. meliór és(-ís) meliór a plúr és (- ís) ------plúr a

ABL. melióribus melióribus plúribus ----------plúribus




All comparatives except plús are declined like melior.

The stem of comparatives properly ended in long/short-s-; but this became or in the nominative masculine and feminine, and ór- in all other cases except the nominative and accusative singular neuter, where s is retained and short -o- is changed to u (cf. honor, - óris; corpus, -oris). Thus comparatives appear to have two terminations.

The neuter sing ular plús is used only as a noun. The genitive (rarely the ablative) is used only as an expression of value (cf. Sect: 417). The dative is not found in classic use. The compound complúrés, several, has sometimes neuter plural complúria.

Case-Forms of Consonant Stems



SECTION: #121. In adjectives of Consonant stems:

The Ablative Singular commonly ends in - í, but sometimes - e.

1. Adjectives used as nouns (as superstes, survivor) have - e.

2. Participles in -ns used as such (especially in the ablative absolute, Sect: 419), or as nouns, regularly have - e; but participles used as adjectives have regularly - í:
     dominó imperante, at the master's command; ab amante, by a lover; ab amanti muliere, by a loving woman.

3. The following have regularly - í: áméns, anceps, concors (and other compounds of cor), cónsors (but as a substantive, - e), dégener, hebes, ingéns, inops, memor (and compounds), pár (in prose), perpes, praeceps, praepes, teres.

4. The following have regularly - e: caeles, compos, [*déses], díves, hospes, particeps, pauper, prínceps, sóspes, superstes. So also patrials (see Sect: 71. 5) and stems in át-, ít-, nt-, rt-, when used as nouns, and sometimes when used as adjectives.

The Genitive Plural ends commonly in -ium, but has -um in the following:

1. Always in compos, díves, inops, particeps, praepes, prínceps, supplex, and compounds of nouns which have -um: as, quadru-pés, bi-color.

2. Sometimes, in poetry, in participles in -ns: as, silentum concilium, a council of the silent shades (Aen. 6.432).

The Accusative Plural regularly ends in - ís, but comparatives commonly have - és.

Vetus (gen. -eris) and púbes (gen. -eris) regularly have - e in the ablative singular, - a in the nominative and accusative plural, and -um in the genitive plural. For úber, see Sect: 119.

A few adjectives of one termination, used as nouns, have a feminine form in - a: as, clienta, hospita, with the appellative Iúnó Sóspita.

Irregularities and Special Uses of Adjectives



SECTION: #122. The following special points require notice:

Several adjectives vary in declension: as, gracilis (-us), hilaris (-us), inermis (-us), bicolor (-órus).

A few adjectives are indeclinable: as, damnás, frúgí (really a dative of service, see Sect: 382. 1. N. 2), néquam (originally an adverb), necesse, and the pronominal forms tot, quot, aliquot, totidem. Potis is often used as an indeclinable adjective, but sometimes has pote in the neuter.

Several adjectives are defective: as, exspés (only nom.), exléx ( exlégem) (only nom. and acc. sing.), pernox ( pernocte) (only nom. and abl. sing.); and prímóris, séminecí, etc., which lack the nominative singular.

Many adjectives, from their signification, can be used only in the masculine and feminine. These may be called adjectives of common gender.

Such are aduléscéns, youthful; [ déses], -idis, slothful; inops, - opis, poor; sóspes, - itis, safe. Similarly, senex, old man, and iuvenis, young man, are sometimes called masculine adjectives.

For Adjectives used as Nouns, see Sect: 288, 289; for Nouns used as Adjectives, see Sect: 321. c; for Adjectives used as Adverbs, see Sect: 214; for Adverbs used as Adjectives, see Sect: 321. d.


.COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES



SECTION: #123. In Latin, as in English, there are three degrees of comparison: the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.



SECTION: #124. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (neuter - ius),the Superlative by adding -issimus (- a, -um), to the stem of the Positive, which loses its final vowel:

cárus, dear (stem cá ro-); cárior, dearer; cárissimus, dearest.

levis, light (stem levi-); levior, lighter; levissimus, lightest.

félíx, happy (stem félíc-); félécior, happier; félécissimus, happiest.

hebes, dull (stem hebet-); hebetior, duller; hebetissimus, dullest.

NOTE.--A form of diminutive is made upon the stem of some comparatives: as, grandius- culus, a little larger (see Sect: 243).

Participles when used as adjectives are regularly compared:
     patiéns, patient; patientior, patientissimus.
     apertus, open; apertior, apertissimus.



SECTION: #125. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by adding -rimus to the nominative. The comparative is regular:
     ácer, keen; ácrior, ácerrimus.
     miser, wretched; miserior, miserrimus.

So vetus (gen. veteris) has superlative veterrimus, from the old form veter; and mátúrus, besides its regular superlative ( mátúrissimus), has a rare form mátúrrimus.

For the comparative of vetus, vetustior (from vetustus) is used.



SECTION: #126. Six adjectives in - lis form the Superlative by adding - limus to the stem clipped of its final i-. These are facilis, difficilis, similis, dissimilis, gracilis, humilis.
     facilis (stem facili-), easy; facilior, facil limus.



SECTION: #127. Compounds in -dicus (saying) and -volus (willing) take in their comparison the forms of the corresponding participles dícéns and voléns, which were anciently used as adjectives:
     maledicus, slanderous; maledícentior, maledícentissimus.
     malevolus, spiteful; malevolentior, malevolentissimus.

So, by analogy, compounds in -ficus:
     mágni ficus, grand; mágnificentior, mágnificentissimus.



SECTION: #128. Some adjectives are compared by means of the adverbs magis, more, and maximé, most.

So especially adjectives in -us preceded by e or i:
     idóneus, fit; magis idóneus, maximé idóneus.

NOTE.--But pius has piissimus in the superlative,--a form condemned by Cicero, but common in inscriptions; equally common, however, is the irregular pientissimus.


.Irregular Comparison



SECTION: #129. Several adjectives have in their comparison irregular forms:

bonus, good----- melior, better----- optimus, best.

malus, bad----- peiior, worse----- pes simus, worst.

mágnus, great----- máior, greater----- maximus, greatest.

parvus, small----- minor, less----- min imus, least.

multus, much----- plús (Sect:120), more----- plúrimus, most.

multí, many----- plúrés, more----- plúri mí, most.

néquam (indecl.Sect:122b), worthless----- nequior----- nequissimus.

frúgí (indecl., Sect:122b), useful, worthy----- frúgálior----- frúgá lissimus.

dexter, on the right, handy----- dexterior----- dextimus.

NOTE.--These irregularities arise from the use of different stems (cf. Sect: 127). Thus frúgálior and frúgálissimus are formed from the stem frúgáli-, but are used as the comparative and superlative of the indeclinable frúgí.




Defective Comparison



SECTION: #130. Some Comparatives and Superlatives appear without a Positive:

ócior, swifter----- ócissimus, swiftest.

potior, preferable-----potissimus, most important.

The following are formed from stems not used as adjectives:--

cis, citrá (adv., on this side): citerior, hither----- citimus, hithermost.

dé (prep., down): déterior, worse----- déterrimus, worst.

in, intrá (prep., in, within): interior, inner----- intimus, inmost.

prae, pró (prep., before): prior, former----- prímus, first.

prope (adv., near): propior, nearer----- proximus, next.

ultrá (adv., beyond): ulterior, farther----- ultimus, farthest.

Of the following the positive forms are rare, except when used as nouns (generally in the plural):

exterus, outward----- exterior, outer----- extrémus ( extimus), outmost

ínforus, below (see Sect: 111. b)----- ínferior, lower----- ínfimus ( ímus), lowest.

posterus, following----- posterior, latter----- postrémus (postumus), last.

superus, above----- superior, higher----- suprémus or summus, highest

But the plurals, exterí, foreigners----- ínferí, the gods below----- posterí, posterity, superí, the heavenly gods, are common.

NOTE.--The superlative postumus has the special sense of last-born, and was a well known surname.






SECTION: #131. Several adjectives lack the Comparative or the Superlative:

The Comparative is rare or wanting in the following:

bellus, inclutus (or inclitus), novus,

caesius, invictus, pius,

falsus, invítus, sacer,

fídus (with its compounds), meritus, vafer.

The Superlative is wanting in many adjectives in -ilis or - bilis (as, agilis, probábilis), and in the following:

áctuósus exílis próclívis surdus

agrestis ingéns propinquus taciturnus

alacer iéiúnus satur tempesté vus

arcánus longinquus ségnis teres

caecus oblíquus sérus vícínus

diúturnus opímus supé nus

From iuvenis, youth, senex, old man (cf. Sect: 122. d), are formed the comparatives iúnior, younger, senior, older. For these, however, minor nátú and máior nátú are sometimes used ( nátú being often omitted).

The superlative is regularly expressed by minimus and maximus, with or without nátú.

NOTE.--In these phrases nátú is ablative of specification (see Sect: 418).

Many adjectives (as aureus, golden) are from their meaning incapable of comparison.

NOTE.--But each language has its own usage in this respect. Thus, niger, glossy black. and candidus, shining white, are compared; but not áter or albus, meaning absolute dead black or white (except that Plautus once has átrior).

1 For details see Sect: 121.

Stems in nt- omit t before the nominative -s

Stems in nt- omit t before the nominative -s

An ablative in - e is very rare.

6 Forms in -um sometimes occur in a few others.

7 The comparative suffix (earlier -iós) is akin to the Greek - i?n, or the Sanskrit -iyans. That of the superlative (-issimus) is a double form of uncertain origin. It appears to contain the is- of the old suffix -is-to-s (seen in h

8 The old positive potis occurs in the sense of able, possible.

9 The forms in -trá and -terus were originally comparative (cf. alter), so that the comparatives in -terior are double comparatives. Inferus and superus are comparatives of a still more primitive form (cf. the English comparative in -er). The superlatives in -timus (-tumus) are relics of old forms of comparison; those in -mus like ímus, summus, prímus, are still more primitive. Forms like extrémus are superlatives of a comparative. In fact, comparison has always been treated with an accumulation of endings, as children say furtherer and furtherest.


.NUMERALS



SECTION: #132. The Latin Numerals may be classified as follows:

I. NUMERAL ADJECTIVES:

1. Cardinal Numbers, answering the question how many? as, únus, one; duo, two, etc.

2. Ordinal Numbers,adjectives derived (in most cases) from the Cardinals, and answering the question which in order? as, prímus, first; secundus, second, etc.

3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time? as, singulí, one at a time; bíné , two by two, etc.

II. NUMERAL ADVERBS, answering the question how often? as, semel, once; bis, twice, etc.

Cardinals and Ordinals



SECTION: #133. These two series are as follows:

CARDINAL ---------------- ORDINAL ROMAN NUMERALS

1. únus, úna, únum, one ---prímus, -a, -um, first I

2. duo, duae, duo, two ----secundus ( alter), second II

3. trés, tria, three -----tertius, third III

4. quattuor ----quártus IIII or IV

5. quínque ----quíntus V

6. sex -----sextus VI

7. septem ----septimus VII

8. octó -----octávus VIII

9. novem -----nónus VIIII or IX

10. decem ----decimus X

11. úndecim ----úndecimus XI

12. duodecim --duodecimus XII

13. tredecim ( decem ( et) trés) -----tertius decimus ( decimus ( et) tertius) XIII

14. quattuordecim -----quártus decimus XIIII or XIV

15. quíndecim ----quíntus decimus XV

16. sédecim sextus ----decimus XVI

17. septendecim septimus -----decimus XVII

18. duodévígintí (octódecim)------ duodévícénsimus ( octávus decimus) XVIII

19. úndévígintí (novendecim) úndévícénsimus(nónus decimus) XVIIII or XIX

20. vígintí vícénsimus (vígénsimus) XX

21. vígintí únus (or únus et vígintí, etc.) vícénsimus prímus ( únus et vícénsimus, etc.) XXI

30. trígintá trícénsimus XXX

40. quadrágintá quadrág énsimus XXXX or XL

50. quínquágintá quínquágénsimus " or L

60. sexágintá sexágénsimus LX

70. septuágintá septuág énsimus LXX

80. octógintá octógensimus LXXX

90. nónágintá nónágensimus LXXXX or XC

100. centum centensimus C

101. centum ( et) únus, etc. centénsimus prímus, etc. CI

200. ducentí, -ae, -a ducenténsimus CC

300. trecentí trecenténsimus CCC

400. quadringentí quadringenténsimus CCCC

500. quíngentí quíngenténsimus D

600. sescentí sescentensimus DC

700. septingentí septingenténsimus DCC

800. octingentí octingenténsimus DCCC

900. nóngenté nóngenténsimus DCCCC

1000. mílle míllénsimus [oolig] (CIa ) or M

5000. quínque mília (míllia) quínquiéns míllensimus Ia a

10,000. decem mília (míllia) deciéns míllénsimus CCIa a

100,000. centum mília (míllia) centiéns míllénsimus CCCIa a a

NOTE 1.--The forms in -énsimus are often written without the n: as, vícésimus, etc.

NOTE 2.--The forms octódecim, novendecim are rare, duodévígintí (two from twenty), úndévígintí (one from twenty), being used instead. So 28, 29; 38, 39; etc. may be expressed either by the subtraction of two and one or by the addition of eight and nine respectively.


.Declension of Cardinals and Ordinals



SECTION: #134. Of the Cardinals only únus, duo, trés, the hundreds above one hundred, and mílle when used as a noun, are declinable.

For the declension of únus, see Sect: 113. It often has the meaning of same or only. The plural is used in this sense; but also, as a simple numeral, to agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning: as, úna castra, one camp (cf. Sect: 137. b). The plural occurs also in the phrase úní et alterí, one party and the other (the ones and the others).

Duo,two, and trés, three, are thus declined:

M. F. N. M., F. N.

NOM. du o duae duo -------tr és tria

GEN. du órum du árum du órum -------trium trium

DAT. duóbus duábus duóbus -----tribus tribus

ACC. du ós (du o) duás du o -----tr és (tr ís) tria

ABL. duóbus duábus duóbus -----tribus tribus

NOTE.-- Ambó, both, is declined like duo.

The hundreds, up to 1000, are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are regularly declined like the plural of bonus.

Mílle, a thousand, is in the singular an indeclinable adjective:
     mílle modís, in a thousand ways.
     cum mílle hominibus, with a thousand men.
     mílle trahéns variós colórés (Aen. 4.701) , drawing out a thousand various colors.

In the plural it is used as a neuter noun, and is declined like the plural of sedíle (Sect: 69): mília, mílium, mílibus, etc.

NOTE.--The singular mílle is sometimes found as a noun in the nominative and accusative: as, mílle hominum mísit, he sent a thousand (of) men; in the other cases rarely, except in connection with the same case of mília: as, cum octó mílibus peditum, mílle equitum, with eight thousand foot and a thousand horse.

The ordinals are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are regularly declined like bonus.




SECTION: #135 . Cardinals and Ordinals have the following uses:

In numbers below 100, if units precede tens, et is generally inserted: duo et vígintí; otherwise et is omitted: vígintí duo.

In numbers above 100 the highest denomination generally stands first, the next second, etc., as in English. Et is either omitted entirely, or stands between the two highest denominations: mílle ( et) septingentí sexágintá quattuor, 1764.

NOTE.--Observe the following combinations of numerals with substantives:
     únus et vígintí mílités, or vígintí mílités ( et) únus, 21 soldiers.
     duo mília quíngentí mílités, or duo mília mílitum et quíngentí, 2500 soldiers.
     mílités mílle ducentí trígintá únus, 1231 soldiers.

After mília the name of the objects enumerated is in the genitive:
     duo mília hominum, two thousand men.
     cum tribus mílibus mílitum, with three thousand soldiers.
     mília passuum tria, three thousand paces (three miles).

For million, billion, trillion, etc., the Romans had no special words, out these numbers were expressed by multiplication (cf. Sect: 138. a).

Fractions are expressed, as in English, by cardinals in the numerator and ordinals in the denominator. The feminine gender is used to agree with pars expressed or understood: two-sevenths, duae septimae (sc. partés); three-eighths, trés octávae (sc. partes).

One-half is dímidia pars or dímidium.

NOTE 1.--When the numerator is one, it is omitted and pars is expressed: onethird, tertia pars; one-fourth, quárta pars.

NOTE 2.--When the denominator is but one greater than the numerator, the numerator only is given: two-thirds, duae partés; three-fourths, trés partés, etc.

NOTE 3.--Fractions are also expressed by special words derived from as, a pound: as, triéns, a third; bés, two-thirds. See Sect: 637.


Distributives



SECTION: #136. Distributive Numerals are declined like the plural of bonus.

NOTE.--These answer to the interrogative quoténí, how many of each? or how many at a time?

1. singulé , one by one 18. octóní déní or duodévícéní 100. centéné

2. bíní, two by two 200. ducení

3. terní, tríní 19. novéní déní or úndévé céní 300. trecéní

4. quaterní 400. quadringéní

5. quíní 20. vícéní 500. quíngéní

6. séní 21. vícéní singulí, etc. 600. sescéní

7. septéné 30. trícéní 700. septingéní

8. octóné 40. quadrágéní 800. octingéní

9. novéní 50. quínquágéní 900. nóngéné

10. déní 60. sexágéní 1000. mílléné

11. úndéní 70. septuágéní 2000. bína mília

12. duodéní 80. octógéní 10,000. déna mília

13. terní déní, etc. 90. nónágéní 100,000. centéna mília



SECTION: #137. Distributives are used as follows:

In the sense of so many apiece or on each side: as, singula singulís, one apiece (one each to each one); agrí septéna iúgera plébí dívísa sunt, i.e. seven jugera to each citizen (seven jugera each), etc.

Instead of cardinals, to express simple number, when a noun plural in form but usually singular in meaning is used in a plural sense: as, bína castra, two camps ( duo castra would mean two forts). With such nouns tríní, not terné , is used for three: as, trína (not terna) castra, three camps; terna castra means camps in threes.

In multiplication: as, bis bína, twice two; ter septénís diébus, in thrice seven days.

By the poets instead of cardinal numbers, particularly where pairs or sets are spoken of: as, bína hastília, two shafts (two in a set).


Numeral Adverbs



SECTION: #138. The Numeral Adverbs answer the question quotiéns ( quotiés), how many times? how often?

1. semel, once

2. bis, twice

3. ter, thrice

4. quater

5. quínquiéns (-és)

6. sexiéns

7. septiéns

8. octiens

9. noviéns

10. deciéns

11. úndeciens

12. duodeciéns

13. terdeciéns

14. quaterdeciens

15. quíndeciéns

16. sédeciéns

17. septiésdeciens

18. duodévíciéns

19. úndévíciéns

20. víciéns

21. semel víciéns,etc.

30. tríciéns

40. quadrágié ns

50. quínquágiéns

60. sexágiéns

70. septuági éns

80. octógiéns

90. nónágiéns

100. centiéns

200. ducentiens

300. trecentiéns

1000. míliéns

10,000. deciéns míliéns

Numeral Adverbs are used with mílle to express the higher numbers:
     ter et tríciéns ( centéna mília) séstertium, 3,300,000 sesterces (three and thirty times a hundred thousand sesterces).
     víciés ac septiés míliés ( centéna mília) séstertium, 2,700,000,000 sesterces (twenty-seven thousand times a hundred thousand).

NOTE.--These large numbers are used almost exclusively in reckoning money, and centéna mília is regularly omitted (see Sect: 634).


Other Numerals



SECTION: #139. The following adjectives are called Multiplicatives:
     simplex, single; duplex, double, twofold; triplex, triple, threefold; quadruplex, qué nquiplex, septemplex, decemplex, centuplex, sesquiplex (1 1/2), multiplex (manifold).

Proportionals are: duplus, triplus, quadruplus, octuplus, etc., twice as great, thrice as great, etc.

Temporals: bímus, trímus, of two or three years' age; biennis, triennis, lasting two or three years; biméstris, triméstris, of two or three months; bíduum, a period of two days; biennium, a period of two years.

Partitives: bínárius, ternárius, of two or three parts.

Other derivatives are: únió, unity; bínió, the two (of dice); prímánus of the first legion; prímárius, of the first rank; dénárius, a sum of 10 asses bé nus (distributive), double, etc.

1 The Ordinals (except secundus, tertius, octávus, nónus) are formed by means of suffixes related to those used in the superlative and in part identical with them. Thus, decimus (compare the form ínfimus) may be regarded as the last of a series of ten; prímus is a superlative of a stem akin to pró; the forms in -tus ( quártus, quíntus, sextus) may be compared with the corresponding Greek forms in -tos, and with superlatives in -is-to-s, while the others have the superlative ending -timus (changed to - simus). Of the exceptions, secundus is a participle of sequor; alter is a comparative form (compare -teros in Greek), and nónus is contracted from novenos. The cardinal multiples of ten are compounds of -gint- (a fragment of a derivative from decem).

2 The form in - o is a remnant of the dual number, which was lost in Latin, but is found in cognate languages. So in ambó, both, which preserves - ó (cf. du? and Sect: 629. b).

3 Or, in poetry, bis mílle hominés, twice a thousand men.

4 Forms in -ns are often written without the n.

5 Also written víciéns et semel or víciéns semel, etc.


.PRONOUNS



SECTION: #140. Pronouns are used as Nouns or as Adjectives. They are divided into the following seven classes:

1. Personal Pronouns: as, ego, I.

2. Reflexive Pronouns: as, sé, himself.

3. Possessive Pronouns: as, meus, my.

4. Demonstrative Pronouns: as, híc, this; ille, that.

5. Relative Pronouns: as, quí, who.

6. Interrogative Pronouns: as, quis, who?

7. Indefinite Pronouns: as, aliquis, some one.



SECTION: #141. Pronouns have special forms of declension.

NOTE.--These special forms are, in general, survivals of a very ancient form of declension differing from that of nouns.


.Personal Pronouns



SECTION: #142. The Personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I, nós, we; of the second person, tú, thou or you, vós, ye or you. The personal pronouns of the third person--he, she, it, they--are wanting in Latin, a demonstrative being sometimes used instead.



SECTION: #143. Ego and tú are declined as follows:

FIRST PERSON

Singular ------------------------Plural

NOM. ego, I --------------------nós, we

GEN. meí, of me --------------------nostrum, nostrí, of us

DAT. mihi ( mí), to me --------------------nóbís, to us

ACC. mé, me --------------------nós, us

ABL. mé, by me --------------------nóbís, by us

SECOND PERSON

NOM tú, thou or you --------------------vós, ye or you

GEN. tuí, of thee or you --------------------vestrum, vestrí; vostrum (-tré )

DAT. tibi --------------------vóbís

ACC. té --------------------vós

ABL. té --------------------vóbé s

The plural nós is often used for the singular ego; the plural vós is never so used for the singular tú.

NOTE.--Old forms are genitive mís, tís; accusative and ablative méd, téd (cf. Sect: 43. N. 1).

The forms nostrum, vestrum, etc., are used partitively:
     únusquisque nostrum, each one of us.
     vestrum omnium, of all of you.

NOTE.--The forms of the genitive of the personal pronouns are really the genitives of the possessives: meí, tuí, suí, nostrí, vestrí, genitive singular neuter: nostrum, vestrum, genitive plural masculine or neuter. So in early and later Latin we find úna vestrárum, one of you (women).

The genitives meí, tuí, suí, nostri, vestrí, are chiefly used objectively (Sect: 347):
     memor sís nostrí, be mindful of us (me).
     mé tuí pudet, I am ashamed of you.

Emphatic forms of tú are túte and tútemet (tútimet). The other cases of the personal pronouns, excepting the genitive plural, are made emphatic by adding - met: as, egomet, vósmet.

NOTE.--Early emphatic forms are mépte and tepte.

Reduplicated forms are found in the accusative and ablative singular: as, mémé, tété.

The preposition cum, with, is joined enclitically with the ablative: as, técum loquitur, he talks with you.


.Reflexive Pronouns



SECTION: #144. Reflexive Pronouns are used in the Oblique Cases to refer to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they stand (see Sect: 299): as, sé amat, he loves himself.

In the first and second persons the oblique cases of the Personal pronouns are used as Reflexives: as, mé videó, I see myself; té laudás, you praise yourself; nóbís persuádémus, we persuade ourselves.

The Reflexive pronoun of the third person has a special form used only in this sense, the same for both singular and plural. It is thus declined:
     GEN. suí, of himself, herself, itself, themselves
     DAT. sibi, to himself, herself, itself, themselves
     ACC. sé ( sésé), himself, herself, itself, themselves
     ABL. sé ( sésé), [by] himself, herself, itself, themselves

NOTE 1.--Emphatic and reduplicated forms of sé are made as in the personals (see Sect: 143. d, e). The preposition cum is added enclitically: as, sécum, with himself. etc.

NOTE 2.--An old form séd occurs in the accusative and ablative.

Possessive Pronouns



SECTION: #145. The Possessive pronouns are:

FIRST PERSON. meus, my --------------------noster, our

SECOND PERSON. tuus, thy, --------------------your vester, your

THIRD PERSON. suus, his, her, its --------------------suus, their

These are really adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are so declined (see Sect: 110-112). But meus has regularly mí (rarely meus) in the vocative singular masculine.

NOTE.-- Suus is used only as a reflexive, referring to the subject. For a possessive pronoun of the third person not referring to the subject, the genitive of a demonstrative must be used. Thus, patrem suum occídit, he killed his (own) father; but patrem eiius occídit, he killed his (somebody else's) father.

Emphatic forms in -pte are found in the ablative singular: suópte.

A rare possessive cúius ( quuius), - a, -um, whose, is formed from the genitive singular of the relative or interrogative pronoun ( quí, quis). It may be either interrogative or relative in force according to its derivation, but is usually the former.

The reciprocals one another and each other are expressed by inter sé or alter ... alterum:
     alter alteríus óva frangit, they break each other's eggs (one ... of the other).
     inter sé amant, they love one another (they love among themselves).


.Demonstrative Pronouns



SECTION: #146. The Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out or designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns as Adjectives or alone as Pronouns. They are: híc, this; is, ille, iste, that; with the Intensive ipse, self, and ídem, same;and are thus declined:

híc, this

SINGULAR --------------------------------PLURAL

M. F. N. --------------------------------M. F. N.

NOM. híc haec hóc -------hí hae haec

GEN. húius húius húius -------hórum hárum hórum

DAT. huic huic huic -------hís hís hís

ACC. hunc hanc hóc -------hós hás haec

ABL. hóc hác hóc -------hís hís hís

NOTE 1.-- Híc is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ce. In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. But in these latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis: as, húius- ce, hís- ce. In early Latin -c alone is retained in some of these (hórunc). The vowel in híc, hóc, was originally short, and perhaps this quantity was always retained. Ille and iste are sometimes found with the same enclitic: illic, illaec, illuc; also illoc. See a, p. 67.

NOTE 2.--For the dative and ablative plural of híc the old form híbus is sometimes found; haec occurs (rarely) for hae.

1 These demonstratives are combinations of o- and i- stems, which are not clearly distinguishable.

NOTE 1.-- Híc is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ce. In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. But in these latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis: as, húius- ce, hís- ce. In early Latin -c alone is retained in some of these (hórunc). The vowel in híc, hóc, was originally short, and perhaps this quantity was always retained. Ille and iste are sometimes found with the same enclitic: illic, illaec, illuc; also illoc. See a, p. 67.

NOTE 2.--For the dative and ablative plural of híc the old form híbus is sometimes found; haec occurs (rarely) for hae.

is = that

SINGULAR PLURAL

M. F. N. M. F. N.

NOM. is ea id ---------eí, ií ( í) eae ea

GEN. eiius eiius eiius ---------eórum eárum eórum

DAT. eí eí eí eís,--------- iís ( ís) eís, iís ( ís) eís, iís ( ís)

ACC. eum eam id ---------eós eás ea

ABL. eó eá eó eís, ---------iís ( ís) eís, iís ( ís) eís, iís ( ís)


NOTE 3.--Obsolete forms are eae ( dat. fem.), and eábus or é bus ( dat. plur.). For dative eí are found also eií and ei (monosyllabic); ei, eos, etc., also occur in the plural.

ille, that

SINGULAR ---------------------------PLURAL

M. F. N. M. F. N.

NOM. ille illa illud ---------illí illae illa

GEN. illíus illíus illíus ---------illórum illárum illórum

DAT. illí illí illí ---------illís illís illís

ACC. illum illam illud ---------illós illás illa

ABL. illó illá illó ---------illís illís illé s


Iste, ista, istud = that (yonder), is declined like ille.

NOTE 4.-- Ille replaces an earlier ollus ( olle), of which several forms occur.

NOTE 5.-- Iste is sometimes found in early writers in the form ste etc. The first syllable of ille and ipse is very often used as short in early poetry.

NOTE 6.--The forms illí, istí (gen.), and illae, istae ( dat.), are sometimes found; also the nominative plural istaece, illaece (for istae, illae). See a, p. 67.

ipse, self

SINGULAR ---------------------------PLURAL

---------M. F. N.--------- M. F. N.

NOM. ipse ipsa ipsum ---------ipsí ipsae ipsa

GEN. ipsíus ipsíus ipsíus ---------ipsórum ipsárum ipsórum

DAT. ipsí ipsí ipsí ipsís ---------ipsís ipsís

ACC. ipsum ipsam ipsum ---------ipsós ipsás ipsa

ABL. ipsó ipsá ipsó ipsís ---------ipsís ipsís

NOTE 7.-- Ipse is compounded of is and -pse (a pronominal particle of uncertain origin: cf. Sect: 145. a), meaning self. The former part was originally declined, as in reápse (for ré eápse), in fact. An old form ipsus occurs, with superlative ipsissimus, own self, used for comic effect.

NOTE 8.--The intensive -pse is found in the forms eapse (nominative), eumpse, eampse, eópse, eápse (ablative).


ídem = the same

SINGULAR ---------------------------PLURAL

M. F. N. ---------------------------M. F. N.

NOM. ídem eadem é idem ------ídem (eé) eaedem eadem

GEN. eiusdem eiusdem eiusdem ---------eórundem eárundem eórundem

DAT. eídem eídem eídem--------- eísdem or ísdem

ACC. eundem eandem idem ---------eósdem eásdem eadem

ABL. eódem eádem eódem ---------eísdem or &1acute;sdem

NOTE 9.--I dem is the demonstrative is with the indeclinable suffix - dem. The mas<
    >uline ídem is for isdem; the neuter idem, however, is not for *iddem, but is a relic of an older formation. A final m of is is changed to n before d: as, eundem for eumdem, etc. The plural forms ídem, ísdem, are often written ié dem, iísdem.

Ille and iste appear in combination with the demonstrative particle -c, shortened from - ce, in the following forms:


SINGULAR

M. F. N.--------------------------- M. F. N.

NOM. illic illaec illuc ( illoc) ---------istic istaec istuc ( istoc)

ACC. illunc illanc illuc ( illoc) ---------istunc istanc istuc ( istoc)

ABL. illóc illác illóc ---------istóc istác istóc

---------------------------PLURAL

N., ACC. illaec --------------- istaec

NOTE 1.--The appended - ce is also found with pronouns in numerous combinations: as, húiusce, hunce, hórunce, hárunce, hósce, hísce (cf. Sect: 146. N. 1), illíusce, ísce; also with the interrogative - ne, in hócine, hóscine, istucine, illicine, etc.

NOTE 2.--By composition with ecce or em, behold! are formed eccum (for ecce eum), eccam, eccós, eccás; eccillum (for ecce illum); ellum (for em illum), ellam, ellós, ellás; eccistam. These forms are dramatic and colloquial.

The combinations húiusmodí (húiuscemodí), eiiusmodí, etc., are used as indeclinable adjectives, equivalent to tális, such: as, rés eiiusmodí, such a thing (a thing of that sort: cf. Sect: 345. a).

For uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns, see Sect: 296 ff.


.Relative Pronouns



SECTION: #147. The Relative Pronoun quí, who, which, is thus declined:

SINGULAR ---------------------------PLURAL

M. F. N. ---------------------------M. F. N.

NOM. quí quae quod ---------quí quae quae

GEN. cúius cúius cúius ---------quórum quárum quórum

DAT. cui cui cui ---------quibus quibus quibus

ACC. quem quam quod ---------quós quás quae

ABL. quó quá quó quibus ---------quibus quibus



Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns



SECTION: #148. The Substantive Interrogative Pronoun quis, who? quid, what? is declined in the Singular as follows:

M., F.


.Interrogative Pronouns

M.F ---------------------N.

NOM. quis --------quid

GEN. cúius --------cúius

DAT. cui-------- cui

ACC. quem --------quid

ABL. quó --------quó

The Plural is the same as that of the Relative, quí, quae, quae.

The singular quis is either masculine or of indeterminate gender, but in old writers it is sometimes distinctly feminine.

The Adjective Interrogative Pronoun, quí, quae, quod, what kind of? what? which? is declined throughout like the Relative:


.SUBSTANTIVE ADJECTIVE

quis vocat, who calls? quí homó vocat, what man calls?

quid vidés, what do you see? quod templum vidés, what temple do you see?

NOTE.--But quí is often used without any apparent adjective force; and quis is very common as an adjective, especially with words denoting a person: as, quí nóminat mé? who calls my name? quis diés fuit? what day was it? quis homó? what man? but often quí homó? what kind of man? nesció quí sís, I know not who you are.

Quisnam, pray, who? is an emphatic interrogative. It has both substantive and adjective forms like quis, quí.



SECTION: #149. The Indefinite Pronouns quis, any one, and quí, any, are declined like the corresponding Interrogatives, but qua is commonly used for quae except in the nominative plural feminine:

SUBSTANTIVE: quis, any one; quid, anything.

ADJECTIVE: quí, qua ( quae), quod, any.

The feminine forms qua and quae are sometimes used substantively.

The indefinites quis and quí are rare except after sí, nisi, né, and num, and in compounds (see Sect: 310. a, b).

NOTE.--After these particles quí is often used as a substantive and quis as an adjective (cf. Sect: 148. b. N.).

Case-Forms of quí and quis



SECTION: #150. The Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns are originally of the same stem, and most of the forms are the same (compare Sect: 147 with Sect: 148). The stem has two forms in the masculine and neuter, quo-, qui-, and one for the feminine, quá-. The interrogative sense is doubtless the original one.

Old forms for the genitive and dative singular are quóius, quoi.

The form quí is used for the ablative of both numbers and all genders; but especially as an adverb (how, by which way, in any way), and in the combination quícum, with whom, as an interrogative or an indefinite relative.

A nominative plural qués (stem qui-) occurs in early Latin. A dative and ablative plural quís (stem quo-) is found even in classic Latin.

The preposition cum is joined enclitically to all forms of the ablative, as with the personal pronouns (Sect: 143. f): as, quó cum, quícum, quibuscum.

NOTE.--But occasionally cum precedes: as, cum quó (Iuv. 4.9) .


Compounds of quis and quí



SECTION: #151. The pronouns quis and quí appear in various combinations.

The adverb - cumque (-cunque) (cf. quisque) added to the relative makes an indefinite relative, which is declined like the simple word: as, quícumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, whoever, whatever; cúiuscumque, etc.

NOTE.--This suffix, with the same meaning, may be used with any relative: as, quáliscumque, of whatever sort; quandócumque (also rarely quandóque), whenever; ubicumque, wherever.

In quisquis, whoever, both parts are declined, but the only forms in common use are quisquis, quidquid ( quicquid) and quóquó.

NOTE 1.--Rare forms are quemquem and quibusquibus; an ablative quíquí is sometimes found in early Latin; the ablative feminine quáquá is both late and rare. Cuicui occurs as a genitive in the phrase cuicui modí, of whatever kind. Other cases are cited, but have no authority. In early Latin quisquis is occasionally feminine.

NOTE 2.-- Quisquis is usually substantive, except in the ablative quóquó, which is more commonly an adjective.

The indefinite pronouns quídam, a certain (one); quívís, qué libet, any you please, are used both as substantives and as adjectives. The first part is declined like the relative quí, but the neuter has both quid- (substantive) and quod- (adjective):

qué dam quaedam quiddam ( quoddam)

quívís quaevís quidvís ( quodví s)

Quídam changes m to n before d in the accusative singular ( quendam, M.; quandam, F.) and the genitive plural (quórundam, M., N.; quárundam, F.).

The indefinite pronouns quispiam, some, any, and quisquam, any at all, are used both as substantives and as adjectives. Quispiam has feminine quaepiam (adjective), neuter quidpiam (substantive) and quodpiam (adjective); the plural is very rare. Quisquam is both masculine and feminine; the neuter is quidquam ( quicquam), substantive only; there is no plural. Ullus, - a, -um, is commonly used as the adjective corresponding to quisquam.


The Indefinite pronoun aliquis (substantive), some one, aliquí (adjective), some, is declined like quis and quí, but aliqua is used instead of aliquae except in the nominative plural feminine:

SINGULAR

M. F. ------------------------N.

NOM. aliquis ( aliquí) --------aliqua --------aliquid ( aliquod)

GEN. alicúius-------- alicúius --------alicúius

DAT. alicui --------alicui-------- alicui

ACC. aliquem --------aliquam --------aliquid ( aliquod)

ABL. aliquó --------aliquá --------aliquó

PLURAL

NOM. aliquí --------aliquae --------aliqua

GEN. aliquórum --------aliquárum --------aliquórum

DAT. aliquibus --------aliquibus --------aliquibus

ACC. aliquós --------aliquás --------aliqua

ABL. aliquibus --------aliquibus --------aliquibus

NOTE.: Aliquí is sometimes used substantively and aliquis as an adjective.

The indefinite pronoun ecquis (substantive), whether any one, ecquí (adjective), whether any, is declined like aliquis, but has either ecquae or ecqua in the nominative singular feminine of the adjective form.

NOTE.-- Ecquis ( ecquí) has no genitive singular, and in the plural occurs in the nominative and accusative only.

The enclitic particle - que added to the interrogative gives a universal: as, quisque, every one; uterque, each of two, or both. Quisque is declined

like the interrogative quis, quí: substantive, quisque, quidque; adjective, quíque, quaeque, quodque.

In the compound únusquisque, every single one, both parts are declined (genitive uníuscúiusque), and they are sometimes written separately and even separated by other words:
     né in únó quidem quóque (Lael. 92) , not even in a single one.

The relative and interrogative have rarely a possessive adjective cúius (- a, -um), older quóius, whose; and a patrial cúiás (cúiát-), of what country.

Quantus, how great, quális, of what sort, are derivative adjectives from the interrogative. They are either interrogative or relative, corresponding respectively to the demonstratives tantus, tális (Sect: 152). Indefinite compounds are quantuscumque and quáliscumque (see Sect: 151. a).


.Correlatives



SECTION: #152. Many Pronouns, Pronominal Adjectives, and Adverbs have corresponding demonstrative, relative, interrogative, and indefinite forms. Such parallel forms are called Correlatives. They are shown in the following table:

DEMON. REL.-------- INTERROG. INDEF.-------- REL. INDEF.

is quí quis?-------- quisquis --------aliquis

   that who who? whoever some one

tantus quantus quantus? quantuscumque aliquantus

   so great how (as) great how great? however great some

tális quális quális? quáliscumque

   such as of what sort? of whatever kind

ibi ubi ubi? ubiubi alicubi

   there where where? wherever somewhere

eó quó quó? quóquó aliquó

   thither whither whither? whithersoever (to) somewhere

eá quá quá? quáquá aliquá

   that way which way which way? whithersoever somewhere

inde unde unde? undecumque alicunde

   thence whence whence? whencesoever from somewhere

tum cum quandó? quandócumque aliquandó

   then when when? whenever at some time

tot quot quot? quotquot aliquot

   so many as how many? however many some, several

totiéns quotiéns quotiéns? quotienscumque aliquotiens

   so often as how often? however often at several times




VERBS: CONJUGATION OF THE VERB



SECTION: #153. The inflection of the Verb is called its Conjugation.

Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, Number



SECTION: #154. Through its conjugation the Verb expresses Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, and Number.

The Voices are two: Active and Passive.

The Moods are four: Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive.

NOTE.--The Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative are called Finite Moods in distinction from the Infinitive.


The Tenses are six, viz.:

1. For continued action, Present, Imperfect, Future.

2. For completed action, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect.

The Indicative Mood has all six tenses, but the Subjunctive has no future or future perfect, and the Imperative has only the present and the future. The Infinitive has the present, perfect, and future.

The Persons are three: First, Second, and Third.

The Numbers are two: Singular and Plural.


.PARTICIPLES as Noun and Adjective Forms



SECTION: #155. The following Noun and Adjective forms are also included in the inflection of the Latin Verb:

Four Participles,viz.:

Active: the Present and Future Participles.

Passive: the Perfect Participle and the Gerundive.

The Gerund: this is in form a neuter noun of the second declension, used only in the oblique cases of the singular.

The Supine: this is in form a verbal noun of the fourth declension in the accusative (-um) and dative or ablative (-ú)singular.


1 The Infinitive is strictly the locative case of an abstract noun, expressing the action of the verb (Sect: 451).

2 The Participles are adjectives in inflection and meaning, but have the power of verbs in construction and in distinguishing time.

3 The Gerundive is also used as an adjective of necessity, duty, etc. (Sect: 158. d). In late use it became a Future Passive Participle.





SGNIFICATION OF THE FORMS OF THE VERB


.Voices



SECTION: #156. The Active and Passive Voices in Latin generally correspond to the active and passive in English; but:

The passive voice often has a reflexive meaning:
     ferró accingor, I gird myself with my sword.
     Turnus vertitur, Turnus turns (himself).
     induitur vestem, he puts on his (own) clothes.

NOTE.--This use corresponds very nearly to the Greek Middle voice, and is doubtless a survival of the original meaning of the passive (p. 76, footnote 2).

Many verbs are passive in form, but active or reflexive in meaning. These are called Deponents (Sect: 190):as, hortor, I exhort; sequor, I follow.

Some verbs with active meaning have the passive form in the perfect tenses; these are called Semi-Deponents: as, audeó, audére, ausus sum, dare.


.Moods



SECTION: #157. The Moods are used as follows:

The Indicative Mood is used for most direct assertions and interrogations: as,-- valésne? valeó, are you well? I am well.

The Subjunctive Mood has many idiomatic uses, as in commands, conditions, and various dependent clauses. It is often translated by the English Indicative; frequently by means of the auxiliaries may, might, would, should;sometimes by the (rare) Subjunctive; sometimes by the Infinitive; and often by the Imperative, especially in prohibitions. A few characteristic examples of its use are the following:
     eámus, let us go; né abeat, let him not depart.
     adsum ut videam, I am here to see (that I may see).
     tú né quaesieris, do not thou inquire.
     beátus sís, may you be blessed.
     quid morer, why should I delay?
     nesció quid scríbam, I know not what to write.
     sí moneam, audiat, if I should warn, he would hear.

The Imperative is used for exhortation, entreaty, or command; but the Subjunctive is often used instead (Sect: 439, 450):
     líber estó, he shall be free.
     né ossa legitó, do not gather the bones.

The Infinitive is used chiefly as an indeclinable noun, as the subject or complement of another verb (Sect: 452, 456. N.). In special constructions it takes the place of the Indicative, and may be translated by that mood in English (see Indirect Discourse, Sect. 580 ff.).

NOTE.--For the Syntax of the Moods, see Sect: 436 ff.


.Participles



SECTION: #158. The Participles are used as follows:

The Present Participle (ending in -ns) has commonly the same meaning and use as the English participle in -ing; as, vocáns, calling; legentés, reading. (For its inflection, see egéns, Sect: 118.)

The Future Participle (ending in -úrus) is oftenest used to express what is likely or about to happen: as, réctúrus, about to rule; audítúrus, about to hear.

NOTE.--With the tenses of esse, to be, it forms the First Periphrastic Conjugation (see Sect: 195): as, urbs est cásúra, the city is about to fall; mánsúrus eram, I was going to stay.

The Perfect Participle (ending in -tus, - sus) has two uses:

1. It is sometimes equivalent to the English perfect passive participle: as, téctus, sheltered; acceptus, accepted; ictus, having been struck; and often has simply an adjective meaning: as, acceptus, acceptable.

2. It is used with the verb to be ( esse) to form certain tenses of the passive: as, vocátus est, he was (has been) called.

NOTE.--There is no Perfect Active or Present Passive Participle in Latin. For substitutes see Sect: 492, 493.

The Gerundive (ending in -ndus), has two uses:

1. It is often used as an adjective implying obligation, necessity, or propriety (ought or must): as, audiendus est, he must be heard.

NOTE.--When thus used with the tenses of the verb to be ( esse) it forms the Second Periphrastic Conjugation: déligendus erat, he ought to have been chosen (Sect: 196).

2. In the oblique cases the Gerundive commonly has the same meaning as the Gerund (cf. Sect: 159. a), though its construction is different. (For examples, see Sect: 503 ff.)


.Gerund and Supine



SECTION: #159. The Gerund and Supine are used as follows:

The Gerund is a verbal noun, corresponding in meaning to the English verbal noun in -ing (Sect: 502): as, loquendí causá, for the sake of speaking.

NOTE.--The Gerund is found only in the oblique cases. A corresponding nominative is supplied by the Infinitive: thus, scríbere est útile, writing (to write) is useful; but, ars scríbendí, the art of writing.

The Supine is in form a noun of the fourth declension (Sect: 94. b), found only in the accusative ending in - tum, - sum, and the dative or ablative ending in - tú, -sú.

The Supine in -um is used after verbs and the Supine in -u after adjectives (Sect: 509, 510):
     vénit spectátum, he came to see; mírábile dictú, wonderful to tell.


.Tenses of the Finite Verb



SECTION: #160. The Tenses of the Indicative have, in general, the same meaning as the corresponding tenses in English:

Of continued action,
     1. PRESENT: scríbó, I write, I am writing, I do write.
     2. IMPERFECT: scríbébam, I wrote, I was writing, I did write.
     3. FUTURE: scríbam, I shall write.

Of completed action,
     4. PERFECT: scrípsí, I have written, I wrote.
     5. PLUPERFECT: scrípseram, I had written.
     6. FUTURE PERFECT: scrípseró, I shall have written.



SECTION: #161. The Perfect Indicative has two separate uses,--the Perfect Definite and the Perfect Historical (or Indefinite).

1. The Perfect Definite represents the action of the verb as completed in present time, and corresponds to the English perfect with have: as, scrípsí, I have written.

2. The Perfect Historical narrates a simple act or state in past time without representing it as in progress or continuing. It corresponds to the English past or preterite and the Greek aorist: as, scrípsit, he wrote.



SECTION: #162. The Tenses of the Subjunctive are chiefly used in dependent clauses, following the rule for the Sequence of Tenses; but have also special idiomatic uses (see Syntax).

For the use of Tenses in the Imperative, see Sect: 448, 449.

1 That is, verbs which have laid aside ( dépónere) the passive meaning.

2 The Latin uses the subjunctive in many cases where we use the indicative; and we use a colorless auxiliary in many cases where the Latin employs a separate verb with more definite meaning. Thus, I may write is often not scríbam (subjunctive), but licet mihi scríbere; I can write is possum scríbere; I would write is scríbam, scríberem, or scríbere velim ( vellem); I should write, (if, etc.), scríberem ( sí) ..., or (implying duty) oportet mé scríbere.


.PERSONAL ENDINGS

SYNOPSIS OF THE ENDINGS

verb endings



SECTION: #163. Verbs have regular terminationsfor each of the three Persons, both singular and plural, active and passive.These are:

(cont'd) ./AG/

Singular ----- PRESENT PASSIVE--------- Plural

2. - re: amá- re, be thou loved. ------- miní: amá- miní, be ye loved.

Singular------FUTURE PASSIVE-----Plural

2. -tor: amá-tor, thou shalt be loved.

3. -tor: amá-tor, he shall be loved.-------- -ntor: ama-ntor, they shall be loved.



FORMS OF THE VERB

The Three Stems



SECTION: #164. The forms of the verb may be referred to three stems, called (1) the Present, (2) the Perfect, and (3) the Supine stem.

1. On the Present stem are formed:

The Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative, Active and Passive.

The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, Active and Passive.

The Imperative, Active and Passive.

The Present Infinitive, Active and Passive.

The Present Participle, the Gerundive, and the Gerund.

2. On the Perfect stem are formed:

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Active.

The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Active.

The Perfect Infinitive Active.

3. On the Supine stem are formed:

The Perfect Passive Participle, which combines with the forms of the verb sum, be, to make:

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Passive.

The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive.

The Perfect Infinitive Passive.

The Future Active Participle, which combines with esse to make the Future Active Infinitive.

The Supine in -um and -ú. The Supine in -um combines with írí to make the Future Passive Infinitive (Sect: 203. a).

NOTE.--The Perfect Participle with fore also makes a Future Passive Infinitive (as, amátus fore). For fore ( futúrum esse) ut with the subjunctive, see Sect: 569. 3. a.



.VERB-ENDINGS



SECTION: #165. Every form of the finite verb is made up of two parts:

1. The STEM (see Sect. 24). This is either the root or a modification or development of it.

2. The ENDING, consisting of--
     1. the Signs of Mood and Tense (see Sect: 168, 169).
     2. the Personal Ending (see Sect: 163).

Thus in the verb vocá-bá- s, you were calling, the root is VOC, modified into the verb-stem vocá-, which by the addition of the ending - bás becomes the imperfect tense vocábás; and this ending consists of the tense-sign bá- and the personal ending (- s) of the second person singular.



SECTION: #166. The Verb-endings, as they are formed by the signs for mood and tense combined with personal endings, are:

Verb Endings

verb endg




SECTION: #167. A long vowel is shortened before the personal endings -m (-r), -t, -nt (-ntur): as, ame- t (for older amé- t), habe- t (for habé- t), mone- nt, mone- ntur.



SECTION: #168. The tenses of the Present System are made from the Present Stem as follows:

In the Present Indicative the personal endings are added directly to the present stem. Thus,--present stem ará-: ará-s, ará-mus, ará-tis.

In the Imperfect Indicative the suffix -bam, - bás, etc. (originally a complete verb) is added to the present stem: as, ará-bam, ará-bás, ará-bámus.

NOTE.--The form bam was apparently an aorist of the Indo-European root BHU (cf. fuí, futúrus, phu?, English be, been), and meant I was. This was added to a complete word, originally a case of a verbal noun, as in I was a-seeing; hence vidé- bam. The form probably began in the Second or Third Conjugation and was extended to the others. The a was at first long, but was shortened in certain forms (Sect: 167).

In the Future Indicative of the First and Second Conjugations a similar suffix, - bó, - bis, etc., is added to the present stem: as, ará-bó, ará-bis, moné- bó.

NOTE.--The form -bó was probably a present tense of the root BHU, with a future meaning, and was affixed to a noun-form as described in b. N.

In the Future Indicative of the Third and Fourth Conjugations the terminations -am, - és, etc. (as, teg- am, teg- és, audi- am, audi- és) are really subjunctive endings used in a future sense (see e). The vowel was originally long throughout. For shortening, see Sect: 167.

In the Present Subjunctive the personal endings were added to a form of the present stem ending in é- or á-, which was shortened in certain forms (Sect: 167). Thus, ame-m, amé- s, tegá- mus, tega- nt.

NOTE 1.--The vowel é (seen in the First Conjugation: as, am-és) is an inherited subjunctive mood-sign. It appears to be the thematic vowel e (Sect: 174. 1) lengthened. The á of the other conjugations (mone-á- s, reg-á- s, audi-á- s) is of uncertain origin.

NOTE 2.--In a few irregular verbs a Present Subjunctive in -im, - ís, etc. occurs: as, sim, sís, símus, velim, velís, etc. This is an old optative, í being a form of the IndoEuropean optative mood-sign yé- (cf. siem, siés, siet, Sect: 170. b. N.). The vowel has been shortened in the first and third persons singular and the third person plural.

In the Imperfect Subjunctive the suffix -rem, - rés, etc. is added to the present stem: as, amá- rem, amá- rés, moné- rem, tege- rem, audí- rem.

NOTE.--The stem element - ré- is of uncertain origin and is not found outside of Italic. The r is doubtless the aorist sign s (cf. es-se- m, es-sé- s) changed to r between two vowels (Sect: 15. 4). The é is probably the subjunctive mood-sign (see e).




SECTION: #169. The tenses of the Perfect System in the active voice are made from the Perfect Stem as follows:

In the Perfect Indicative the endings - í, - istí, etc. are added directly to the perfect stem: as, amáv- istí, téx- istis.

In the Pluperfect Indicative the suffix - eram, - erás, etc. is added to the perfect stem: as, amáv- eram, monu- erás, téx- erat.

NOTE.--This seems to represent an older -is-ám etc. formed on the analogy of the Future Perfect in - eró (older -is-ó: see c below) and influenced by eram (imperfect of sum) in comparison with eró (future of sum).

In the Future Perfect the suffix - eró, - eris, etc. is added to the perfect stem: as, amáv- eró, monu- eris, téx- erit.

NOTE.--This formation was originally a subjunctive of the s-aorist, ending probably in -is-ó. The - is- is doubtless the same as that seen in the second person singular of the perfect indicative (víd-is- tí), in the perfect infinitive (víd-is- se), and in the pluperfect subjunctive (víd-is-sem), s being the aorist sign and i probably an old stem vowel.

In the Perfect Subjunctive the suffix -erim, - eris, etc. is added to the perfect stem: as, amáv- erim, monu- eris, téx- erit.

NOTE.--This formation was originally an optative of the s-aorist (-er- for older - is-, as in the future perfect, see c above). The i after r is the optative mood-sign é shortened (see Sect: 168. e. N.2). Forms in - ís, - ít, - ímus, - ítis, are sometimes found. The shortening in -is, -imus, -itis, is due to confusion with the future perfect.

In the Pluperfect Subjunctive the suffix - issem, - issés, etc. is added to the perfect stem: as, amáv- issem, monu- issés, téx- isset.

NOTE.--Apparently this tense was formed on the analogy of the pluperfect indicative in -is-ám (later -er-am, see b), and influenced by essem (earlier -essém) in its relation to eram (earlier -esám).


.SUM: to be. The Verb Sum Esse



SECTION: #170. The verb sum, be, is both irregular and defective, having no gerund or supine, and no participle but the future.

Its conjugation is given at the outset, on account of its importance for the inflection of other verbs.

The verb SUM

sum.jpg

For essem, essés, etc., forem, forés, foret, forent, are often used; so fore for futúrus esse.

The Present Participle, which would regularly be sóns,appears in the adjective é n-sóns, innocent, and in a modified form in ab-séns, prae- séns. The simple form é ns is sometimes found in late or philosophical Latin as a participle or abstract noun, in the forms éns, being; entia, things which are.

NOTE.--Old forms are: Indicative: Future, escit, escunt (strictly an inchoative present, see Sect: 263. 1).

Subjunctive: Present, siem, siés, siet, sient; fuam, fuás, fuat, fuant; Perfect, fúvimus; Pluperfect, fuvisset.

The root of the verb sum is ES, which in the imperfect is changed to ER (see Sect: 15. 4), and in many forms is shortened to S. Some of its modifications, as found in several languages more or less closely related to Latin, may be seen in the following table,-- the Sanskrit syám corresponding to the Latin sim (siem):

=

.SANSKRIT---- GREEK----- LATIN ---LITHUANIAN

as-mi syám (optative) ---- emmi (old form) ---- s- um sim (siem) ---- es-mi

as- i---- sy ás essi (old form) ----es sís (siés) ----es-i

as-ti syát---- esti ----es- t sit (siet) ----es-ti

s-mas ----syáma esmen---- s- umus símus es-me

s-tha ----syáta este---- es- tis sítis---- es- te

s-anti---- syus ----enti (old form) ----s- unt sint (sient) ----es-ti

The Perfect and Supine stems, fu-, fut-, are kindred with the Greek ephu, and with Nhe English be.

1 Most of these seem to be fragments of old pronouns, whose signification is thus added to that of the verb-stem (cf. Sect: 36). But the ending - miní in the second person plural of the passive is perhaps a remnant of the participial form found in the Greek -menos, and has supplanted the proper form, which does not appear in Latin. The personal ending -nt is probably connected with the participial nt- (nominative -ns).

2 The Passive is an old Middle Voice, peculiar to the Italic and Celtic languages, and of uncertain origin.

3 Of these terminations - í is not a personal ending, but appears to represent an Indo-European tense-sign - ai of the Perfect Middle. In -is-té and -is-tis, -tí and -tis are personal endings; for - is-, see Sect: 169. c. N. In -i-t and -i-mus, -t and -mus are personal endings, and i is of uncertain origin. Both - érunt and - ére are also of doubtful origin, but the former contains the personal ending -nt.

4 The Perfect Passive and Future Active Participles and the Supine, though strictly noun-forms, each with its own suffix, agree in having the first letter of the suffix (t) the same and in suffering the same phonetic change (t to s, see Sect: 15. 5). Hence these forms, along with several sets of derivatives (in -tor, -túra, etc., see Sect: 238. b. N.1), were felt by the Romans as belonging to one system, and are conveniently associated with the Supine Stem. Thus, from pingó, we have pictum, pictus, picturus, pictor, pictúra; from rídeó, rísum (for ré d-tum), rísus (part.), rísus (noun), rísurus, rísió, rísor, rísibilis.

5 These numerals refer to the four conjugations given later (see Sect: 171).

6 The conjugation of a verb consists of separate formations from a root, gradually grouped together, systematized, and supplemented by new formations made on old lines to supply deficiencies. Some of the forms were inherited from the parent speech; others were developed in the course of the history of the Italic dialects or of the Latin language itself.

7 The signs of mood and tense are often said to be inserted between the root (or verb-stem) and the personal ending. No such insertion is possible in a language developed like the Latin. All true verb-forms are the result, as shown above, of composition; that is, of adding to the root or the stem either personal endings or fully developed auxiliaries (themselves containing the personal terminations), or of imitation of such processes. Thus vidébámus is made by adding to vidé-, originally a significant word or a form conceived as such, a full verbal form bámus, not by inserting -bá- between vidé- and - mus (Sect: 168. b).

8 All translations of the Subjunctive are misleading, and hence none is given; see Sect: 157. b.

9 Compare Sankrit sant, Greek -on.




SECTION: #171. Verbs are classed in Four Regular Conjugations, distinguished by the stem-vowel which appears before - re in the Present Infinitive Active:

.CONJUGATION : INFINITIVE ENDING STEM

First ------------- áre (am áre) á

Second -------------- ére (mon ére) é

Third --------------ere (regere) e

Fourth -------------- íre (aud íre) í

The Principal Parts



SECTION: #172. The Principal Parts of a verb, showing the three stems which determine its conjugation throughout, are:

1. The Present Indicative (as, amó) 2. The Present Infinitive (as, amá- re) showing the Present Stem.

3. The Perfect Indicative (as, amáv- í), showing the Perfect Stem.

4. The neuter of the Perfect Participle (as, amát- um), or, if that form is not in use, the Future Active Participle (amát- úrus), showing the Supine Stem.



SECTION: #173. The regular forms of the Four Conjugations are seen in the following:

First Conjugation:
     Active, amó, amáre, amáví, amátum, love.
     Passive, amor, amárí, amátus.
     Present Stem amá-, Perfect Stem amáv-, Supine Stem amát-.

Second Conjugation:
     Active, déleó, délére, déléví, délétum, blot out.
     Passive, déleor, délérí, délétus.
     Present Stem délé-, Perfect Stem délév-, Supine Stem délét-.

In the Second conjugation, however, the characteristic é- rarely appears in the perfect and perfect participle. The common type is, therefore:
     Active, moneó, monére, monuí, monitum, warn.
     Passive, moneor, monérí, monitus.
     Present Stem moné-, Perfect Stem monu-, Supine Stem monit-.

Third Conjugation:
     Active, tegó, tegere, téxí, téctum, cover.
     Passive, tegor, tegí, téctus.
     Present Stem tege-, Perfect Stem téx-, Supine Stem tect-.

Fourth Conjugation:
     Active, audió, audíre, audíví, audítum, hear.
     Passive, audior, audírí, audítus.
     Present Stem audí-, Perfect Stem audív-, Supine Stem audít-.

In many verbs the principal parts take forms belonging to two or more different conjugations (cf. Sect: 189):
     1, 2, domó, domáre, domuí, domitum, subdue.
     2, 3, maneó, manére, mánsí, mánsum, remain.
     3, 4, petó, peté re, petíví, petítum, seek.
     4, 3, vinció, vincíre, vínxé , vínctum, bind.

Such verbs are referred to the conjugation to which the Present sten conforms.


.Present Stem



SECTION: #174. The parent (Indo-European) speech from which Latin comes had two main classes of verbs:

1. Thematic Verbs, in which a so-called thematic vowel ( e/ o, in Latin i/u) appeared between the root and the personal ending: as, leg-i-tis (for *leg-e-tes), leg-u- nt (for *leg-o-nti).

2. Athematic Verbs, in which the personal endings were added directly to the root: as, es- t, es- tis (root ES), déa -mus (dó, root DA), fer- t ( feró, root FER).

Of the Athematic Verbs few survive in Latin, and these are counted as irregular, except such as have been forced into one of the four "regular"conjugations. Even the irregular verbs have admitted many forms of the thematic type.

Of the Thematic Verbs a large number remain. These may be divided into two classes:

1. Verbs which preserve the thematic vowel e or o (in Latin i or u) before the personal endings.--These make up the Third Conjugation. The present stem is formed in various ways (Sect: 176), but always ends in a short vowel e/o (Latin i/u). Examples are tegó (stem ( tege/o-), sternimus (stem ( sterne/o-) for *ster-no-mos, plectunt (stem ( plecte/o-) for *plec-to-nti. So nóscó (stem (gnósce/o-) for gnó-sc-ó. Verbs like nóscó became the type for a large number of verbs in -scó, called inceptives (Sect: 263. 1).

2. Verbs which form the present stem by means of the suffix ye/o-, which already contained the thematic vowel e/o.--Verbs of this class in which any vowel (except u) came in contact with the suffix ye/o- suffered contraction so as to present a long vowel á-, é-, í-, at the end of the stem. In this contraction the thematic e/o disappeared. These became the types of the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations respectively. In imitation of these long vowel-stems numerous verbs were formed by the Romans themselves (after the mode of formation had been entirely forgotten) from noun- and

adjective-stems. This came to be the regular way of forming new verbs, just as in English the borrowed suffix -ize can be added to nouns and adjectives to make verbs: as, macadamize, modernize.

Thematic verbs of the second class in which a consonant or u came into contact with the suffix ye/o- suffered various phonetic changes. Such verbs fall partly into the Third Conjugation, giving rise to an irregular form of it, and partly into the Fourth, and some have forms of both. Examples are: (cón) spició (-spicere) for *spekyó; venió ( veníre) for -(g) vem-yó; cupió, cupé re, but cupíví; orior, oritur, but orírí. Note, however, pluó ( pluere) for plu-yó; and hence, by analogy, acuó ( acuere) for acu-yó.

In all these cases many cross-analogies and errors as well as phonetic changes have been at work to produce irregularities. Hence has arisen the traditional system which is practically represented in Sect: 175, 176.



SECTION: #175. The Present Stem may be found by dropping - re in the Present Infinitive:
     amá- re, stem amá-; moné-re, stem moné-; tegé -re, stem tege-; audí-re, stem audí-.



SECTION: #176. The Present Stem is formed from the Root in all regular verbs in one of the following ways:

In the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations, by adding a long vowel (á-, é-, í-) to the root, whose vowel is sometimes changed: as, vocá-re (VOC), moné- re (MEN, cf. meminí), sopí-re (SOP).

NOTE.--Verb-stems of these conjugations are almost all really formed from nounstems on the pattern of older formations (see Sect: 174).

In the Third Conjugation, by adding a short vowel e/oto the root. In Latin this e/o usually appears as i/u, but e is preserved in some forms. Thus, tegi- s (root TEG), ali-tis (AL), regu-nt (REG); but tege-ris (tege-re), ale-ris.

1. The stem-vowel e/o ( i/u) may be preceded by n, t, or sc:as, tem-ni-tis, tem-nu-nt, tem-ne-ris (TEM); plec-ti-s (PLEC); cré-sci-tis (CRE).

2. Verbs in -ió of the Third Conjugation (as, capió, capere) show in some forms an i before the final vowel of the stem: as, cap-i- unt (CAP), fug-i-unt (FUG).

The root may be changed:

1. By the repetition of a part of it (reduplication): as, gi-gn-e-re (GEN).

2. By the insertion of a nasal (m or n): as, find-e-re (FID), tang-e- re (TAG).

In some verbs the present stem is formed from a noun-stem in u-, as, statu-e-re (statu-s), aestu-á-re (aestu- s); cf. acuó, acuere.

NOTE 1.--A few isolated forms use the simple root as a present stem: as, fer- re, fer- t; es- se; vel- le, vul- t. These are counted as irregular.

NOTE 2.--In some verbs the final consonant of the root is doubled before the stemvowel: as, pell-i-tis (PEL), mitt-i-tis (MIT).

Some verbs have roots ending in a vowel. In these the present stem is generally identical with the root: as, da- mus (DA), flé-mus (stem flé-, root form unknown).But others, as rui-mus (RU), are formed with an additional vowel according to the analogy of the verbs described in d.

NOTE.--Some verbs of this class reduplicate the root: as, si-st-e-re (STA, cf. stáre).

1 Cf. leg-e- te, leg-o- men; Doric leg-o- nti.

2 Cf. es- ti, es- te (see p. 83, note).

3 Most verbs of the First, Second, and Fourth Conjugations form the present stem by adding the suffix -ye/o- to a noun-stem. The á of the First Conjugation is the stem-ending of the noun (as, plantá- re, from plantá-, stem of planta). The é of the Second and the í of the Fourth Conjugation are due to contraction of the short vowel of the noun-stem with the ending -ye/o-. Thus albére is from albo/e-, stem of albus; fíníre is from fé ni-, stem of fínis. Some verbs of these classes, however, come from roots ending in a vowel.

4 This is the so-called "thematic vowel."

5 In these verbs the stem-ending added to the root is respectively -ne/o-, -te/o<
    >

6 These are either old formations in -ye/o-in which the y has disappeared after the u (as, statuó for statu-yó) or later imitations of such forms.

7 In some of the verbs of this class the present stem was originally identical with the root; in others the ending -ye/o- was added, but has been absorbed by contraction.


.Perfect Stem



SECTION: #177. The Perfect Stem is formed as follows:

The suffix v (u) is added to the verb-stem: as, vocá-v-í, audí-v- í; or to the root: as, son-u- í (soná-re, root SON), mon-u- í (moné- re, MON treated as a root).

NOTE.--In a few verbs the vowel of the root is transposed and lengthened: as, strá-v- í ( sternó, STAR), spré -v- í ( spernó, SPAR).

The suffix s is added to the root: as, carp-s- í (CARP), téx- í (for tég-s-í, TEG).

NOTE.--The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the perfect: as, fínx- í (FIG, present stem finge-), sánx-í (SAC, present stem sancí-).

The root is reduplicated by prefixing the first consonant--generally with é , sometimes with the root-vowel: as, ce-cid-í ( cadó, CAD), to-tond- í ( tondeó, TOND).

NOTE.--In fid- í (for fe-fid-í , find- ó), scid-é (for sci-scid-í, scindó), the reduplication has been lost, leaving merely the root.

The root vowel is lengthened, sometimes with vowel change: as, lég- í (leg-ó), ém- í (em- ó), víd- í (vid-e-ó), fúg- í (fúg-i-ó), ég- í (éa g-ó).

Sometimes the perfect stem has the same formation that appears in the present tense: as, vert- í (vert- ó), solv- í (solv- ó).

Sometimes the perfect is formed from a lost or imaginary stem: as, pet í-v- í (as if from peti-ó, petí-re, PET).

1 The v-perfect is a form of uncertain origin peculiar to the Latin.

2 The s-perfect is in origin an aorist. Thus, díx-í (for dícs-é ) corresponds to the Greek aorist e-deix- a (for e-deiks-a).


.Supine Stem



SECTION: #178. The Supine Stem may be found by dropping -um from the Supine. It is formed by adding t (or, by a phonetic change, s):

To the present stem: as, amá-t- um, délé-t- um, audí-t- um.

To the root, with or without i: as, cap-t- um ( capió, CAP), moni-t- um ( moneó, MON used as root), cás- um (for cad-t-um, CAD), léc-t-um (LEG).

NOTE 1.--By phonetic change dt and tt become s ( défénsum, versum for de-fendt-um, vert-t-um); bt becomes pt (scríp-t- um for scríb-t-um); gt becomes ct (réc-t-um for reg-t-um).

NOTE 2.--The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the supine: as, tínc-t-um ( tingó, TIG), tén-s-um for tend-t-um (ten-d- ó, TEN).

NOTE 3.--The supine is sometimes from a lost or imaginary verb-stem: as, peté -t- um (as if from peti-ó, petí-re, PET).

NOTE 4.--A few verbs form the supine stem in s after the analogy of verbs in d and t: as, fal-s- um ( falló), pul-s- um ( pelló).


.Forms of Conjugation



SECTION: #179. The forms of the several conjugations from which, by adding the verb-endings in Sect: 166, all the moods and tenses can be made are as follows:

The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add á- to the root to form the present stem:as, amá-re; with a few whose root ends in a (for, fá- rí; fló, flá- re; nó, ná- re; stó, stá- re).

1. The stem-vowel á- is lost before -ó: as, amó = amá-(y)ó; and in the present subjunctive it is changed to é: as, amé- s, amé- mus.

2. The perfect stem regularly adds v, the supine stem t, to the present stem: as, amá-v- í, amá-t- um. For exceptions, see Sect: 209. a.

The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add é- to the root to form the present stem: as, moné- re; with a few whose root ends in é; as, fle- ó, flé- re; ne- ó, né- re; re- or, ré- rí (cf. Sect: 176. e).

1. In the present subjunctive á is added to the verb-stem: as, mone-á- s, mone-á- mus (cf. Sect: 168. e).

2. A few verbs form the perfect stem by adding v (u), and the supine stem by adding t, to the present stem: as, délé-v- í, délé-t- um. But most form the perfect stem by adding v (u) to the root, and the supine stem by adding t to a weaker form of the present stem, ending in é : as, mon-u- í, moni-t-um. For lists, see Sect: 210.

The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregular, see Sect: 197) which add e- to the root to form the present stem: as, tegere, cape-re; with a few whose root ends in e: as, se-re-re for se-se-re (reduplicated from SE, cf. séa tum).

1. The stem-vowel eis regularly lost before - ó, and becomes ubefore -nt and é before the other endings of the indicative and imperative: as, teg- ó, tegi- t, tegu- nt; in the imperfect indicative it becomes é: as, tegébam, tegé- bás, etc.; in the future, é: as, tegé- s (except in the first person singular, tega- m, tega- r); in the present subjunctive, á: as, tegá- s.

Verbs in -ió lose the i before a consonant and also before i, í , and e(except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). Thus,--capi- at, capi- unt, capi-ébat, capi- és, capi- et, capi-ent; but, cap- it (not *capi-it), cap- eret.

2. All varieties of perfect and supine stems are found in this conjugation. See lists, Sect: 211. The perfect is not formed from the present stem, but from the root.

The Fourth Conjugation includes all verbs which add í- to the root to form the present stem: as, audé -re.In these the perfect and supine stems regularly add v, t, to the verb-stem: as, audí-v- í, audít- um.Endings like those of the third conjugation are added in the third person plural of the present (indicative and imperative), in the imperfect and future indicative, and in the present subjunctive: as, audi- unt, audi- ébat, audi- étis, audi- at, the i being regularly short before a vowel.

The Present Imperative Active (second person singular) is the same as the present stem: as, amá, moné, tegé , audí. But verbs in -ió of the third conjugation omit i: as, cape(not capie).

The tenses of completed action in the Active voice are all regularly formed by adding the tense-endings (given in Sect: 166) to the perfect stem: as, amáv- í, amáv- eram, amáv- eró, amáv- erim, amáv- issem, amáv- isse.

The tenses of completed action in the Passive voice are formed by adding to the perfect participle the corresponding tenses of continued action of the verb esse: as, perfect amátus sum; pluperfect amátus eram, etc.




SECTION:180

.Synopsis of the Verb

Synopsis of the Verb

p 90



.Peculiarities of Conjugation



SECTION: #181. In tenses formed upon the Perfect Stem, v between two vowels is often lost and contraction takes place.

Perfects in - áví, - éví, - óví, often contract the two vowels into á, é, ó, respectively: as, amásse for amávisse; amárim for amáverim; amássem for amávissem; cónsuérat for cónsuéverat; flestis for flévistis; nósse for nóvisse. So in perfects in - ví, where the v is a part of the present stem: as, commórat for commóverat.

NOTE.--The first person of the perfect indicative (as, amáví) is never contracted, the third very rarely.

Perfects in - íví regularly omit v, but rarely contract the vowels except before st and ss, and very rarely in the third person perfect:
     audieram for audíveram; audísse for audívisse; audístí for audívistí; abiit for abívit; abiérunt for abívérunt.

NOTE 1.--The forms síris, sírit, síré tis, sírint, for síveris etc. (from síveró or síverim), are archaic.

NOTE 2.--In many forms from the perfect stem is, iss, sis, are lost in like manner, when s would be repeated if they were retained: as, díxtí for díxistí (x = cs); tráxe for tráxisse; évástí for évásistí; víxet for víxisset; érépsémus for érépsissémus; décésse for décessisse. These forms belong to archaic and colloquial usage.



SECTION: #182. Four verbs,-- dícó, dúcó, fació, feró,--with their compounds, drop the vowel-termination of the Imperative, making díc, dúc, fé a c, fer; but compounds in -fició retain it, as, cónfice.

NOTE.--The imperative forms díce, dúce, face (never fere), occur in early Latin.

For the imperative of sció, the future form scító is always used in the singular, and scítóte usually in the plural.



SECTION: #183. The following ancient forms are found chiefly in poetry:

1. In the fourth conjugation, - íbam, - íbó, for -iébam, - iam (future). These forms are regular in eó, go (Sect: 203).

2. In the present subjunctive, -im: as in duim, perduim, retained in religious formulas and often in comedy. This form is regular in sum and voló and their compounds (Sect: 170, 199).

3. In the perfect subjunctive and future perfect indicative, - sim, -só: as, faxim, faxó, iussó, recépsó (= fécerim etc.); ausim (= ausus sim).

4. In the passive infinitive, -ier: as, vocárier for vocárí; agier for agí.

5. A form in - ássó, - ássere is found used as a future perfect: as, amássis. from amó; levássó, from levó; impetrássere, from impetró; iúdicássit, from iúdicó (cf. Sect: 263. 2. b. N.).


.FIRST CONJUGATION (á-STEMS)--ACTIVE VOICE



SECTION: #184. The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add á- to the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends in a-. The verb amó, love, is conjugated as follows:
PRINCIPAL PARTS: Present Indicative amó, Present Infinitive amáre, Perfect Indicative amáví, Supine amátum.

First Conjugation Active

p92-3

First Conjugation Pasiive

p 94-5


.SECOND CONJUGATION (é-STEMS)



SECTION: #185. The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add é- to the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends in e-. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, moneó, monére, monuí, monitum; Passive, moneor, monérí, monitus sum.

Second Conjugation Active

p 96-7


.THIRD CONJUGATION (e-STEMS)



SECTION: #186. The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregular, see Sect: 197) which add e- to the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends in e-. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, tegó, tegé re, téxí, téctum; Passive, tegor, tegí, téctus sum.

Third Conjugation

p 98-9


.FOURTH CONJUGATION (í-STEMS)



SECTION: #187. The Fourth Conjugation includes all verbs which add í- to the root to form the present stem. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, audió, audé re, audíví, audítum; Passive, audior, audírí, audítus sum.

Fourth Conjugation

p 100-1


VERBS IN -ió OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION



SECTION: #188. Verbs of the Third Conjugation in -ió have certain forms of the present stem like the fourth conjugation. They lose the i of the stem before a consonant and also before i, í, and e(except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). 21 Verbs of this class are conjugated as follows: PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, capió, capé re, cépí, captum; Passive, capior, capí, captus sum.

PRESENT STEM capie- (cape-) PERFECT STEM cep- SUPINE STEM capt-

Third Conjugation in -io (capio)

p 102-3

Parallel Forms



SECTION: #189. Many verbs have more than one set of forms, of which only one is generally found in classic use:
     lavó, laváre or lavé re, wash (see Sect: 211. e).
     scateó, scatére or scaté re, gush forth.
     lúdificó, - áre, or lúdificor, - árí, mock.
     fulgó, fulgere, or fulgeó, fulgére, shine.


.DEPONENT VERBS



SECTION: #190. Deponent Verbs have the forms of the Passive Voice, with an active or reflexive signification:

PRINCIPAL PARTS First conjugation: míror, mírárí, mírátus, ------admire.

PRINCIPAL PARTS Second conjugation: vereor, verérí, veritus, -----fear.

PRINCIPAL PARTS Third conjugation: sequor, sequí, secútus, -----follow.

PRINCIPAL PARTS Fourth conjugation: partior, partírí, partítus, -----share.

DEPONENT VERBS

p 104

Deponents have the participles of both voices:

sequéns, following. secútúrus, about to follow.

secútus, having followed. sequendus, to be followed.

The perfect participle generally has an active sense, but in verbs otherwise deponent it is often passive: as, mercátus, bought; adeptus, gained (or having gained).

The future infinitive is always in the active form: thus, sequor has secútúrus (- a, -um) esse (not secútum írí).

The gerundive, being passive in meaning, is found only in transitive verbs, or intransitive verbs used impersonally:
     hóc cónfitendum est, this must be acknowledged.
     moriendum est omnibus, all must die.

Most deponents are intransitive or reflexive in meaning, corresponding to what in Greek is called the Middle Voice (Sect: 156. a. N.).

Some deponents are occasionally used in a passive sense: as, críminor, I accuse, or I am accused.

About twenty verbs have an active meaning in both active and passive forms: as, mereó or mereor, I deserve.



SECTION: #191. More than half of all deponents are of the First Conjugation, and all of these are regular. The following deponents are irregular:
     adsentior, - írí, adsénsus, assent.
     apíscor, (-ip-), - í, aptus (-eptus), get.
     défetíscor, - í, - fessus, faint.
     expergíscor, - í, - perréctus, rouse.
     experior, - írí, expertus, try.
     fateor, - érí, fassus, confess.
     fruor, - í, frúctus (fruitus), enjoy.
     fungor, - í, fúnctus, fulfil.
     gradior (-gredior), - í, gressus, step.
     íráscor, - í, írátus, be angry.
     lábor, - í, lápsus, fall.
     loquor, - í, locútus, speak.
     métior, - írí, ménsus, measure.
     -miníscor, - í, -mentus, think.
     morior, - í (- írí), mortuus ( moritúrus), die.
     nancíscor, - í, nactus ( nánctus), find.
     náscor, - í, nátus, be born.
     nítor, - í, nísus ( níxus), strive.
     oblívíscor, - í, oblítus, forget.
     opperior, - írí, oppertus, await.
     órdior, - írí, órsus, begin.
     orior, - írí, ortus (oritú rus), rise (3d conjugation in most forms).
     pacíscor, - í, pactus, bargain.
     patior (-petior), - í, passus (- pessus), suffer.
     - plector, - í, - plexus, clasp.
     proficíscor, - í, profectus, set out.
     queror, - í, questus, complain.
     reor, rérí, ratus, think.
     revertor, - í, reversus, return.
     ringor, - í, rictus, snarl.
     sequor, - í, secútus, follow.
     tueor, - érí, tuitus ( tútus), defend.
     ulcíscor, - í, ultus, avenge.
     útor, - í, úsus, use, employ.

NOTE.--The deponent comperior, - írí, compertus, is rarely found for comperió, - íre. Revertor, until the time of Augustus, had regularly the active forms in the perfect system, revertí. reverteram, etc.

The following deponents have no supine stem:

dévertor, -té , turn aside (to lodge). medeor, - érí, heal.

diffiteor, - érí, deny. reminíscor, - í, call to mind.

fatíscor, - í, gape. vescor, - í, feed upon.

líquor, - í, melt ( intrans.).

NOTE.--Deponents are really passive (or middle) verbs whose active voice has disappeared. There is hardly one that does not show signs of having been used in the active at some period of the language.



SECTION: #192. A few verbs having no perfect stem are regular in the present, but appear in the tenses of completed action as deponents. These are called Semi-deponents. They are:

audeó, audére, ausus, dare. gaudeó, gaudére, gávísus, rejoice.

fídó, fídé re, físus, trust. soleó, solére, solitus, be wont.

From audeó there is an old perfect subjunctive ausim. The form sódés (for sí audés), an thou wilt, is frequent in the dramatists and rare elsewhere.

The active forms vápuló, vápuláre, be flogged, and véneó, véníre, be sold (contracted from vénum íre, go to sale), have a passive meaning, and are sometimes called neutral passives. To these may be added fierí, to be made (Sect: 204), and exsuláre, to be banished (live in exile); cf. accédere, to be added.

NOTE.--The following verbs are sometimes found as semi-deponents: iúró, iúráre. iúrátus, swear; núbó, núbere, núpta, marry; placeó, placére, placitus, please.


.THE PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS



SECTION: #193. A Periphrastic form, as the name indicates, is a "roundabout way of speaking."In the widest sense, all verb-phrases consisting of participles and sum are Periphrastic Forms. The Present Participle is, however, rarely so used, and the Perfect Participle with sum is included in the regular conjugation ( amátus sum, eram, etc.). Hence the term Periphrastic Conjugation is usually restricted to verb-phrases consisting of the Future Active Participle or the Gerundive with sum.

NOTE.--The Future Passive Infinitive, as amátum írí, formed from the infinitive passive of eó, go, used impersonally with the supine in -um, may also be classed as a periphrastic form (Sect: 203. a).



SECTION: #194. There are two Periphrastic Conjugations, known respectively as the First (or Active) and the Second (or Passive).

The First Periphrastic Conjugation combines the Future Active Participle with the forms of sum, and denotes a future or intended action.

The Second Periphrastic Conjugation combines the Gerundive with the forms of sum, and denotes obligation, necessity, or propriety.

The periphrastic forms are inflected regularly throughout the Indicative and Subjunctive and in the Present and Perfect Infinitive.


.The First Periphrastic Conjugation:



SECTION: #195.

INDICATIVE

PRESENT amátúrus sum, I am about to love

IMPERFECT amátúrus eram, I was about to love

FUTURE amátúrus eró, I shall be about to love

PERFECT amátúrus fuí, I have been, was, about to love

PLUPERFECT amátúrus fueram, I had been about to love

FUTURE PERFECT amátúrus fueró, I shall have been about to love

SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT amátúrus sim

IMPERFECT amátúrus essem

PERFECT amátúrus fuerim

PLUPERFECT amátúrus fuissem

INFINITIVE

PRESENT amátúrus esse, to be about to love

PERFECT amátúrus fuisse, to have been about to love


So in the other conjugations:
     Second: monitúrus sum, I am about to advise.
     Third: téctúrus sum, I am about to cover.
     Fourth: audítúrus sum, I am about to hear.
     Third (in -ió): captúrus sum, I am about to take.


.The Second Periphrastic Conjugation

SECTION: #196. :

INDICATIVE

PRESENT amandus sum, I am to be, must be, loved

IMPERFECT amandus eram, I was to be, had to be, loved

FUTURE amandus eró, I shall have to be loved

PERFECT amandus fuí, I was to be, had to be, loved

PLUPERFECT amandus fueram, I had had to be loved

FUTURE PERFECT amandus fueró, I shall have had to be loved

SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT amandus sim

IMPERFECT amandus essem

PERFECT amandus fuerim

PLUPERFECT amandus fuissem

INFINITIVE

PRESENT amandus esse, to have to be loved

PERFECT amandus fuisse, to have had to be loved


So in the other conjugations:
     Second: monendus sum, I am to be, must be, advised.
     Third: tegendus sum, I am to be, must be, covered.
     Fourth: audiendus sum, I am to be, must be, heard.
     Third (in -ió): capiendus sum, I am to be, must be, taken.


.IRREGULAR VERBS



SECTION: #197. Several verbs add some of the personal endings of the present system directly to the root, 21 or combine two verbs in their inflection. These are called Irregular Verbs. They are sum, voló, feró, edó, dó, eó, queó, fíó, and their compounds.

Sum has already been inflected in Sect: 170.



SECTION: #198. Sum is compounded without any change of inflection with the prepositions ab, ad, dé, in, inter, ob, prae, pró (earlier form pród), sub, super.

In the compound prósum (help), pró retains its original d before e: PRINCIPAL PARTS: prósum, pródesse, prófuí, prófutúrus



SECTION: #199. voló, nóló, máló
     PRINCIPAL PARTS: voló, velle, voluí,--, be willing, will, wish nóló, nólle, nóluí,--, be unwilling, will not máló, málle, máluí,--, be more willing, prefer



SECTION: #200. Feró, bear, carry, endure 26 PRINCIPAL PARTS: feró, ferre, 27 tulí, látum

The verbs POSSUM VOLO

p 109

cont'd ...VOLO FERO

p 108-114

....FERO

p 108-114

NOTE.--Nóló and máló are compounds of voló. Nóló is for ne-voló, and máló for mávoló from mage-voló.

NOTE.--The forms sís for sí vís, súltis for sí vultis, and the forms nevé s (ne-vís), nevolt, mávoló, má volunt, mávelim, mávellem, etc., occur in early writers.


The compounds of feró, conjugated like the simple verb, are the following:

ad- adferó adferre attulí allátum

au-, ab- auferó auferre abstulí ablátum

con- c ónferó cónferre contulí collátum

dis-, dí- differó differre distulí dílátum

ex-, é- efferó efferre extulí élátum

in- í nferó ínferre intulí illátum

ob- offeró offerre obtulí oblátum

re- referó referre rettulí relátum

sub- sufferó sufferre sustulí2 sublátum /p>

NOTE.--In these compounds the phonetic changes in the preposition are especially to be noted. ab- and au- are two distinct prepositions with the same meaning.




SECTION: #201. Edó, edere, édí, ésum, eat, is regular of the third conjugation, but has also an archaic present subjunctive and some alternative forms directly from the root (ED), without the thematic vowel. These are in full-faced type.

Irregular verb EDO

p 104

ACTIVE

In the Passive the following irregular forms occur in the third person singular: Present Indicative éstur, Imperfect Subjunctive éssetur.




.DO DARE: Irregular Verbal forms



SECTION: #202. The irregular verb dó, give, is conjugated as follows:
PRINCIPAL PARTS: dó, déa re, dedí, datum

Irregular verb DO

p 114

ACTIVE


     For compounds of dó, see Sect: 209. a. N.




.EO IRE Irregular forms



SECTION: #203. Eó, go. PRINCIPAL PARTS: eó, íre, ií ( íví), itum

Irregular verb EO

p 104

Thus inflected, the forms of eó are used impersonally in the third person singular of the passive: as, itum est (Sect: 208. d). The infinitive írí is used with the supine in -um to make the future infinitive passive (Sect: 193. N.). The verb véneó, be sold (i.e. vénum eó, go to sale), has also several forms in the passive.

In the perfect system of eó the forms with v are very rare in the simple verb and unusual in the compounds.

ii before s is regularly contracted to í: as, ísse.

The compound ambió is inflected regularly like a verb of the fourth conjugation. But it has also ambíbat in the imperfect indicative.

Pró with eó retains its original d: as, pródeó, pródís, pródit.




.FACIO --- FIO



SECTION: #204. Fació, facere, fécí, factum, make, is regular. But it has imperative fac in the active, and, besides the regular forms, the future perfect faxó, perfect subjunctive faxim. The passive of fació is--
     fíó, fierí, factus sum, be made or become.

The present system of fíó is regular of the fourth conjugation, but the subjunctive imperfect is fierem, and the infinitive fierí.

NOTE.--The forms in brackets are not used in good prose.

INDICATIVE ----------------------------------SUBJUNCTIVE

Pres. Sg.----fíó, fís, fit ----------------------fíam, fíás, fíat

Pres. Pl.[ fímus], [ fítis], fíunt -------------fíámus, fíátis, fíant

IMPERFECT fíébam, fíébás, etc.----------------- fierem, fierés, etc.

FUTURE fíam, fíés, etc.

PERFECT factus sum ----------------------factus sim

PLUPERFECT factus eram -------------------------factus essem

FUTURE PERFECT factus eró

IMPERATIVE [ fí, fíte, fító, --]

INFINITIVE PRESENT fierí ------PERFECT factus esse --------FUTURE factum írí

PARTICIPLES: PERFECT factus -------GERUNDIVE faciendus

Most compounds of fació with prepositions weaken éa to i in the present stem and to ein the supine stem, and are inflected regularly like verbs in -ió:
     cónfició, cónficé re, cónfécí, cónfectum, finish.
     cónficior, cónficí, cónfectus.

Other compounds retain a, and have - fíó in the passive: as, benefació, - facere, - fécí, - factum; passive benefíó, - fierí, - factus, benefit. These retain the accent of the simple verb: as, bene-féa 'cis (Sect: 12. a, Exc.).

A few isolated forms of fío occur in other compounds:
     cónfit, it happens, cónfíunt; cónfíat; cónfieret, cónfierent; cónfierí.
     défit, it lacks, défíunt; défíet; défíat; défierí.
     effierí, to be effected.
     ínfíó, begin (to speak), ínfit.
     interfíat, let him perish; interfierí, to perish.
     superfit, it remains over; superfíat, superfierí.


DEFECTIVE VERBS



SECTION: #205. Some verbs have lost the Present System, and use only tenses of the Perfect, in which they are inflected regularly. These are:

coepí, began ----ódí, hate ----meminí, remember

INDICATIVE

PERFECT coepí ódí meminí

PLUPERFECT coeperam óderam memineram

FUTURE PERFECT coeperó óderó memineró

SUBJUNCTIVE

PERFECT coeperim óderim meminerim

PLUPERFECT coepissem ódissem meminissem

IMPERATIVE

mementó

mementóte

INFINITIVE

PERFECT coepisse ódisse meminisse

FUTURE coeptúrus esse ósúrus esse

PARTICIPLES

PERFECT coeptus, begun ----ósus, hating or hated

FUTURE coeptúrus .about to begin-------ósúrus, likely to hate

The passive of coepí is often used with the passive infinitive: as, coeptus sum vocárí, I began to be called, but coepí vocáre, I began to call. For the present system incipió is used.

NOTE.--Early and rare forms are coepió, coepiam, coeperet, coepere.

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of ódí and meminí have the meanings of a Present, Imperfect, and Future respectively:
     ódí, I hate; óderam, I hated (was hating); óderó, I shall hate.

NOTE 1.--A present participle meminéns is early and late.

NOTE 2.-- Nóví and cónsuéví (usually referred to nóscó and cónsuéscó) are often used in the sense of I know (have learned) and I am accustomed (have become accustomed) as preteritive verbs. Many other verbs are occasionally used in the same way (see 476. N.).




SECTION: #206. Many verbs are found only in the Present System. Such are maereó, - ére, be sorrowful (cf. maestus, sad); ferió, - íre, strike.

In many the simple verb is incomplete, but the missing parts occur in its compounds: as, vádó, vádere, in-vásí, in-vásum.

Some verbs occur very commonly, but only in a few forms:

áió, I say:

INDIC. PRES. áió, ais, ait; ........ áiunt

IMPF. áiébam, áiébás, etc.

SUBJV. PRES. , áiás, áiat ......... áiant

IMPER. aí (rare)

PART. áiéns

The vowels a and i are pronounced separately (a- is, a- it) except sometimes in old or colloquial Latin. Before a vowel, one i stands for two (see Sect: 6. c): thus áió was pronounced ai-yó and was sometimes written aiió.

Inquam, I say, except in poetry, is used only in direct quotations (cf. the English quoth).

INDIC. PRES. inquam, inquis, inquit; inquimus, inquitis (late), inquiunt

IMPF. inquiébat;

FUT. , inquiés, inquiet;

PERF. inquií, inquístí,

IMPER. PRES. inque

FUT. inquitó

The only common forms are inquam, inquis, inquit, inquiunt, and the future ínquiés, inquiet.

The deponent fárí, to speak, has the following forms:

INDIC. PRES. fátur; fantur

FUT. fábor fábitur;

PERF. fátus est; fátí sunt

PLUP. fátus eram fátus erat;

IMPER. PRES. fáre

INFIN. PRES. fárí

PART. PRES. fáns, fantis, etc. (in singular)

PERF. fátus (having spoken)

GER. fandus (to be spoken of)

GERUND, gen. fandí, abl. fandó SUPINE fátu

Several forms compounded with the prepositions ex, prae, pró, inter, occur: as, praefátur, praefámur, affárí, prófátus, interfátur, etc. The compound ínfáns is regularly used as a noun (child). ínfandus, nefandus, are used as adjectives, unspeakable, abominable.

Queó, I can, nequeó, I cannot, are conjugated like eó. They are rarely used except in the present. Queó is regularly accompanied by a negative. The forms given below occur, those in full-faced type in classic prose. The Imperative, Gerund, and Supine are wanting.

INDICATIVE------------------------SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT

queó queam / nequeó ( nón queó) --------------------nequeam

quís queás nequís -----------------------------nequeás

quit queat nequit---------------------------- nequeat

químus queámus nequímus ------------------------nequeámus

nequítis -------------------------------------nequeratis

queunt queant nequeunt ------------------------nequeant

IMPERFECT

qué bam ------------------------------------- nequírem

quíbat qué ret nequíbat -----------------------nequíret

quírent nequíbant ----------------------------nequírent

FUTURE

quíbó nequé bit

quíbunt nequíbunt

PERFECT

quíví nequíví --------------------------nequéverim

nequístí

quívit quíverit (-ierit) nequívit ( nequiit) nequé verit

quívérunt (- ére) quierint nequívérunt (-quiere) nequé verint

PLUPERFECT

nequíverat (-ierat) -----------------------nequívisset (- quísset)

quívissent nequíverant -----------------------(-ierant) nequíssent

INFINITIVE

quíre quísse nequíre nequívisse (-qué sse)

PARTICIPLES

quiéns nequiéns, nequeuntés

NOTE.--A few passive forms are used with passive infinitives: as, quítur, queuntur, quitus sum, queátur, queantur, nequítur, nequitum; but none of these occurs in classic prose.

Quaesó, I ask, beg (original form of quaeró), has:

INDIC. PRES. quaesó, quaesumus

NOTE.--Other forms of quaesó are found occasionally in early Latin. For the perfect system ( quaesíví, etc.), see quaeró (Sect: 211. d).

Ováre, to triumph, has the following:

INDIC. PRES. ovás, ovat

SUBJV. PRES. ovet

IMPF. ováret

PART. ováns, ovátúrus, ovátus

GER. ovandí

A few verbs are found chiefly in the Imperative:
     PRES. singular salvé, plural salvéte, FUT. salvétó, hail! (from salvus, safe and sound). An infinitive salvére and the indicative forms salveó, salvétis, salvébis, are rare.
     PRES. singular avé (or have), plural avéte, FUT. avétó, hail or farewell. An infinitive avére also occurs.
     PRES. singular cedo, plural cedite ( cette), give, tell.
     PRES. singular apage, begone (properly a Greek word).


.IMPERSONAL VERBS



SECTION: #207. Many verbs, from their meaning, appear only in the third person singular, the infinitive, and the gerund. These are called Impersonal Verbs, as having no personal subject. 40 The passive of many intransitive verbs is used in the same way.

act. I----II ---III-----IV --------- pass

(it is plain; it is allowed; it chances; it results ; it is fought)

PR:cónstat licet accidit évenit púgnátur

IMPF: cónstábat licébat accidébat éveniébat púgnábátur

FUT: cónstábit licébit accidet éveniet púgnábitur

PERF:cónstitit licuit, -itum est accidit événit púgnátum est

PLUP: cónstiterat licuerat acciderat événerat púgnátum erat

FUT PF:cónstiterit licuerit acciderit événerit púgnátum erit



PR SUB;cónstet liceat accidat éveniat púgnétur

IMPF SUBJ:cónstáret licéret accideret éveníret púgnárétur

FUT PF SUBJ:cónstiterit licuerit acciderit événerit púgnátum sit

PLUP SUBJ:cónstitisset licuisset accidisset événisset púgnátum esset

PR INF:cónstáre licére accidere éveníre púgnárí

PF INF: cónstitisse licuisse accidisse événisse púgnátum esse

FUT INF:-státúrum esse -itúrum esse -túrum esse púgnátum írí




SECTION: #208. Impersonal Verbs may be classified as follows:

Verbs expressing the operations of nature and the time of day:

vesperáscit (inceptive, Sect: 263. 1), it grows late.------ ningit, it snows.

lúcíscit hóc, it is getting light. -------fulgurat, it lightens.

grandinat, it hails. ------tonat, it thunders.

pluit, it rains. ------rórat, the dew falls.

NOTE.--In these no subject is distinctly thought of. Sometimes, however, the verb is used personally with the name of a divinity as the subject: as, Iuppiter tonat, Jupiter thunders. In poetry other subjects are occasionally used: as, fundae saxa pluunt, the slings rain stones.

Verbs of feeling, where the person who is the proper subject becomes the object, as being himself affected by the feeling expressed in the verb (Sect: 354. b):

miseret, it grieves. -----paenitet (poenitet), it repents.

piget, it disgusts. -----pudet, it shames.

taedet, it wearies. ----miseret mé, I pity (it distresses me); -----pudet mé, I am ashamed.

NOTE.--Such verbs often have also a passive form: as, misereor, I pity (am moved to pity); and occasionally other parts: as, paenitúrus (as from paenió), paenitendus, pudendus, pertaesum est, pigitum est.

Verbs which have a phrase or clause as their subject (cf. Sect: 454, 569.2):
     accidit, contingit, évenit, obtingit, obvenit, fit, -----it happens.

libet, it pleases. -----délectat, iuvat, it delights.

licet, it is permitted. -----oportet, it is fitting, ought.

certum est, it is resolved.----- necesse est, it is needful.

cónstat, it is clear.----- praestat, it is better.

placet, it seems good (pleases). -----interest, réfert, it concerns.

vidétur, it seems, seems good.----- vacat, there is leisure.

decet, it is becoming. -----restat, superest, it remains.

NOTE.--Many of these verbs may be used personally; as, vacó, I have leisure. Libet and licet have also the passive forms libitum ( licitum) est etc. The participles libéns and licéns are used as adjectives.

The passive of intransitive verbs is very often used impersonally (see synopsis in Sect: 207):
     ventum est, they came (there was coming).
     púgnátur, there is fighting (it is fought).
     ítur, some one goes (it is gone).
     parcitur mihi, I am spared (it is spared to me, see Sect: 372).

NOTE.--The impersonal use of the passive proceeds from its original reflexive (or middle) meaning, the action being regarded as accomplishing itself (compare the French cela se fait).


.VERBS: CLASSIFIED LISTS



First Conjugation



SECTION: #209. There are about 360 simple verbs of the First Conjugation, most of them formed directly on a noun-or adjective-stem:
     armó, arm ( arma, arms); caecó, to blind ( caecus, blind); exsuló, be an exile (exsul, an exile) (Sect: 259).

Their conjugation is usually regular, like amó; though of many only a few forms are found in use.

The following verbs form their Perfect and Supine stems irregularly. Those marked have also regular forms.

crepó, crepuí (- crepáví), -crepit-, resound.

plicó, -plicit-, fold.

cubó, cubuí, - cubit-, lie down.

pótó, pótáví,pót-, drink.

dó, déa re, dedí, déa t-, give (DA).

secó, secuí, sect-, cut.

domó, domuí, domit-, subdue.

sonó, sonuí, sonit-,1 sound.

fricó, fricuí,frict-, rub.

stó , stetí, - stat- (-stit-), stand.

iuvó (ad- iuvó), iúví, iút-,help.

tonó, tonuí,-tonit-, thunder.

micó, micuí glitter.

vetó, vetuí, vetit-, forbid.

necó, necuí, necát- (-nect-), kill.

NOTE.--Compounds of these verbs have the following forms: crepó: con- crepuí, dis- crepuí or - crepáví; in- crepuí or - crepáví. dó: circum-, inter-, pessum-, satis-, super-, vénum-dó, - dedí, - dat-, of the first conjugation. Other compounds belong to the root DHA, put, and are of the third conjugation: as, condó, condere, condidí, conditum. micó: dí- micáví, -micát-; e-micuí, -micát-. plicó: re-, sub- (sup-), multi- plicó, -plicávé , -plicát-; ex-plicó (unfold), - uí, -it-; (explain), -áví, -át-; im-plicó, - áví (- uí), -átum (- itum). stó: cón- stó, - stití, (- státúrus); ad, re- stó, - stití, ; ante- (anti-), inter-, superstó, - stetí, ; circum-stó, - stetí (- stití), ; prae- stó, - stití, - stit- (- stát-); dí- stó, ex-stó, no perfect or supine (future participle ex-státúrus).

1 Future Participle also in -átúrus (either in the simple verb or in composition).

2 Necó has regularly necá ví, necátum, except in composition.

Second Conjugation



SECTION: #210. There are nearly 120 simple verbs of the Second Conjugation, most of them denominative verbs of condition, having a corresponding noun and adjective from the same root, and an inceptive in -scó (Sect: 263. 1):
     caleó, be warm; calor, warmth; calidus, warm; caléscó, grow warm.
     timeó, fear; timor, fear; timidus, timid; per- timésco, to take fright.

Most verbs of the second conjugation are inflected like moneó, but many lack the supine (as, arceó, ward off; careó, lack; egeó, need; timeó, fear), and a number have neither perfect nor supine (as, maereó, be sad).

The following keep é in all the systems:

déleó, destroy délére déléví délétum

fleó, weep flére fléví flétum

neó, sew nére néví [ nétum]

vieó, plait viére [viéví] vietum

com- pleó, fill up- plére -pléví -plétum

The following show special irregularities:

algeó, alsí, be cold.

mulceó, mulsí, muls-, soothe.

árdeó, ársí, ársúrus, burn.

mulgeó, mulsí, muls-, milk.

audeó, ausus sum, dare.

(có) níveó, - níví (- níxí) wink.

augeó, auxí, auct-, increase.

(ab)ole ó, -oléví, -olit-, destroy.

caveó, cáví, caut-, care.

pendeó, pependí, -pens-, hang.

cénseó, cénsuí, cens-, value.

prandeó, prandí, práns-, dine.

cieó, cíví, cit-, excite.

rídeó, rísí, - rís-, laugh.

doceó, docuí, doct-, teach.

sedeó, sédí, sess-, sit.

faveó, fáví, faut-, favor.

soleó, solitus sum, be wont.

ferveó, ferví (ferbué ) glow.

sorbeó, sorbuí (sorpsé ) suck.

foveó, fóví, fót-, cherish.

spondeó, spopondí, spóns-, pledge.

fulgeó, fulsí shine.

strídeó, strídí whiz.

gaudeó, gávísus sum, rejoice.

suádeó, suásí, suás-, urge.

haereó, haesí, haes-, cling.

teneó (-tineó), tenuí, -tent-, hold.

indulgeó, indulsí, indult-, indulge. vtergeó , tersí, ters-, wipe.

iubeó, iussí, iuss-, order.

tondeó, - totondí (-tondí), tóns-, shear.

liqueó, licuí ( líquí) melt.

torqueó, torsí, tort-, twist.

lúceó, lúxí shine.

torreó, torruí, tost-, roast.

lúgeó, lúxí mourn.

turgeó, tursí swell.

maneó, mánsí, máns-, wait.

urgeó, ursí urge.

misceó, - cuí, mixt- (mist-), mix.

videó, vídé , vís-, see.

mordeó, momordí, mors-, bite.

voveó, vóví, vót-, vow.

moveó , móví, mót-, move.


Third Conjugation



SECTION: #211. The following lists include most simple verbs of the Third Conjugation, classed according to the formation of the Perfect Stem:

Forming the perfect stem in s (x) (Sect: 177. b and note):

angó, ánxí choke.

claudó, clausí, claus-, shut.

carpó, carpsí, carpt-, pluck.

cómó, cómpsí, cómpt-, comb, deck.

cédó, cessí, cess-, yield.

coquó, coxí, coct-, cook.

cingó, cínxí, cínct-, bind.

-cutió, -cussí , -cuss-, shake.

démó, démpsí, dempt-, take away.

quatió , (-cussí), quass-, shake.

dícó, díxí, dict-, say.

rádó, rásí, rás-, scrape.

dívidó, dívísí, dívé s-,

divide. regó, réxí, réct-, rule.

dúcó, dúxí, duct-, guide.

répó, repsí creep.

émungó, -múnxé , -múnct-, clean out.

ródó, rósí, rós-, gnaw.

fígó, fíxí, fíx-, fix.

scalpó, scalpsí, scalpt-, scrape.

fingó [FIG], fínxí, fict-, fashion.

scríbó, scrípsí, scré pt-, write.

flectó, flexí, flex-, bend.

sculpó, sculpsí, sculpt-, carve.

-flígó, -flíxí, -flíct- smite.

serpó, serpsí crawl.

fluó, flúxí, flux-, flow.

spargó, sparsí, spars-, scatter.

frendó frés- (fress-), gnash.

-spició, - spexí, -spect-, view.

frígó, fríxí, fríct-, fry.

-stinguó, -sté nxí, -stínct-, quench.

geró, gessí, gest-, carry.

stringó, strínxí, strict-, bind.

iungó, iúnxí, iúnct-, join.

struó, strúxí, struct-, build.

laedó, laesí, laes-, hurt.

súgó, súxí, súct-, suck.

-lició, - lexí, -lect-, entice ( élicuí, -licit-).

súmó, súmpsí, sumpt-, take.

lú do, lúsí, lús-, play.

surgó, surréxí, surrect-, rise.

merg ó, mersí, mers-, plunge.

tegó, téxí, téct-, shelter.

mittó, mísí, miss-, send.

temnó, -tempsí, -tempt-, despise.

nectó [NEC], nexí ( nexuí), nex-, weave.

tergó, tersí, ters-, wipe.

núbó, núpsi, núpt-, marry. vtingó, tínxí, tínct-, stain.

pectó, pexí, pex-, comb.

trahó, tráxí, tráct-, drag.

pergó, perréxí, perrect-, go on.

trúdó, trúsí, trús-, thrust.

pingó [PIG], pínxí, pict-, paint.

unguó ( ungó), únxí, unct-, anoint.

plangó [PLAG], plánxí, plánct-, beat.

úró, ussí, ust-, burn.

plaudó, plausí, plaus-, applaud.

vádó, - vásí, - vás-, go.

plectó, plexí, plex-, braid.

vehó, véxí, vect-, draw.

premó, pressí, press-, press.

vívó, víxé , víct-, live.

prómó, -mpsí, -mpt-, bring out.

Reduplicated in the perfect (Sect: 177. c):

cadó, cecidí, cás-, fall. parió, peperí, part- (paritúrus), bring forth.

caedó, cecídí, caes-, cut.

canó, ceciní sing.

pelló, pepulí, puls-, drive.

curró, cucurrí, curs-, run.

pendó , pependí, pens-, weigh.

discó [DIC], didicí learn. poscó, poposcí demand.

- dó [DHA], -didí, -dit- (as in ab- dó, etc., with crédó, véndó), put. pungó [PUG], pupugí (-púnxé ), púnct-, prick.

falló, fefellí, fals-, deceive.

sistó [STA], stití, stat-, stop.

pangó [PAG], pepigí (-pégí), páct-, fasten, fix, bargain.

tangó [TAG], tetigí, táct-, touch.

tendó[TEN], tetendí (- tendí), tent-, stretch.

parcó, pepercí (parsé ), (parsúrus), spare.

tundó [TUD], tutudí, tuns- (-tús-), beat.

Adding u (v) to the verb-root (Sect: 177. a):

aló, aluí, alt- (alit-), nourish. compéscó, compéscuí restrain.

cernó, créví, - crét-, decree.

cónsuló, - luí, cónsult-, consult.

coló, coluí, cult-, dwell, till.

créscó, créví, crét-, increase.

-cumbó [CUB], - cubuí, - cubit-, lie down.

rapió, rapuí, rapt-, seize.

depsó, depsuí, depst-, knead.

scíscó, scíví, scít-, decree.

fremó, fremuí, roar.

seró, séví, sat-, sow.

gemó, gemuí groan.

seró, seruí, sert-, entwine.

gignó [GEN], genuí, genit-, beget.

sinó, síví, sit-, permit.

metó, messuí, -mess-, reap.

spernó, spréví, spret-, scorn.

moló, moluí, molit-, grind.

sternó, stráví, strát-, strew.

occuló, occuluí, occult-, hide.

stertó, - stertuí snore.

( ad)oléscó, - éví, -ult-, grow up.

strepó, strepuí sound.

páscó, páví, pást-, feed.

suéscó, suéví, suét-, be wont.

percelló, - culí, -culs-, upset.

texó, texuí, text-, weave.

pónó [POS], posuí, posit-, put.

tremó, tremuí tremble.

quiéscó, quiéví, quiet-, rest.

vomó, vomuí vomit.

Adding iv to the verb-root (Sect: 177. f):

arcessó,- íví, arcessít-, summon.

petó, petíví, peté t-, seek.

capessó, capessíví undertake.

quaeró, quaesíví, quaesé t-, seek.

cupió, cupíví, cupé t-, desire.

rudó, rudíví bray.

incessó, incessíví attack.

sapió, sapíví be wise.

lacessó, lacessíví, lacessí t-, provoke.

teró, tríví, trít-, rub.

Lengthening the vowel of the root (cf. Sect: 177. d):

agó, égí, áct-, drive.

lavó, láví, lót- (laut-), wash (also regular of first conjugation).

capió, cépí, capt-, take.

edó, édí, ésum, eat (see Sect: 201).

legó,légí, léct-, gather.

emó, émí, émpt-, buy.

linó , léví (lívé ), lit-, smear.

fació, fécí, fact-, make (see Sect: 204).

linquó [LIC], - líquí, -lict-, leave.

fodió, fódí, foss-, dig.

nóscó [GNO], nóví, nót- ((có-gnit-, á-gnit-, ad-gnit-), know.

frangó [FRAG], frégí, fráct-, break.

fugió, fúgí, ( fugitúrus), flee.

rumpó [RUP], rúpí, rupt-, burst.

fundó [FUD], fúdí, fús-, pour.

scabó, scábí scratch.

fació, iécí, iact-, throw (-ició, -iect-).

vincó [VIC], vící, vict-, conquer.


Retaining the present stem or verb-root (cf. Sect: 177. e):

acuó, - uí, - út-, sharpen.

imbuó, - uí, - út-, give a taste of.

arguó, - uí, - út-, accuse.

luó, luí, -lút-, wash.

bibó, bibí, ( pótus), drink.

mandó, mandí, máns-, chew.

-cendó, -cendí, -céns-, kindle.

metuó, - uí, - út, fear.

(con) gruó, - uí agree.

minuó, - uí, - út-, lessen.

cúdó, - cúdí, - cús-, forge.

-nuó, -nuí nod.

facessó, - ií ( facessí), facessé t-, execute

pandó, pandí, páns- (pass-), open.

-fendó, - fendí, -féns-, ward off.

pínsó, - sí, píns- (pé nst-, píst-), bruise.

findó [FID], fidí,fiss-, split.

prehendó, -hendí, -héns-, seize.

ícó, ící, ict-, hit.

ruó, ruí, rut- (ruitúrus), fall.

scandó, -scendé , -scénsus, climb.

suó, suí, sút-, sew.

scindó [SCID], scidí,sciss-, tear.

(ex) uó, - uí, - út-, put off.

sídó, sídí (- sédí), -sess-, settle.

tribuó, - uí, - út-, assign.

solvó, solví, solút-, loose, pay.

velló, vellí (- vulsí), vuls-, pluck.

spuó, - uí spit.

verró, - verrí, vers-, sweep.

statuó, - uí, - út-, establish.

vertó, vertí, vers-, turn.

sternuo, - uí sneeze.

vísó [VID], vísí, vís-, visit.

strídó, strídí whiz.

volvó, volví, volút-, turn.


NOTE.--Several have no perfect or supine: as, claudó, limp; fatíscó, gape; híscó, yawn; tolló ( sustulí, sublátum, supplied from sufferó), raise; vergó, incline.

2 The following compounds of legó have - léxí: díligó, intellegó, neglegó.


Fourth Conjugation



SECTION: #212. There are--besides a few deponents and some regular derivatives in -urió, as, ésurió, be hungry (cf. Sect: 263. 4)--about 60 verbs of this conjugation, a large proportion of them being descriptive verbs: like--
     cróció, croak; múgió, bellow; tinnió, tinkle.

Most verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are conjugated regularly, like audió, though a number lack the supine.

The following verbs show special peculiarities:

amició, amixí (- cuí), amict-, clothe. saepió, saepsí, saept-, hedge in.

aperió, aperuí, apert-, open. salió (-silió), saluí ( salií), [salt- (-sult-)], leap.

comperió, - perí, compert-, find.

farció, farsí, fartum, stuff. sanció [SAC], sánxí, sánct-, sanction.

ferió , strike. sarció, sarsí, sart-, patch.

fulció, fulsí, fult-, prop. sentió, sénsí, séns-, feel.

naurió, hausí, haust- (hausurus), drain. sepelió, sepelíví, sepult-, bury.

operió, operuí, opert-, cover. venió, véní, vent-, come.

reperió, repperí, repert-, find. vinció, vínxí, vé nct-, bind.

For Index of Verbs, see pp. 436 ff.


PARTICLES



SECTION: #213. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are called Particles.

In their origin Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions are either (1) case-forms, actual or extinct, or (2) compounds and phrases.

Particles cannot always be distinctly classified, for many adverbs are used also as prepositions and many as conjunctions (Sect: 219 and 222).


.ADVERBS



SECTION: #214. Adverbs are regularly formed from Adjectives as follows:

From adjectives of the first and second declensions by changing the characteristic vowel of the stem to - é: as, cáré, dearly, from cárus, dear (stem cáro-); amícé, like a friend, from amícus, friendly (stem amíco-).

NOTE.--The ending -é is a relic of an old ablative in -éd (cf. Sect: 43. N. 1).

From adjectives of the third declension by adding - ter to the stem. Stems in nt- (nom. -ns) lose the t-. All others are treated as i-stems:
     fortiter, bravely, from fortis (stem forti-), brave.
     ácriter, eagerly, from ácer (stem ácri-), eager.
     vigilanter, watchfully, from vigiláns (stem vigilant-).
     prúdenter, prudently, from prúdéns (stem prudent-).
     aliter, otherwise, from alius (old stem ali-).

NOTE.--This suffix is perhaps the same as - ter in the Greek -teros and in uter, alter. If so, these adverbs are in origin either neuter accusatives (cf.d) or masculine nominatives.

Some adjectives of the first and second declensions have adverbs of both forms (- é and - ter). Thus dúrus, hard, has both dúré and duriter; miser, wretched, has both miseré and miseriter.

The neuter accusative of adjectives and pronouns is often used as an adverb: as, multum, much; facile, easily; quid, why.

This is the origin of the ending - ius in the comparative degree of adverbs (Sect: 218): as, ácrius, more keenly (positive ácriter); facilius, more easily (positive facile).

NOTE.--These adverbs are strictly cognate accusatives (Sect: 390).

The ablative singular neuter or (less commonly) feminine of adjectives, pronouns, and nouns may be used adverbially: as, falsó, falsely; cito,

quickly (with shortened o); réctá ( viá), straight (straightway); crébró, frequently; volgó, commonly; fort e, by chance; sponte, of one's own accord.

NOTE.--Some adverbs are derived from adjectives not in use: as, abundé, plentifully (as if from abundus; cf. abundó, abound); saepe, often (as if from saepis, dense, close-packed; cf. saepés, hedge, and saepió, hedge in).



SECTION: #215. Further examples of Adverbs and other Particles which are in origin case-forms of nouns or pronouns are given below. In some the case is not obvious, and in some it is doubtful.

1. Neuter Accusative forms: nón (for né-oinom, later únum), not; iterum (comparative of i-, stem of is), a second time; démum (superlative of dé, down), at last.

2. Feminine Accusatives: partim, partly. So statim, on the spot; saltim, at least (generally saltem), from lost nouns in -tis (genitive -tis). Thus -tim became a regular adverbial termination; and by means of it adverbs were made from many noun- and verb-stems immediately, without the intervention of any form which could have an accusative in -tim: as, séparátim, separately, from séparátus, separate. Some adverbs that appear to be feminine accusative are possibly instrumental: as, palam, openly; perperam, wrongly; tam, so; quam, as.

3. Plural Accusatives: as, aliás, elsewhere; forás, out of doors (as end of motion). So perhaps quia, because.

4. Ablative or Instrumental forms: quá, where; intrá, within; extrá, outside; quí, how; aliquí, somehow; forís, out of doors; quó, whither; adeó, to that degree; ultró, beyond; citró, this side (as end of motion); retró, back; illóc (for illó-ce), weakened to illúc, thither. Those in -tró are from comparative stems (cf. úls, cis, re-).

5. Locative forms: ibi, there; ubi, where; illí, illí- c, there; peregré (peregré), abroad; híc (for hé -ce), here. Also the compounds hodié (probably for hódié), to-day; perendié, day after to-morrow.

6. Of uncertain formation: (1) those in -tus (usually preceded by i), with an ablative meaning: as, funditus, from the bottom, utterly; dívínitus, from above, providentially; intus, within; penitus, within; (2) those in - dem, - dam, - dó: as, quidem, indeed; quondam, once; quandó (cf. dónec), when; (3) dum (probably accusative of time), while; iam, now.



SECTION: #216. A phrase or short sentence has sometimes grown together into an adverb (cf. notwithstanding, nevertheless, besides):
     postmodo, presently (a short time after).
     dénuó (for dé novó), anew.
     vidélicet (for vidé licet), to wit (see, you may).
     nihilóminus, nevertheless (by nothing the less).

NOTE.--Other examples are: anteá, old antideá, before ( ante eá, probably ablative or instrumental); ílicó ( in locó), on the spot, immediately; prórsus, absolutely ( pró vorsus, straight ahead); rúrsus (re- vorsus), again; quotannís, yearly ( quot annís, as many years as there are); quam-ob- rem, wherefore; cóminus, hand to hand (con manus); éminus, at long range ( ex manus); nímírum, without doubt ( ní mírum); ob- viam (as in íre obviam, to go to meet); prídem (cf. prae and - dem in i- dem), for some time; forsan ( fors an), perhaps (it's a chance whether); forsitan ( fors sit an), perhaps (it would be a chance whether); scílicet (scí, licet), that is to say (know, you may; cf. í- licet, you may go); áctútum ( áctú, on the act, and tum, then).


.DERIVATION OF ADVERBS



SECTION: #217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows:

a. Adverbs of Place

híc, here. húc, hither. hinc, hence. hác, by this way.

ibi, there. eó, thither. inde, thence. eá, by that way.

istíc, there. istúc, thither. istinc, thence. istá, by that way.

illíc, there. illúc, thither. illinc, thence. illá ( illác), by that way.

ubi, where. quó, whither. unde, whence. quá, by what way.

alicubi, somewhere. aliquó, somewhither, alicunde, from some- aliquá, by some way.

(to) somewhere. where.

ibídem, in the same eódem, to the same indidem, from the eádem, by the same

place. place. same place. way.

alibí, elsewhere, in alió, elsewhere, to aliunde, from an- aliá, in another

another place. another place. other place. way.

abiubi, wherever. quóquó, whitherso- undecunque, whence- quáquá, in whatever

ever. soever. way.

ubivís, anywhere, quóvís, anywhere, undique, from every quávís, by whatever

where you will. whither you will. quarter. way.

sicubi, if anywhere. síquó, if anywhere sícunde, if from any- síquá, if anywhere.

(anywhither). where.

where. whither. anywhere. where.

NOTE.--The demonstrative adverbs híc, ibi, istíc, illíc, and their correlatives, correspond in signification with the pronouns híc, is, iste, ille (see Sect: 146), and are often equivalent to these pronouns with a preposition: as, inde = ab eó, etc. So the relative or mterrogative ubi corresponds with quí ( quis), ali- cubi with aliquis, ubiubi with quisquis, sí-cubi with síquis (see Sect: 147-151, with the table of correlatives in Sect: 152).

úsque, all the way to; usquam, anywhere; nusquam, nowhere; citró, to this side; intró, inwardly; ultró, beyond (or freely, i.e. beyond what is required); porró, further on.

quórsum (for quó vorsum, whither turned?), to what end? hórsum, this way; prórsum, forward ( prórsus, utterly); intrórsum, inwardly; retrórsum, backward; súrsum, upward; deorsum, downward; seorsum, apart; aliórsum, another way.

b. Adverbs of Time

quandó, when? (interrogative); cum ( quom), when (relative); ut, when, as; nunc, now; tunc ( tum), then; mox, presently; iam, already; dum, while; iam diú, iam dúdum, iam prídem, long ago, long since.

prímum ( prímó), first; deinde ( posteá), next after; postrémum ( postrémó), finally; posteáquam, postquam, when (after that, as soon as).

umquam (unquam), ever; numquam ( nunquam), never; semper, always.

aliquandó, at some time, at length; quandóque ( quandócumque), whenever; dénique, at last.

quotiéns ( quotiés), how often; totiéns, so often; aliquotiéns, a number of times.

cotídié, every day; hodié, to-day; herí, yesterday; crás, to-morrow; prídié, the day before; postrídié, the day after; in diés, from day to day.

nóndum, not yet; necdum, nor yet; vixdum, scarce yet; quam prímum, as soon as possible; saepe, often; crébró, frequently; iam nón, no longer.

c. Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause

quam, how, as; tam, so; quamvís, however much, although; paene, almost; magis, more; valdé, greatly; vix, hardly.

cúr, quáré, why; ideó, idcircó, proptereá, on this account, because; eó, therefore; ergó, itaque, igitur, therefore.

ita, síc, so; ut ( utí), as, how; utut, utcumque, however.

d. Interrogative Particles

an, - ne, anne, utrum, utrumne, num, whether.

nónne, annón, whether not; numquid, ecquid, whether at all.

On the use of the Interrogative Particles, see Sect: 332, 335.

Negative Particles

nón, not (in simple denial); haud, minimé, not (in contradiction); né, not (in prohibition); néve, neu, nor; nédum, much less.

né, lest; neque, nec, nor; né ... quidem, not even.

nón modo ... vérum ( sed) etiam, not only ... but also.

nón modo ... sed né ... quidem, not only NOT ... but not even.

sí minus, if not; quó minus (quóminus), so as not.

quín (relative), but that; (interrogative), why not?

né, nec (in composition), not; so in nesció, I know not; negó, I say no ( áió, I say yes); negótium, business (*nec-ótium); némó (né- and hemó, old form of homó), no one; né quis, lest any one; neque enim, for ... not.

For the use of Negative Particles, see Sect: 325 ff.

For the Syntax and Peculiar uses of Adverbs, see Sect: 320 ff.


.COMPARISON OF ADVERBS



SECTION: #218. The Comparative of Adverbs is the neuter accusative of the comparative of the corresponding adjective; the Superlative is the Adverb in - é formed regularly from the superlative of the Adjective:

cár é, dearly (from cárus, dear); cár ius, cárissime.

miser é (miser iter), wretchedly (from miser, wretched); miser ius, miserrimé.

levi ter (from levis, light); lev ius, levissime.

audácter (audác iter) (from audáx, bold); audác ius, audácissime.

bene, well (from bonus, good); mel ius, op timé.

malé , ill (from malus, bad); pei ius, pes simé.

he following are irregular or defective:

diú, long (in time); diut ius, diútissime.

potius, rather; potissimum, first of all, in preference to all.

saepe, often; saep ius, oftener, again; saepissimé.

satis, enough; sat ius, preferable.

secus, otherwise; set ius, worse.

multum ( multó), mag is, maximé, much, more, most.

parum, not enough; minus, less; min imé, least.

núper, newly; núperrime.

temperé, seasonably; temperius.

NOTE.--In poetry the comparative mage is sometimes used instead of magis.


.PREPOSITIONS



SECTION: #219. Prepositions were not originally distinguished from Adverbs in form or meaning, but have become specialized in use. They developed comparatively late in the history of language. In the early stages of language development the cases alone were sufficient to indicate the sense, but, as the force of the case-endings weakened, adverbs were used for greater precision (cf. Sect: 338). These adverbs, from their habitual association with particular cases, became Prepositions; but many retained also their independent function as adverbs.

Most prepositions are true case-forms: as, the comparative ablatives extrá, ínfrá, suprá (for exterá, ínferá, superá), and the accusatives circum, córam, cum (cf. Sect: 215). Circiter is an adverbial formation from circum (cf. Sect: 214. b. N.); praeter is the comparative of prae, propter of prope.Of the remainder, versus is a petrified nominative (participle of vertó); adversus is a compound of versus; tráns is probably an old present participle (cf. in-trá- re); while the origin of the brief forms ab, ad, dé, ex, ob, is obscure and doubtful.



SECTION: #220. Prepositions are regularly used either with the Accusative or with the Ablative.

The following prepositions are used with the Accusative:

ad, to. circiter, about. intrá, inside.

adversus, against. cis, citrá, this side. iúxtá, near.

adversum, towards. contrá, against. ob, on account of.

ante, before. ergá, towards. penes, in the power of.

apud, at, near. extrá, outside. per, through.

circá, around. ínfrá, below. póne, behind.

circum, around. inter, among. post, after.

praeter, beyond. secundum, next to. ultrá, on the further side.

prope, near. suprá, above. versus, towards.

propter, on account of. tráns, across.

The following prepositions are used with the Ablative:

á, éa b, abs, away from, by. é, ex, out of.

absque, without, but for. prae, in comparison with.

córam, in presence of. pró, in front of, for.

cum, with. sine, without.

dé, from. tenus, up to, as far as.

The following may be used with either the Accusative or the Ablative, but with a difference in meaning:

in, into, in. sub, under.

subter, beneath. super, above.

In and sub, when followed by the accusative, indicate motion to, when by the ablative, rest in, a place:
     vénit in aedís, he came into the house; erat in aedibus, he was in the house.
     disciplína in Britanniá reperta atque inde in Galliam tránsláta esse exístimátur, the system is thought to have been discovered in Great Britain and thence brought over to Gaul.
     sub ílice cónsederat, he had seated himself under an ilex.
     sub légés mittere orbem, to subject the world to laws (to send the world under laws).




SECTION: #221. The uses of the Prepositions are as follows:

1. á, ab, away from,from, off from, with the ablative.

a. Of place: as,-- ab urbe profectus est, he set out from the city.

b. Of time: (1) from: as,-- ab hórá tertiá ad vesperam, from the third hour till evening; (2) just after: as,-- ab eó magistrátú, after [holding] that office.

c. Idiomatic uses: á reliquís differunt, they differ from the others; á parvulís, from early childhood; prope ab urbe, near (not far from) the city; líberáre ab, to set free from; occísus ab hoste ( periit ab hoste), slain by an enemy; ab hác parte, on this side; ab ré eiius, to his advantage; á ré públicá, for the interest of the state.

2. Ad, to, towards, at, near, with the accusative (cf. in, into).

a. Of place: as,-- ad urbem vénit, he came to the city; ad merídiem, towards the south; ad exercitum, to the army; ad hostem, toward the enemy; ad urbem, near the city.

b. Of time: as,-- ad nónam hóram, till the ninth hour.

c. With persons: as,-- ad eum vénit, he came to him.

d. Idiomatic uses: ad supplicia déscendunt, they resort to punishment; ad haec respondit, to this he answered; ad tempus, at the [fit] time; adíre ad rem públicam, to go into public life; ad petendam pácem, to seek peace; ad latera, on the flank; ad arma, to arms; ad hunc modum, in this way; quem ad modum, how, as; ad centum, nearly a hundred; ad hóc, besides; omnés ad únum, all to a man; ad diem, on the day.

3. Ante, in front of, before, with the accusative (cf. post, after).

a. Of place: as,-- ante portam, in front of the gate; ante exercitum, in advance of the army.

b. Of time: as,-- ante bellum, before the war.

c. Idiomatic uses: ante urbem captam, before the city was taken; ante diem quíntum (a.d.v.) Kal., the fifth day before the Calends; ante quadriennium, four years before or ago; ante tempus, too soon (before the time).

4. Apud, at, by, among, with the accusative.

a. Of place (rare and archaic): as,-- apud forum, at the forum (in the marketplace).

b. With reference to persons or communities: as,-- apud Helvétiós, among the Helvetians; apud populum, before the people; apud aliquem, at one's house; apud sé, at home or in his senses; apud Cicerónem, in [the works of] Cicero.

5. Circá, about, around, with the accusative (cf. circum, circiter).

a. Of place: templa circá forum, the temples about the forum; circá sé habet, he has with him (of persons).

b. Of time or number (in poetry and later writers): circá eandem hóram, about the same hour; circá ídús Octóbrís, about the fifteenth of October; circá decem mília, about ten thousand.

c. Figuratively (in later writers), about, in regard to (cf. dé): circá quem púgna est, with regard to whom, etc.; circá deós neglegentior, rather neglectful of (i.e. in worshipping) the gods.

6. Circiter, about, with the accusative.

a. Of time or number: circiter ídús Novembrís, about the thirteenth of November; circiter merídiem, about noon.

7. Circum, about, around, with the accusative.

a. Of place: circum haec loca, hereabout; circum Capuam, round Capua; circum illum, with him; légátió circum ínsulás missa, an embassy sent to the islands round about; circum amícós, to his friends round about.

8. Contrá, opposite, against, with the accusative.

contrá Italiam, over against Italy; contrá haec, in answer to this.

a. Often as adverb: as,-- haec contrá, this in reply; contrá autem, but on the other hand; quod contrá, whereas, on the other hand.

9. Cum, with, together with, with the ablative.

a. Of place: as,--váde mécum, go with me; cum omnibus impedímentís, with all [their] baggage.

b. Of time: as,--prímá cum lúce, at early dawn (with first light).

c. Idiomatic uses: mágnó cum dolóre, with great sorrow; commúnicáre aliquid cum aliquó, share something with some one; cum maló suó, to his own hurt; cónflígere cum hoste, to fight with the enemy; esse cum téló, to go armed; cum silentió, in silence.

10. Dé, down from, from, with the ablative (cf. ab, away from; ex, out of).

a. Of place: as,-- dé caeló démissus, sent down from heaven; dé návibus désilíre, to jump down from the ships.

b. Figuratively, concerning, about, of:as,-- cógnóscit dé Clódí caede, he learns of the murder of Clodius; cónsilia dé belló, plans of war.

c. In a partitive sense (compare ex), out of, of: as,-- únus dé plébe, one of the people.

d. Idiomatic uses: multís dé causís, for many reasons; quá dé causá, for which reason; dé impróvísó, of a sudden; dé industriá, on purpose; dé integró, anew; dé tertiá vigiliá, just at midnight (starting at the third watch); dé ménse Decembrí návigáre, to sail as early as December.

11. Ex, é, from (the midst, opposed to in), out of, with the ablative (cf. ab and dé).

a. Of place: as,-- ex omnibus partibus silvae évolávérunt, they flew out from all parts of the forest; ex Hispániá, [a man] from Spain.

b. Of time: as,-- ex eó dié quíntus, the fifth day from that (four days after); ex hóc dié, from this day forth.

c. Idiomatically or less exactly: ex cónsulátú, right after his consulship: ex eiius sententiá, according to his opinion; ex aequó, justly; ex impróvísó, unexpectedly; ex tuá ré, to your advantage; mágná ex parte, in a great degree; ex equó púgnáre, to fight on horseback; ex úsú, expedient; é regióne, opposite; quaerere ex aliquó, to ask of some one; ex senátús cónsultó, according to the decree of the senate; ex fugá, in [their] flight (proceeding immediately from it); únus é fíliís, one of the sons.

12. In, with the accusative or the ablative.

1. With the accusative, into (opposed to ex).

a. Of place: as,--in Italiam contendit, he hastens into Italy.

b. Of time, till, until: as,--in lúcem, till daylight.

c. Idiomatically or less exactly: in merídiem, towards the south; amor in ( ergá, adversus) patrem, love for his father; in áram cónfúgit, he fled to the altar (on the steps, or merely to); in diés, from day to day; in longitúdinem, lengthwise; in látitúdinem patébat, extended in width; in haec verba iúráre, to swear to these words; hunc in modum, in this way; órátió in Catilínam, a speech against

Catiline; in perpetuum, forever; in peiius, for the worse; in diem vívere, to live from hand to mouth (for the day).

2. With the ablative, in, on, among.

In very various connections: as,--in castrís, in the camp (cf. ad castra, to, at, or near the camp); in marí, on the sea; in urbe esse, to be in town; in tempore, in season; in scríbendó, while writing; est mihi in animó, I have it in mind, I intend; in ancorís, at anchor; in hóc homine, in the case of this man; in dubió esse, to be in doubt.

13. Infrá, below, with the accusative.

a. Of place: as,-- ad mare ínfrá oppidum, by the sea below the town; ínfrá caelum, under the sky.

b. Figuratively or less exactly: as,--ínfrá Homérum, later than Homer; ínfrá trés pedés, less than three feet; ínfrá elephantós, smaller than elephants; í nfrá ínfimós omnís, the lowest of the low.

14. Inter, between, among, with the accusative.
     inter mé et Scípiónem, between myself and Scipio; inter ós et offam, between the cup and the lip (the mouth and the morsel); inter hostium téla, amid the weapons of the enemy; inter omnís prímus, first of all; inter bibendum, while drinking; inter sé loquuntur, they talk together.

15. Ob, towards, on account of, with the accusative.

a. Literally: (1) of motion (archaic): as,-- ob Rómam, towards Rome ( Ennius); ob viam, to the road (preserved as adverb, in the way of). (2) Of place in which, before, in a few phrases: as,-- ob oculós, before the eyes.

b. Figuratively, in return for (mostly archaic, probably a word of account, balancing one thing against another): as,-- ob mulierem, in pay for the woman; ob rem, for gain. Hence applied to reason, cause, and the like, on account of (a similar mercantile idea), for: as,-- ob eam causam, for that reason; quam ob rem ( quamobrem), wherefore, why.

16. Per, through, over, with the accusative.

a. Of motion: as,--per urbem íre, to go through the city; per múrós, over the walls.

b. Of time: as,--per hiemem, throughout the winter.

c. Figuratively, of persons as means or instruments: as,--per hominés idoneós, through the instrumentality of suitable persons; licet per mé, you (etc.) may for all me. Hence, stat per mé, it is through my instrumentality; so, per sé, in and of itself.

d. Weakened, in many adverbial expressions: as,--per iocum, in jest; per speciem, in show, ostentatiously.

17. Prae, in front of, with the ablative.

a. Literally, of place (in a few connections): as,-- prae sé portáre, to carry in one's arms; prae sé ferre, to carry before one, (hence figuratively) exhibit, proclaim ostentatiously, make known.

b. Figuratively, of hindrance, as by an obstacle in front (compare English for): as,-- prae gaudió conticuit, he was silent for joy.

c. Of comparison: as,-- prae mágnitúdine corporum suórum, in comparison with their own great size.

18. Praeter, along by, by, with the accusative.

a. Literally: as,-- praeter castra, by the camp (along by, in front of); praeter oculós, before the eyes.

b. Figuratively, beyond, besides, more than, in addition to, except: as,-- praeter spem, beyond hope; praeter aliós, more than others; praeter paucós, with the exception of a few.

19. Pró, in front of, with the ablative.
     sedéns pró aede Castoris, sitting in front of the temple of Castor; pró populó, in presence of the people. So pró róstrís, on [the front of] the rostra; pró contióne, before the assembly (in a speech).

a. In various idiomatic uses: pró lége, in defence of the law; pró vitulá, instead of a heifer; pró centum mílibus, as good as a hundred thousand; pró ratá parte, in due proportion; pró hác vice, for this once; pró cónsule, in place of consul; pró víribus, considering his strength; pró virílí parte, to the best of one's ability; pró tuá prúdentiá, in accordance with your wisdom.

20. Propter, near, by, with the accusative.
     propter té sedet, he sits next you. Hence, on account of (cf. all along of): as,-- propter metum, through fear.

21. Secundum,just behind, following, with the accusative.

a. Literally: as,-- íte secundum mé (Plaut.), go behind me; secundum lítus, near the shore; secundum flúmen, along the stream (cf. secundó flúmine, down stream).

b. Figuratively, according to: as,-- secundum nátúram, according to nature.

22. Sub, under, up to, with the accusative or the ablative.

1. Of motion, with the accusative: as,-- sub montem succédere, to come close to the hill.

a. Idiomatically: sub noctem, towards night; sub lúcem, near daylight; sub haec dicta, at (following) these words.

2. Of rest, with the ablative: as,-- sub Iove, in the open air (under the heaven, personified as Jove); sub monte, at the foot of the hill.

a. Idiomatically: sub eódem tempore, about the same time (just after it).

23. Subter, under, below, with the accusative (sometimes, in poetry, the ablative).
     subter togam (Liv.), under his mantle; but,-- subter lítore (Catull.), below the shore.

24. Super,with the accusative or the ablative.

1. With the accusative, above, over, on, beyond, upon.

a. Of place: super vállum praecipitárí (Iug. 58) , to be hurled over the rampart; super laterés coria indúcuntur (B.C. 2.10) , hides are drawn over the bricks; super terrae tumulum statuí (Legg. 2.65) , to be placed on the mound of earth; super Numidiam (Iug. 19) , beyond Numidia.

b. Idiomatically or less exactly: vulnus super vulnus, wound upon wound; super vínum (Q. C. 8.4) , over his wine.

2. With the ablative, concerning, about (the only use with this case in prose).
     hác super ré, concerning this thing; super tálí ré, about such an affair; litterás super tantá ré exspectáre, to wait for a letter in a matter of such importance.

a. Poetically, in other senses: lígna super focó largé repónéns (Hor. Od. 1.9.5) , piling logs generously on the fire; nocte super mediá ( Aen. 9.61), after midnight.

25. Suprá, on top of, above, with the accusative.
     suprá terram, on the surface of the earth. So also figuratively: as,--suprá hanc memoriam, before our remembrance; suprá mórem, more than usual; suprá quod, besides.

26. Tenus (postpositive), as far as, up to, regularly with the ablative, sometimes with the genitive (cf. Sect: 359. b).

1. With the ablative: Tauró tenus, as far as Taurus; capuló tenus, up to the hilt.

2. With the genitive: Cumárum tenus ( Fam. 8.1.2), as far as Cumae.

NOTE 1.--Tenus is frequently connected with the feminine of an adjective pronoun, making an adverbial phrase: as, háctenus, hitherto; quátenus, so far as; dé hác ré háctenus, so much for that (about this matter so far).

NOTE 2.--Tenus was originally a neuter noun, meaning line or extent. In its use with the genitive (mostly poetical) it may be regarded as an adverbial accusative (Sect: 397. a).

27. Trans, across, over, through, by, with the accusative.

a. Of motion: as,-- tráns mare currunt, they run across the sea; tráns flúmen ferre, to carry over a river; tráns aethera, through the sky; tráns caput iace, throw over your head.

b. Of rest: as,-- tráns Rhénum incolunt, they live across the Rhine.

28. Ultrá beyond (on the further side), with the accusative.
     cis Padum ultráque, on this side of the Po and beyond; ultrá eum numerum, more than that number; ultrá fidem, incredible; ultrá modum, immoderate.

NOTE.--Some adverbs appear as prepositions: as, intus, ínsuper (see Sect: 219).

For Prepositions in Compounds, see Sect: 267.


.CONJUNCTIONS



SECTION: #222. Conjunctions, like prepositions (cf. Sect: 219), are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases: as, quod, an old accusative; dum, probably an old accusative (cf. tum, cum); véró, an old neuter ablative of vérus; nihilóminus, none the less; proinde, lit. forward from there. Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case-forms.



SECTION: #223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They are of two classes, Co-ordinate and Subordinate:

Coordinate, connecting coordinate or similar constructions (see Sect: 278. 2. a). These are:

1. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words: as, et, and; aut, or; neque, nor.

2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought: as, sed, but.

3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason: as, nam, for.

4. Illative, denoting an inference: as, igitur, therefore.

Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends (see Sect: 278. 2. b). These are:

1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis: as, sí, if; nisi, unless.

2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition: as, ac sí, as if.

3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission: as, quamquam, although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.).

4. Temporal: as, postquam, after.

5. Consecutive, expressing result: as, ut, so that.

6. Final, expressing purpose: as, ut, in order that; né, that not.

7. Causal, expressing cause: as, quia, because.



SECTION: #224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list includes the common conjunctionsand conjunctive phrases:

COORDINATE

1 All these adverbs were originally case-forms of pronouns. The forms in -bi and -ic are locative, those in - ó and -úc, - á and - ác, ablative (see Sect: 215); those in -inc are from -im (of uncertain origin) with the particle - ce added (thus illim, illin- c).

2 The case-form of these prepositions in - ter is doubtful.

3 For palam etc., see Sect: 432.

4 Ab signifies direction from the object, but often towards the speaker; compare dé, down from, and ex, out of.

5 Of originally meant from (cf. off).

6 Old participle of sequor.

7 Comparative of sub.

8 Some of these have been included in the classification of adverbs. See also list of Correlatives. Sect: 152.



SECTION: #225. Some Interjections are mere natural exclamations of feeling; others are derived from inflected parts of speech, e.g. the imperatives em, lo (probably for eme, take); age, come, etc. Names of deities occur in herclé, pol (from Pollux), etc. Many Latin interjections are borrowed from the Greek, as euge, euhoe, etc.



SECTION: #226. The following list comprises most of the Interjections in common use:

ó, én, ecce, ehem, papae, váh (of astonishment).

ió, évae, évoe, euhoe (of joy).

heu, éeheu, vae, alas (of sorrow).

heus, eho, ehodum, ho (of calling); st, hist.

eiia, euge (of praise).

pró (of attestation): as, pró pudor, shame!


.COMPOUNDS and.FORMATION OF WORDS



SECTION: #227. All formation of words is originally a process of composition. An element significant in itself is added to another significant element, and thus the meaning of the two is combined. No other combination is possible for the formation either of inflections or of stems. Thus, in fact, words (since roots and stems are significant elements, and so words) are first placed side by side, then brought under one accent, and finally felt as one word. The gradual process is seen in sea voyage, sea-nymph, seaside. But as all derivation, properly so called, appears as a combination of uninflected stems, every type of formation in use must antedate inflection. Hence words were not in strictness derived either from nouns or from verbs, but from stems which were neither, because they were in fact both; for the distinction between noun-stems and verb-stems had not yet been made.

After the development of Inflection, however, that one of several kindred words which seemed the simplest was regarded as the primitive form, and from this the other words of the group were thought to be derived. Such supposed processes of formation were then imitated, often erroneously, and in this way new modes of derivation arose. Thus new adjectives were formed from nouns, new nouns from adjectives, new adjectives from verbs, and new verbs from adjectives and nouns.

In course of time the real or apparent relations of many words became confused, so that nouns and adjectives once supposed to come from nouns were often assigned to verbs, and others once supposed to come from verbs were assigned to nouns.

Further, since the language was constantly changing, many words went out of use, and do not occur in the literature as we have it. Thus many Derivatives survive of which the Primitive is lost.

Finally, since all conscious word-formation is imitative, intermediate steps in derivation were sometimes omitted, and occasionally apparent Derivatives occur for which no proper Primitive ever existed.


.ROOTS AND STEMS



SECTION: #228. Rootsare of two kinds:

1. Verbal, expressing ideas of action or condition (sensible phenomena).

2. Pronominal, expressing ideas of position and direction.

From verbal roots come all parts of speech except pronouns and certain particles derived from pronominal roots.



SECTION: #229. Stems are either identical with roots or derived from them. They are of two classes: (1) Noun-stems (including Adjective-stems) and (2) Verb-stems.

NOTE.--Noun-stems and verb-stems were not originally different (see p. 163), and in the consciousness of the Romans were often confounded; but in general they were treated as distinct.



SECTION: #230. Words are formed by inflection: (1) from roots inflected as stems; (2) from derived stems (see Sect: 232).



SECTION: #231. A root used as a stem may appear:

With a short vowel: as, duc- is ( dux), DUC; nec-is (nex); i-s, i- d. So in verbs: as, es- t, fer- t (cf. Sect: 174. 2).

With a long vowel: as, lúc-is ( lúx), LUC; pác- is ( páx). So in verbs: duc- ó, í-s for *eis, from eó, íre; fátur from fárí.

With reduplication: as, fur-fur, mar- mor, mur-mur. So in verbs: as, gi- gnó (root GEN), si- stó (root STA).


.DERIVED .STEMS AND .SUFFIXES



SECTION: #232. Derived Stems are formed from roots or from other stems by means of suffixes. These are:

1. Primary: added to the root, or (in later times by analogy) to verbstems.

2. Secondary: added to a noun-stem or an adjective-stem.

Both primary and secondary suffixes are for the most part pronominal roots (Sect: 228. 2), but a few are of doubtful origin.

NOTE 1.--The distinction between primary and secondary suffixes, not being original (see Sect: 227), is continually lost sight of in the development of a language. Suffixes once primary are used as secondary, and those once secondary are used as primary. Thus in hosticus ( hosti + cus) the suffix - cus, originally ko- (see Sect: 234. 2.12) primary, as in paucus, has become secondary, and is thus regularly used to form derivatives; but in pudícus, aprícus, it is treated as primary again, because these words were really or apparently connected with verbs. So in English -able was borrowed as a primary suffix (tolerable, eatable), but also makes forms like clubbable, salable; -some is properly a secondary suffix, as in toilsome, lonesome, but makes also such words as meddlesome, venturesome.

NOTE 2.--It is the stem of the word, not the nominative, that is formed by the derivative suffix. For convenience, however, the nominative will usually be given.

1 For the distinction between Roots and Stems. see Sect: 24. 25.

2 The difference in vowel-quantity in the same root (as DUC) depends on inherited variations (see Sect: 17. a).



SECTION: #233. The words in Latin formed immediately from the root by means of Primary Suffixes, are few. For:

1. Inherited words so formed were mostly further developed by the addition of other suffixes, as we might make an adjective lone-ly-some-ish. meaning nothing more than lone, lonely, or lonesome.

2. By such accumulation of suffixes, new compound suffixes were formed which crowded out even the old types of derivation. Thus,--

A word like méns, mentis, by the suffix ó n- (nom. - ó), gave mentió, and this, being divided into men + tió, gave rise to a new type of abstract nouns in -tió: as, légá- tió, embassy.

A word like audítor, by the suffix io- (nom. - ius), gave rise to adjectives like audítór-ius, of which the neuter ( audítórium) is used to denote the place where the action of the verb is performed. Hence tório- (nom. -tórium), N., becomes a regular noun-suffix (Sect: 250. a).

So in English such a word as suffocation gives a suffix -ation, and with this is made starvation, though there is no such word as starvate.


.SUFFIXES



SECTION: #234. Examples of primary stem-suffixes are:

I. Vowel suffixes:

1. o- (M., N.), á - (F.), found in nouns and adjectives of the first two declensions: as, sonus, lúdus, vagus, toga (root TEG).

2. i-, as in ovis, avis; in Latin frequently changed, as in r úpés, or lost, as in scobs ( scobis, root SCAB).

3. u-, disguised in most adjectives by an additional i, as in suá-vis (for suádvis, instead of suá-dus, cf. h

II. Suffixes with a consonant:

1. to- (M., N.), tá- (F.), in the regular perfect passive participle, as téctus, téctum; sometimes with an active sense, as in pótus, pránsus; and found in a few words not recognized as participles, as pútus (cf. púrus), altus ( aló).

2. ti- in abstracts and rarely in nouns of agency, as messis, vestis, pars, méns. But in many the i is lost.

3. tu- in abstracts (including supines), sometimes becoming concretes, as áctus, lúctus.

4. no- (M., N.), ná- (F.), forming perfect participles in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives of like participial meaning, which often become nouns, as mágnus, plénus, régnum.

5. ni-, in nouns of agency and adjectives, as é gnis, ségnis.

6. nu-, rare, as in manus, pínus, cornú.

7. mo- (má-), with various meanings, as in animus, almus, fírmus, forma.

8. vo- (vá-) (commonly uo-, uá-), with an active or passive meaning, as in equus ( equos), arvum, cónspicuus, exiguus, vacívus ( vacuus).

9. ro- (rá-), as in ager (stem (ag-ro-), integer (cf. intáctus), sacer, plérí- que (cf. plénus, pletus).

10. lo- (lá-), as in caelum (for caed-lum), chisel, exemplum, sella (for *sedla).

11. yo- (yá-), forming gerundives in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives and abstracts, including many of the first and fifth declensions, as eximius, audácia, Flórentia, perniciés.

12. ko- (ká-), sometimes primary, as in pauc í (cf. pauros), locus (for stlocus). In many cases the vowel of this termination is lost, leaving a consonant stem: as, apex, cortex, loquáx.

13. en- (on-, en-, ón-), in nouns of agency and abstracts: as, aspergó, compágé (-i nis), geró (-ónis).

14. men-, expressing means, often passing into the action itself: as, agmen flúmen, fulmen.

15. ter- (tor-, tér-, tór-, tr-), forming nouns of agency: as, pater (i.e. protector), fráter (i.e. supporter), órátor.

16. tro-, forming nouns of means: as, claustrum ( CLAUD), múlctrum (MULG).

17. es- (os-), forming names of actions, passing into concretes: as, genus (generis), tempus (see Sect: 15. 4). The infinitive in - ere (as in reg- ere) is a locative of this stem ((--er- e for -es- i).

18. nt- (ont-, ent-), forming present active participles: as, legéns, with some adjectives from roots unknown: as, frequéns, recéns.

The above, with some suffixes given below, belong to the Indo-European parent speech, and most of them were not felt as living formations in the Latin.

1 For the distinction between Roots and Stems. see Sect: 24. 25.

2 The difference in vowel-quantity in the same root (as DUC) depends on inherited variations (see Sect: 17. a).

.Primary Suffixes



SECTION: #235. Both primary and secondary suffixes, especially in the form of compound suffixes, were used in Latin with more or less consciousness of their meaning. They may therefore be called Significant Endings.

They form: (1) Nouns of Agency; (2) Abstract Nouns (including Names of Actions); (3) Adjectives (active or passive).

NOTE.--There is really no difference in etymology between an adjective and a noun, except that some formations are habitually used as adjectives and others as nouns (Sect: 20. b. N. 2).


.DERIVATION OF NOUNS

.Nouns of .Agent



SECTION: #236. Nouns of Agency properly denote the agent or doer of an action. But they include many words in which the idea of agency has entirely faded out, and also many words used as adjectives.

Nouns denoting the agent or doer of an action are formed from roots or verb-stems by means of the suffixes:

-tor (-sor), M.; -tríx, F.

can-tor, can- tríx, singer; can- ere (root CAN), to sing.

vic-tor, vic- tríx, conqueror (victorious); vinc- ere (VIC), to conquer.

tón- sor (for *tond-tor), tóns- tríx (for

tond-tríx), hair-cutter; tond- ére (TOND as root), to shear.

petí- tor, candidate; pet-ere (PET; petí- as stem), to seek

By analogy - tor is sometimes added to noun-stems, but these may be stems of lost verbs: as, viá- tor, traveller, from via, way (but cf. the verb invió).

NOTE 1.--The termination -tor (-sor) has the same phonetic change as the supine ending - tum (- sum), and is added to the same form of root or verb-stem as that ending. The stem-ending is tór- (Sect: 234. 2.15), which is shortened in the nominative.

NOTE 2.--The feminine form is always -tríx. Masculines in -sor lack the feminine, except expulsor ( expultríx) and tónsor ( tónstríx).

-t-, M. or F., added to verb-stems makes nouns in - es (- itis, - etis; stem it-, et-) descriptive of a character:
     prae-stes, -stitis, (verb-stem from root STA, stáre, stand), guardian.
     teges, - etis (verb-stem tege-, cf. tegó, cover), a coverer, a mat.
     pedes, - itis ( pés, ped- is, foot, and I, root of íre, go), foot-soldier.

- ó (genitive -ónis, stem ón)-, M., added to verb-stemsindicates a person employed in some specific art or trade:
     com- bibó (BIB as root in bibó, bibere, drink), a pot-companion.
     geró, -ónis (GES in geró, gerere, carry), a carrier.

NOTE.--This termination is also used to form many nouns descriptive of personal characteristics (cf. Sect: 255).

1 So conceived, but perhaps this termination was originally added to noun-stems.

.Names of Actions and Abstract Nouns



SECTION: #237. Names of Actions are confused, through their terminations, with real abstract nouns (names of qualities), and with concrete nouns denoting means and instrument.

They are also used to express the concrete result of an action (as often in English).

Thus legió is literally the act of collecting, but comes to mean legion (the body of soldiers collected); cf. levy in English.



SECTION: #238. Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from roots and verb-stems by means of the endings:

Added to roots or forms conceived as roots:

NOM. -or, M. - és, F. -us, N.

GEN. - óris - is - eris or - oris

STEM ór- (earlier ós-) i- er- (earlier (e/os-)

tim-or, fear; timére, to fear.

am- or, love; amáre, to love.

séd- és, seat; sedére, to sit.

caed- és, slaughter; caedere, to kill.

genus, birth, race; GEN, to be born (root of gignó, bear).

NOTE.--Many nouns of this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: as facinus from a supposed root FACIN.

Apparently added to roots or verb-stems:

NOM. -ió, F. -tió (-sió), F. -túra (- súra), F. -tus, M.

GEN. -iónis -tiónis (-siónis) -túrae (- súrae) -tús (- sús)

STEM ión- tión- (sión-) túrá- (súrá-) tu- (su-)

leg-ió, a collecting (levy), a legion; legere, to collect.

reg- ió, a direction, a region; regere, to direct.

vocá- tió, a calling; vocáre, to call.

mólí- tió, a toiling; mólírí, to toil.

scríp- túra, a writing; scríbere, to write.

sén- sus (for *sent-tus), feeling; sentíre, to feel.

NOTE 1.---tió, -tura, -tus are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as -tor, with the same phonetic change (cf. Sect: 236. a. N. 1). Hence they are conveniently associated with the supine stem (see Sect: 178). They sometimes form nouns when there is no corresponding verb in use: as, senátus, senate (cf. senex); mentió, mention (cf. méns); fétúra, offspring (cf. fétus); litterátúra, literature (cf. litterae); cónsulátus, consulship (cf. cónsul).

NOTE 2.--Of these endings, -tus was originally primary (cf. Sect: 234. 2.3.); -ió is a compound formed by adding ón- to a stem ending in a vowel (originally i): as, dició (cf. -dicus and dicis); -tió is a compound formed by adding ón- to stems in ti-: as, gradátió (cf. gradátim); -tura is formed by adding -ra, feminine of - rus, to stems in tu-: as, nátúra from nátus; statúra from status (cf. figúra, of like meaning, from a simple u-stem, *figu-s; and mátúrus, Mátúta).



SECTION: #239. Nouns denoting acts, or means and results of acts, are formed from roots or verb-stems by the use of the suffixes:

-men, N.; -mentum, N.; -mónium, N.; -mónia, F.

ag- men, line of march, band; AG, root of agere, to lead.

regi- men, rule; regi- mentum, rule; regi- (rege-), stem of regere, to direct.

certá- men, contest, battle; certá-, stem of certáre, to contend.

colu- men, pillar; mó- men, movement; nó- men, name; flú- men, stream.

testi- mónium, testimony; testárí, to witness.

queri- mónia, complaint; querí, to complain.

-mónium and -mónia are also used as secondary, forming nouns from other nouns and from adjectives: as, sáncti- mónia, sanctity ( sánctus, holy); mátrimónium, marriage ( máter, mother.)

NOTE.--Of these endings, -men is primary (cf. Sect: 234. 2.14); - mentum is a compound of men- and to-, and appears for the most part later in the language than -men: as, mómen, movement (Lucr.); mómentum (later). So elementum is a development from L-M-N-a, l-m-n's (letters of the alphabet), changed to elementa along with other nouns in -men. -mónium and -mónia were originally compound secondary suffixes formed from món- (a by-form of men-), which was early associated with mo-. Thus almus

(stem almo-), fostering; Almón, a river near Rome; alimónia, support. But the last was formed directly from aló when -mónia had become established as a supposed primary suffix.



SECTION: #240. Nouns denoting means or instrument are formed from roots and verb-stems (rarely from noun-stems) by means of the neuter suffixes:

-bulum, - culum, -brum, - crum, -trum

pá- bulum, fodder; páscere, to feed.

sta- bulum, stall; stáre, to stand.

vehi- culum, wagon; vehere, to carry.

candélá- brum, candlestick; candéla, candle (a secondary formation).

sepul- crum, tomb; sepelíre, to bury.

claus- trum (*claud-trum), bar; claudere, to shut.

ará- trum, plough; aráre, to plough.

NOTE.---trum (stem tro-) was an old formation from tor- (Sect: 234. 2.15), with the stem suffix o-, and -clum (stem clo- for tlo-) appears to be related; -culum is the same as - clum; -bulum contains lo- (Sect: 234. II. 9, 10) and -brum is closely related.

A few masculines and feminines of the same formation occur as nouns and adjectives:

fá- bula, tale; fárí, to speak.

rídi- culus, laughable; rídére, to laugh.

fa- ber, smith; facere, to make.

late- bra, hiding-place; latére, to hide.

tere- bra, auger; terere, to bore.

mulc- tra, milk-pail; mulgére, to milk.



SECTION: #241. Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from noun-stems, are formed by means of the secondary feminine suffixes:

-ia (-ies), -tia (-tiés), -tás, -tús, -túdó

audác- ia, boldness; audáx, bold.

pauper- iés, poverty; pauper, poor.

trísti- tia, sadness; trístis, sad.

ségni-tiés, laziness; ségnis, lazy.

boni- tás, goodness; bonus, good.

senec- tús, age; senex, old.

mágni- túdó, greatness; mágnus, great.

1. In stems ending in o- or á- the stem-vowel is lost before -ia (as superb- ia) and appears as i before -tás, -tús, -tia (as in boni- tás, above).

2. Consonant stems often insert i before -tás: as, loquáx (stem loquác-), loquáci-tás; but hones-tás, máies-tás (as if from old adjectives in - es), úber-tás, volup- tás. o after i is changed to e: as, pius (stem pio-), pie-tás; socius, socie-tás.

In like manner - dó and -gó (F.) form abstract nouns, but are associated with verbs and apparently added to verb-stems:
     cupí- dó, desire, from cupere, to desire (as if from stem cupí-).
     dulcé-dó, sweetness (cf. dulcis, sweet), as if from a stem dulcé-, cf. dulcé-scó.
     lumbá-gó , lumbago (cf. lumbus, loin), as if from *lumbó, - áre.

NOTE.--Of these, -ia is inherited as secondary (cf. Sect: 234. 2.11). -tia is formed by adding -ia to stems with a t-suffix: as, mílitia, from míles (stem mé lit-); molestia from molestus; clémentia from cléméns; whence by analogy, mali- tia, avári- tia. -tás is inherited, but its component parts, tá- + ti-, are found as suffixes in the same sense: as, senecta from senex; sémen- tis from sémen. -tús is tú- + ti-, cf. servitú-dó. - dó and -gó appear only with long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy; but - dó is do- + ón-: as, cupidus, cupídó; gravidus, gravédó (cf. grave- scó); albidus, albédó (cf. albéscó); formidus, hot, formídó (cf. formídulósus), (hot flash?) fear; -gó is possibly co- + ón-; cf. voráx, vorágó, but cf. Cethégus. -túdó is compounded of - dó with tu-stems, which acquire a long vowel from association with verb-stems in u- (cf. volúmen, from volvó): as, cónsuét ú- dó, valétú- dó, habitú-dó; whence servitúdó (cf. servitús, tútis).

Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices and groups, are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by means of the suffixes:

-ium, -tium

hospit- ium, hospitality, an inn;hospes (gen. hospit- is), a guest.

collég- ium, colleagueship, a college; colléga, a colleague.

auspic- ium, soothsaying, an omen; auspex (gen. auspic- is), a soothsayer.

gaud- ium, joy; gaudére, to rejoice.

effug- ium, escape; effugere, to escape.

benefic- ium, a kindness; benefacere, to benefit; cf. beneficus.

désíder- ium, longing; désíderáre, to miss, from dé- sídés, out of place, of missing soldiers.

adverb-um, adverb; ad verbum, [added] to a verb.

interlún-um, time of new moon; inter lúnás, between moons.

régifug-ium, flight of the kings; régis fuga, flight of a king.

servi-ium, slavery, the slave class; servus, a slave.

Vowel stems lose their vowel before -ium: as, collég-ium, from collega.

NOTE.---ium is the neuter of the adjective suffix -us. It is an inherited primary suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary. -tium is formed like -tia, by adding -ium to stems with t: as, exit-ium, equit-ium (cf. exitus, equités); so, by analogy, calvitium, servitium (from calvus, servus).

Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means of the suffixes--

-nia, F.; -nium, -lium, -cinium, N.

pecú- nia, money (chattels); pecú, cattle.

contici- nium, the hush of night; conticéscere, to become still.

auxi- lium, help; augére, to increase.

látró- cinium, robbery; latró, robber (cf. latrócinor, rob, implying an adjective latrócinus).

For Diminutives and Patronymics, see Sect: 243, 244.


.DERIVATION OF ADJECTIVES



SECTION: #242. Derivative Adjectives, which often become nouns, are either Nominal (from nouns or adjectives) or Verbal (as from roots or verb-stems).

1 The abstract meaning is put first.

Nominal Adjectives



SECTION: #243. Diminutive Adjectives are usually confined to one gender, that of the primitive, and are used as Diminutive Nouns.

They are formed by means of the suffixes:

-ulus (- a, -um), -olus (after a vowel), - culus, -ellus, -illus

rív- ulus, a streamlet; rívus, a brook.

gladi- olus, a small sword; gladius, a sword.

fíli- olus, a little son; fílius, a son.

fíli- ola, a little daughter; fília, a daughter.

átri- olum, a little hall; átrium, a hall.

homun- culus, a dwarf; homó, a man.

auri- cula, a little ear; auris, an ear.

múnus- culum, a little gift; múnus, N., a gift.

códic- illí, writing-tablets; códex, a block.

mis- ellus, rather wretched; miser, wretched.

lib- ellus, a little book; liber, a book.

aure- olus (- a, -um), golden; aureus (- a, -um), golden.

parv- olus (later parv- ulus), very small; parvus (- a, -um), little.

máius- culus, somewhat larger; máior (old máiós), greater.

NOTE 1.--These diminutive endings are all formed by adding - lus to various stems. The formation is the same as that of -ulus in Sect: 251. But these words became settled as diminutives, and retained their connection with nouns. So in English the diminutives whitish, reddish, are of the same formation as bookish and snappish, - culus comes from - lus added to adjectives in - cus formed from stems in n- and s-: as, iuven-cus, Aurun-cus (cf. Aurunculeiius), prís-cus, whence the cu becomes a part of the termination, and the whole ending (- culus) is used elsewhere, but mostly with n- and s- stems, in accordance with its origin.

NOTE 2.--Diminutives are often used to express affection, pity, or contempt: as, déliciolae, little pet; muliercula, a poor (weak) woman; Graeculus, a miserable Greek.

- ció, added to stems in n-, has the same diminutive force, but is used with masculines only: as, homun-ció, a dwarf (from homó, a man).



SECTION: #244. Patronymics, indicating descent or relationship, are formed by adding to proper names the suffixes--
     - adés, -idés, - ídés, -eus, M.; -ás, - is, - éis, F.

These words, originally Greek adjectives, have almost all become nouns in Latin:
     Atlás: Atlanti- adés, Mercury; Atlant-ides (Gr. plur.), the Pleiads.
     Scípió: Scípi- adés, son of Scipio.
     Tyndareus: Tyndar-ides, Castor or Pollux, son of Tyndarus; Tyndar- is, Helen, daughter of Tyndarus.
     Anchísés: Anché si- adés, Aeeas, son of Anchises.
    th éseus: Thés- ídés, son of Theseus.
     Tydeus: Tyd-ídés, Diomedes, son of Tydeus.
     Oíleus: Aiáx Oíl-eus, son of Oileus.
     Cisseus: Cissé- is, Hecuba, daughter of Cisseus.
     Thaumás: Thaumant- iás, Iris, daughter of Thaumas.
     Hesperus: Hesper- ides (from Hesper-is, -idis), plur., the daughters of Hesperus, the Hesperides.



SECTION: #245. Adjectives meaning full of, prone to, are formed from nounstems with the suffixes:

-ósus, -léns, -lentus

fluctu- ósus, billowy; fluctus, a billow.

form- ósus, beautiful; forma, beauty.

perícul- ósus, dangerous; perículum, danger.

pesti-léns, pesti- lentus, pestilent; pestis, pest.

víno-lentus, vín-ósus, given to drink; vínum, wine.



SECTION: #246. Adjectives meaning provided with are formed from nouns by means of the regular participial endings:

-tus, -átus, -ítus, -útus

fúnes- tus, deadly; fúnus (st. fúner-, older (fúne/os-), death.

hones-tus, honorable; honor, honor.

faus- tus (for *faves-tus), favorable; favor, favor.

barb- átus, bearded; barba, a beard.

turr- ítus, turreted; turris, a tower.

corn- útus, horned; cornú, a horn.

NOTE.---átus, - ítus, -útus, imply reference to an imaginary verb-stem: -tus is added directly to nouns without any such reference.



SECTION: #247. Adjectives of various meanings, but signifying in general made of or belonging to, are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes:

-eus, -ius, -áceus, -í cius, -áneus (-neus), -ticus

aur- eus, golden; aurum, gold.

patr- ius, paternal; pater, a father.

uxór- ius, uxorious; uxor, a wife.

ros- áceus, of roses; rosa, a rose.

later- ícius, of brick; later, a brick.

praesent- áneus, operating instantly; praeséns, present.

extr- áneus, external; extrá, without.

subterr- áneus, subterranean; sub terrá, underground.

salíg- neus, of willow; salix, willow.

volá- ticus, winged ( volátus, a flight); voláre, to fly.

domes- ticus, of the house, domestic; domus, a house.

silvá- ticus, sylvan; silva, a wood.

NOTE.--- ius is originally primitive (Sect: 234. 2.11); -eus corresponds to Greek -eios, eos, and has lost a y-sound (cf. yo-, Sect: 234. 2.11); -ícius and -áceus are formed by adding - ius and -eus to stems in í-c-, á-c- (suffix ko-, Sect: 234. 2.12); -neus is no- + -eus (Sect: 234. 2.4); -áneus is formed by adding -neus to á-stems; -ticus is a formation with - cus (cf. hosti- cus with silvá- ticus), and has been affected by the analogy of participial stems in to- (nominative - tus).



SECTION: #248. Adjectives denoting pertaining to are formed from nounstems with the suffixes\:

-ális, -áris, -élis, -ílis, -ulis

nátúr- ális, natural; nátúra, nature.

popul- áris, fellow-countryman; populus, a people.

patru- élis, cousin; patruus, uncle.

host- ílis, hostile; hostis, an enemy.

cur- úlis, curule; currus, a chariot.

NOTE.--The suffixes arise from adding - lis (stem li-) to various vowel stems. The long vowels are due partly to confusion between stem and suffix (cf. vítá-lis, from vítá-, with reg-ális), partly to confusion with verb-stems: cf. Aprílis ( aperíre), edúlis ( edere), with senílis ( senex). - ris is an inherited suffix, but in most of these formations - áris arises by differentiation for - ális in words containing an(as mílit- áris).



SECTION: #249. Adjectives with the sense of belonging to are formed by means of the suffixes--
     - ánus, -énus, - ínus; -ás, - énsis; - cus, - acus (- ácus), -icus; -eus, - eiius, -icius

1. So from common nouns:

mont- ánus, of the mountains; móns (stem monti-), mountain.

veter-ánus, veteran; vetus (stem veter-), old.

antelúc-ánus, before daylight; ante lúcem, before light.

terr- énus, earthly; terra, earth.

ser- énus, calm (of evening stillness); sérus, late.

coll- ínus, of a hill; collis, hill.

dív- ínus, aivine; dívus, god.

líbert- ínus, of the class of freedmen; líbertus, one's freedman.

cúi- ás, of what country? quis, who?

ínfim- ás, of the lowest rank; ínfimus, lowest.

for- énsis, of a market-place, or the Forum; forum, a market-place. cívi- cus, civic, of a citizen; cívis, a citizen.

fullón- icus, of a fuller; fulló, a fuller.

mer- ácus, pure; merum, pure wine.

fémin- eus, of a woman, feminine; fémina, a woman.

lact- eus, milky; lac, milk (stem lacti-).

pléb-eius, of the commons, plebeian; plébés, the commons.

patr- icius, patrician; pater, father.

2. But especially from proper nouns to denote belonging to or coming from:

Róm- ánus, Roman; Róma, Rome.

Sull- ání, Sulla's veterans; Sulla.

Cyzic-éní, Cyzicenes, people of Cyzicus; Cyzicus.

Ligur- ínus, of Liguria; Liguria.

Arpín- ás, of Arpinum; Arpínum.

Sicili- énsis, Sicilian; Sicilia, Sicily.

Ili-acus, Trojan (a Greek form); Ilium, Troy.

Platón- icus, Platonic; Plató.

Aquil-eiius, a Roman name; Aquil-eiia, a town in Italy; Aquila.

Many derivative adjectives with these endings have by usage become nouns:

Silv-ánus, M., a god of the woods; silva, a wood.

membr-ána, F., skin; membrum, limb.

Aemili- ánus, M., name of Scipio Africanus; Aemilia ( géns).

lani-éna, F., a butcher's stall; lanius, butcher.

Aufidi-énus, M., a Roman name; Aufidius ( Aufidus).

inquil-ínus, M., a lodger; incola, an inhabitant.

Caec- ína, used as M., a Roman name; caecus, blind.

ru-ína, F., a fall; ruó, fall (no noun existing).

doctr- ína, F., learning; doctor, teacher.

NOTE.--Of these terminations, - ánus, -énus, - ínus are compounded from - nus added to a stem-vowel: as, arca, arcánus; collis, collínus. The long vowels come from a confusion with verb-stems (as in plé- nus, fíní- tus, tribú- tus), and from the noun-stem in á-. as, arcánus. A few nouns occur of similar formation, as if from verb-stems in ó- and u-: as, colónus ( coló, cf. incola), patrónus (cf. patró, - áre), tribúnus (cf. tribuó, tribus), Portúnus (cf. portus), Vacúna (cf. vacó, vacuus).



SECTION: #250. Other adjectives meaning in a general way belonging to (especially of places and times) are formed with the suffixes--

ter (-tris), - ester (-estris), -timus, -nus, -ernus, -urnus, -ternus (-turnus)

palús-ter, of the marshes; palús, a marsh.

pedes-ter, of the foot-soldiers; pedes, a footman.

sémés- tris, lasting six months; sex ménsés, six months.

silv- ester, silv- estris, woody; silva, a wood.

fíni- timus, neighboring, on the borders; fínis, an end.

mari- timus, of the sea; mare, sea.

vér-nus, vernal; vér, spring.

hodi- ernus, of to-day; hodié, to-day.

di- urnus, daily; diés, day.

hes- ternus, of yesterday; herí (old hesé ), yesterday.

diú- turnus, lasting; diú, long (in time).

NOTE.--Of these, - ester is formed by adding tri- (cf. tro-, Sect: 234. 2.16) to stems in t- or d-. Thus pedet-tri- becomes pedestri-, and others follow the analogy. -nus is an inherited suffix (Sect: 234. 2.4). -ernus and -urnus are formed by adding - nus to s-stems: as, diur-nus (for dius-nus), and hence, by analogy, hodiernus ( hodié). By an extension of the same principle were formed the suffixes -ternus and -turnus from words like paternus and nocturnus.

Adjectives meaning belonging to are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes:

-árius, -tórius (-sórius)

órdin- árius, regular; órdó, rank, order.

argent- árius, of silver or money; argentum, silver.

extr- árius, stranger; extrá, outside.

meri- tórius, profitable; meritus, earned.

dévor-sórius, of an inn (cf. Sect: 254. 5); dévorsus, turned aside.

NOTE 1.--Here - ius (Sect: 234. 2.11) is added to shorter forms in - áris and -or: as, pecúliárius (from pecúliáris), bellátórius (from bellátor).

NOTE 2.--These adjectives are often fixed as nouns (see Sect: 254).


Verbal Adjectives



SECTION: #251. Adjectives expressing the action of the verb as a quality or tendency are formed from real or apparent verb-stems with the suffixes:

-áx, -idus, - ulus, -vus (-uus, -ívus, -té vus)

-áx denotes a faulty or aggressive tendency; -tívus is oftener passive.

púgn- áx, pugnacious; púgnáre, to fight.

aud- áx, bold; audére, to dare.

cup- idus, eager; cupere, to desire.

bib- ulus, thirsty (as dry earth etc.); bibere, to drink.

proter- vus, violent, wanton; próterere, to trample.

noc- uus (noc- ívus), hurtful, injurious; nocére, to do harm.

recid- ívus, restored; recidere, to fall back.

cap- tívus, captive; M., a prisoner of war; capere, to take.

NOTE.--Of these, -áx is a reduction of - ácus (stem-vowel á- + - cus), become independent and used with verb-stems. Similar forms in -ex, -óx, -íx, and -úx are found or employed in derivatives: as, imbrex, M., a rain-tile (from imber); senex, old (from seni- s); feróx, fierce (from ferus); atróx, savage (from áter, black); celóx, F., a yacht (cf. celló); félíx, happy, originally fertile (cf. féló, suck); fídúcia, F., confidence (as from fídúx); cf. also victríx (from victor). So mandúcus, chewing (from mandó).

-idus is no doubt denominative, as in herbidus, grassy (from herba, herb); tumidus, swollen (cf. tumu- lus, hill; tumul- tus, uproar); callidus, tough, cunning (cf. callum, tough flesh); múcidus, slimy (cf. múcus, slime); tábidus, wasting (cf. tábés, wasting disease). But later it was used to form adjectives directly from verb-stems.

-ulus is the same suffix as in diminutives, but attached to verb-stems. Cf. aemulus, rivalling (cf. imitor and imágó); sédulus, sitting by, attentive (cf. domi- seda, homestaying, and sédó, set, settle, hence calm); pendulus, hanging (cf. pondó, ablative, in weight; perpendiculum, a plummet; appendix, an addition); strágulus, covering (cf. strágés); legulus, a picker (cf. sacri- legus, a picker up of things sacred).

- vus seems originally primary (cf. Sect: 234. 2.8), but -ívus and -tívus have become secondary and are used with nouns: as, aestívus, of summer (from aestus, heat); tempestívus, timely (from tempus); cf. domes-ticus (from domus).



SECTION: #252. Adjectives expressing passive qualities, but occasionally active, are formed by means of the suffixes:

-ilis, -bilis, -ius, -tilis (-silis)

frag- ilis, frail; frangere (FRAG), to break.

nó- bilis, well known, famous; nóscere (GNO), to know.

exim- ius, choice, rare (cf. é-greg- ius); eximere, to take out, select.

ag- ilis, active; agere, to drive.

hab- ilis, handy; habére, to hold.

al- tilis, fattened (see note); alere, to nourish.

NOTE.--Of these, - ius is primary, but is also used as secondary (cf. Sect: 241. b. N.). -ilis is both primary (as in agilis, fragilis) and secondary (as in similis, like, cf. homos, homalos, English same); - bilis is in some way related to -bulum and -brum (Sect: 240. N.); in -tilis and - silis, - lis is added to to- (so-), stem of the perfect participle: as, fossilis, dug up (from fossus, dug); volátilis, winged (from volátus, flight).



SECTION: #253. Verbal Adjectives that are Participial in meaning are formed with the suffixes:

-ndus, -bundus, -cundus

-ndus (the same as the gerundive ending) forms a few active or reflexive adjectives:

secu- ndus, second (the following), favorable; sequí, to follow.

rotu- ndus, round (whirling); rotáre, to whirl.

-bundus, -cundus, denote a continuance of the act or quality expressed by the verb:

vítá-bundus, avoiding; vítáre, to shun.

treme- bundus, trembling; tremere, to tremble.

mori- bundus, dying, at the point of death; morírí, to die.

fá- cundus, eloquent; fárí, to speak.

fé- cundus, fruitful; root Fé, nourish.

írá- cundus, irascible; cf. íráscí, to be angry.

NOTE.--These must have been originally nominal: as in the series, rubus, red bush; rubidus (but no *rubicus), ruddy; Rubicón, Red River (cf. Minió, a river of Etruria; Minius, a river of Lusitania); rubicundus (as in averruncus, homun- culus). So turba, commotion; turbó, a top; turbidus, roily, etc. Cf. apexabó, longabó, gravédó, dulcédó.

Here belong also the participial suffixes - minus, -mnus (cf. Greek -menos), from which are formed a few nouns in which the participial force is still discernible:

fé- mina, woman (the nourisher); root Fé, nourish.

alu- mnus, a foster-child, nursling; alere, to nourish.

1 Cf. volvendís ménsibus (Aen. 1.269) , in the revolving months; cf. oriundí ab Sabinís (Liv. 1.17) , sprung from the Sabines, where oriundí= ortí.


Nouns with Adjective Suffixes



SECTION: #254. Many fixed forms of the Nominal Adjective suffixes men tioned in the preceding sections, make Nouns more or less regularly used in particular senses:

1. -árius, person employed about anything:
     argent- árius, M., silversmith, broker, from argentum, silver.
     Corinthi-árius, M., worker in Corinthian bronze (sarcastic nickname of Augustus), from ( aes) Corinthium, Corinthian bronze.
     centón-árius, M., ragman, from centó, patchwork.

2. -ária, thing connected with something:
     argent-ária, F., bank, from argentum, silver.
     arén-áriae, F. plural, sandpits, from aréna, sand.
     Asin-ária, F., name of a play, from asinus, ass.

3. -árium, place of a thing (with a few of more general meaning):
     aer-árium, N., treasury, from aes, copper.
     tepid- árium, N., warm bath, from tepidus, warm.
     súd-árium, N., a towel, cf. súdó, - áre, sweat.
     sal-á rium, N., salt money, salary, from sál, salt.
     calendárium, N., a note-book, from calendae, calends.

4. -tória (-sória):
     Agitá-tória, F., a play of Plautus, The Carter, from agitátor.
     vor-sória, F., a tack (nautical), from vorsus, a turn.

5. -tórium (-sórium), place of action (with a few of more general meaning):
     dévor-sórium, N., an inn, as from dévortó, turn aside.
     audí-tórium, N., a lecture-room, as from audió, hear.
     ten-tórium, N., a tent, as from tendó, stretch.
     téc-tórium, N., plaster, as from tegó, téctus, cover.
     por-tórium, N., toll, cf. portó, carry, and portus, harbor.

6. -íle, animal-stall:
     bov-íle, N., cattle-stall, from bós, bovis, ox, cow.
     ov-íle, N., sheepfold, from ovis, stem ovi-, sheep.

7. -al for - ále, thing connected with the primitive:
     capit-al, N., headdress, capital crime, from caput, head.
     penetr- ále (especially in plural), N., inner apartment, cf. penetró, enter.
     Sáturn- ália, N. plural (the regular form for names of festivals), feast of Sat urn, from Sáturnus.

8. - étum, N. (cf. -átus, -útus, see Sect: 246. N.), - tum, place of a thing, especially with names of trees and plants to designate where these grow:
     querc-étum, N., oak grove, from quercus, oak.
     olív-étum, N., olive grove, from olíva, an olive tree.
     salic-tum, N., a willow thicket, from salix, a willow tree.
     Argil-étum, N., The Clay Pit, from argilla, clay.

9. - cus (sometimes with inserted i, -icus), -ícus, in any one of the genders, with various meanings:
     víli-cus, M., a steward, vé li-ca, F., a stewardess, from vílla, farm-house.
     fabr-ica, F., a workshop, from faber, workman.
     am- ícus, M., am-íca, F., friend, cf. amáre, to love.
     búbul-cus, M., ox-tender, from búb- ulus, diminutive, cf. bós, ox.
     cant-icum, N., song, from cantus, act of singing.
     rubr-íca, F., red paint, from ruber, red.

10. -eus, - ea, - eum, with various meanings:
     alv-eus, M., a trough, from alvus, the belly.
     capr-ea, F., a wild she-goat, from caper, he-goat.
     flamm-eum, N., a bridal veil, from flamma, flame, from its color.

11. - ter (stem tri-), -aster, - ester:
     eques-ter, M., knight, for equet-ter.
     sequ-ester, M., a stake-holder, from derivative of sequor, follow.
     ole-aster, M., wild olive, from olea, an olive tree.

IRREGULAR DERIVATIVES



SECTION: #255. The suffix - ó (genitive -ónis, stem ón-), usually added to verb-stems (see Sect: 236. c), is sometimes used with noun-stems to form nouns denoting possessed of. These were originally adjectives expressing quality or character, and hence often appear as proper names:
     epulae, a feast; epul- ó, a feaster.
     násus, a nose; nás- ó, with a large nose (also as a proper name).
     volus (in bene- volus), wishing; vol- ónés (plural), volunteers.
     fróns, forehead; front- ó, big-head (also as a proper name).
     cúria, a curia; cúri- ó, head of a curia (also as a proper name).
     restis, a rope; resti- ó, a rope-maker.

Rarely suffixes are added to compound stems imagined, but not used in their compound form:
     ad-verb- ium, adverb; ad, to, and verbum, verb, but without the intervening adverbus.
     láti-fund- ium, large estate; látus, wide, fundus, estate, but without the inter vening látifundus.
     su-ove-taur- ília, a sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull; sús, swine, ovis, sheep, taurus, bull, where the primitive would be impossible in Latin, though such formations are common in Sanskrit.


.DERIVATION OF VERBS



SECTION: #256. Verbs may be classed as Primitive or Derivative.

1. Primitive Verbs are those inherited by the Latin from the parent speech.

2. Derivative Verbs are those formed in the development of the Latin as a separate language.



SECTION: #257. Derivative Verbs are of two main classes:

1. Denominative Verbs, formed from nouns or adjectives.

2. Verbs apparently derived from the stems of other verbs


.Denominative Verbs



SECTION: #258. Verbs were formed in Latin from almost every form of noun-stem and adjective-stem.



SECTION: #259.

1. Verbs of the First Conjugation are formed directly from á-stems, regularly with a transitive meaning: as, fuga, flight; fugáre, put to flight.

2. Many verbs of the First Conjugation are formed from o- stems, changing the o- into á-. These are more commonly transitive:
     stimuló, - áre, to incite, from stimulus, a good (stem stimulo-).
     aequó, - áre, to make even, from aequus, even (stem aequo-).
     híbernó, - áre, to pass the winter, from híbernus, of the winter (stem híberno-).
     albó, - áre, to whiten, from albus, white (stem albo-).
     pió, - áre, to expiate, from pius, pure (stem pio-).
     novó, -áre, to renew, from novus, new (stem novo-).
     armó, - áre, to arm, from arma, arms (stem armo-).
     damnó, - áre, to injure, from damnum, injury (stem damno-).

3. A few verbs, generally intransitive, are formed by analogy from consonant and i- or u-stems, adding á to the stem:
     vigiló, - áre, to watch, from vigil, awake.
     exsuló, - áre, to be in exile, from exsul, an exile.
     auspicor, - árí, to take the auspices, from auspex (stem auspic-), augur.
     pulveró, - áre, to turn (anything) to dust, from pulvis (stem pulver- for pulvis-), dust.
     aestuó, - áre, to surge, boil, from aestus (stem aestu-), tide, seething
     levó, - áre, to lighten, from levis (stem levi-), light.



SECTION: #260. A few verbs of the Second Conjugation (generally intransitive) are recognizable as formed from noun-stems; but most are inherited, or the primitive noun-stem is lost:
     albeó, - ére, to be white, from albus (stem ( albo/e-), white.
     cáneo, - ére, to be hoary, from cánus (stem ( cáno/e-), hoary.
     cláreó, - ére, to shine, from clárus, bright.
     claudeó, - ére, to be lame, from claudus, lame.
     algeó, - ére, to be cold, cf. algidus, cold.



SECTION: #261. Some verbs of the Third Conjugation in - uó, - uere, are formed from noun-stems in u- and have lost a consonant i:
     statu ó (for statu-yó), - ere, to set up, from status, position.
     metuó, - ere, to fear, from metus, fear.
     acuó, - ere, to sharpen, from acus, needle.
     arguó, - ere, to clear up, from inherited stem argu-, bright (cf. arguros).

NOTE.--Many verbs in u are inherited, being formed from roots in u: as, fluó, fluere, flow; so- lvó (for sé-luó, cf. lu?), solvere, dissolve. Some roots have a parasitic u: as, loquor, locútus, speak.



SECTION: #262. Many í-verbs or verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are formed from i-stems:
     mólior, - írí, to toil, from mólés (- is), mass.
     fínió, - íre, to bound, from fínis, end.
     sitió, - íre, to thirst, from sitis, thirst.
     stabilió, - íre, to establish, from stabilis, stable.

Some arise by confusion from other stems treated as i-stems:
     bullió, - íre, to boil, from bulla (stem bullá-), bubble.
     condió, - íre, to preserve, from condus (stem condo-), storekeeper.
     ínsánió, - íre, to rave, from ínsánus (stem ínsáno-), mad.
     gestió, - íre, to show wild longing, from gestus (stem gestu-), gesture.

NOTE.--Some of this form are of doubtful origin: as, órdior, begin, cf. órdo and exórdium. The formation is closely akin to that of verbs in -ió of the third conjugation (p. 102).

Some are formed with -ió from consonant stems:
     cústódió, - íre, to guard, from cústós (stem cústód-), guardian.
     fulgurió, - íre, to lighten, from fulgur, lightning.

NOTE.--Here probably belong the so-called desideratives in - urió (see Sect: 263. 4. N.).

1 The type of all or most of the denominative formations in Sect: 259-262 was inherited, but the process went on in the development of Latin as a separate language.



.Verbs from Other Verbs



SECTION: #263. The following four classes of verbs regularly derived from other verbs have special meanings connected with their terminations.

NOTE.--These classes are all really denominative in their origin, but the formations had become so associated with actual verbs that new derivatives were often formed directly from verbs without the intervention of a noun-stem.

1. Inceptives or Inchoatives add -scóto the present stem of verbs. They denote the beginning of an action and are of the Third Conjugation. Of some there is no simple verb in existence:
     calé- scó, grow warm, from caleó, be warm.
     labá- scó, begin to totter, from labó, totter.
     scí- scó, determine, from sció, know.
     con-cupí- scó, conceive a desire for, from cupió, desire.
     alé- scó, grow, from aló, feed.
     So é rá- scor, get angry; cf. írá- tus.
     iuvené- scó, grow young; cf. iuvenis, young man.
     míté- scó, grow mild; cf. mítis, mild.
     vesperá-scit, it is getting late; cf. vesper, evening.

NOTE.--Inceptives properly have only the present stem, but many use the perfect and supine systems of simple verbs: as, caléscó, grow warm, caluí; árdéscó, blaze forth, ársí; proficíscor, set out, profectus.

2. Intensives or Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem and end in-tó or - itó (rarely -só). They denote a forcible or repeated action, but this special sense often disappears. Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in - itó (not -átó).
     iac- tó, hurl, from iació, throw.
     dormí- tó, be sleepy, from dormió, sleep.
     vol- itó, flit, from voló, fly.
     vendi- tó, try to sell, from véndó, sell.
     quas- só, shatter, from quatió, shake.

They are of the first conjugation, and are properly denominative.

Compound suffixes -titó, - sitó, are formed with a few verbs. These are probably derived from other Iteratives; thus, cantitó may come from cantó, iterative of canó, sing.

Another form of Intensives--sometimes called Meditatives, or verbs of practice--ends in -essó (rarely -issó). These denote a certain energy or eagerness of action rather than its repetition:
     cap- essó, lay hold on, from capió, take.
     fac- essó, do (with energy), from fació, do.
     pet-esso, pet-issó, seek (eagerly), from petó, seek.

These are of the third conjugation, usually having the perfect and supine of the fourth:
     arcessó, arcessé re, arcessíví, arcessítum, summon.
     lacessó, lacessé re, lacessíví, lacessítum, provoke.

NOTE.--The verbs in -essó, -issó, show the same formation as levássó, impetrássere, iúdicássit, etc. (Sect: 183. 5), but its origin is not fully explained.

3. Diminutives end in - illó, and denote a feeble or petty action:
     cav- illor, jest, cf. cavilla, raillery.
     cant- illó, chirp or warble, from cantó, sing.

NOTE.--Diminutives are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supposed diminutive nouns.

4. Desideratives end in - turió (- surió), and express longing or wishing. They are of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in common use:
     par- turió, be in labor, from parió, bring forth.
     é- surió (for *ed-turió), be hungry, from edó, eat.

Others are used by the dramatists.

NOTE.--Desideratives are probably derived from some noun of agency: as, émpturió, wish to buy, from émptor, buyer. Vísó, go to see, is an inherited desiderative of a different formation.


.COMPOUND WORDS



SECTION: #264. A Compound Word is one whose stem is made up of two or more simple stems.

A final stem-vowel of the first member of the compound usually disappears before a vowel, and usually takes the form of i before a consonant. Only the second member receives inflection.

Only noun-stems can be thus compounded. A preposition, however, often becomes attached to a verb.



SECTION: #265. New stems are formed by Composition in three ways:

1. The second part is simply added to the first:
     su-ove- taurília ( sús, ovis, taurus), the sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull (cf. Sect: 255. a).
     septen-decim ( septem, decem), seventeen.

2. The first part modifies the second as an adjective or adverb (Determinative Compounds):
     láti- fundium ( látus, fundus), a large landed estate.
     omni- poténs ( omnis, poténs), omnipotent.

3. The first part has the force of a case, and the second a verbal force (Objective Compounds):
     agri- cola ( ager, field, * cola akin to coló, cultivate), a farmer.
     armi-ger ( arma, arms, *ger akin to geró, carry), armor-bearer.
     corni-cen ( cornú, horn, * cen akin to canó, sing), horn-blower.
     carni-fex ( caró, flesh, *fex akin to fació, make), executioner.

Compounds of the above kinds, in which the last word is a noun, may become adjectives, meaning possessed of the quality denoted:
     áli-pés ( ála, wing, pés, foot), wing-footed.
     mágn- animus ( mágnus, great, animus, soul), great-souled.
     an- ceps (amb-, at both ends, caput, head), double.

NOTE.--Many compounds of the above classes appear only in the form of some further derivative, the proper compound not being found in Latin.

Syntactic Compounds



SECTION: #266. In many apparent compounds, complete words--not stems--have grown together in speech. These are not strictly compounds in the etymological sense. They are called Syntactic Compounds. Examples are:

Compounds of fació, factó, with an actual or formerly existing nounstem confounded with a verbal stem in é-. These are causative in force.
     cónsué-fació, habituate (cf. cónsué- scó, become accustomed).
     cale-fació, cale- factó, to heat (cf. calé- scó, grow warm).

An adverb or noun combined with a verb:
     bene- dícó ( bene, well, dícó, speak), to bless.
     satis-fació ( satis, enough, fació, do), to do enough (for).

Many apparent compounds of stems:
     fide-iubeó ( fide, surety, iubeó, command), to give surety.
     mán- suétus ( manuí, to the hand, suétus, accustomed), tame.
     Márci- por ( Márcí puer), slave of Marcus.
     Iuppiter ( Iú old vocative, and pater), father Jove.
     anim- advertó ( animum advertó), attend to, punish.

A few phrases forced into the ordinary inflections of nouns:
     pró-cónsul, proconsul (for pró cónsule, instead of a consul).
     trium-vir, triumvir (singular from trium virórum).
     septen-trió, the Bear, a constellation (supposed singular of septem triónés, the Seven Plough-Oxen).

In all these cases it is to be observed that words, not stems, are united.



SECTION: #267. Many syntactic compounds are formed by prefixing a Particle to some other part of speech.

Prepositions are often prefixed to Verbs. In these compounds the prepositions retain their original adverbial sense:
     á, ab, AWAY: á- mittere, to send away.
     ad, TO, TOWARDS: af- ferre (ad- feró), to bring.
     ante, BEFORE: ante- ferre, to prefer; ante- cellere, to excel.
     circum, AROUND: circum- múníre, to fortify completely.
     com-, con- (cum), TOGETHER or FORCIBLY: cón- ferre, to bring together; collocáre, to set firm.
     dé, DOWN, UTTERLY: dé- spicere, despise; dé- struere, destroy.
     é, ex, OUT: ef- ferre (ec-feró), to carry forth, uplift.
     in (with verbs), IN, ON, AGAINST: ín- ferre, to bear against.
     inter, BETWEEN, TO PIECES: inter- rumpere, to interrupt.
     ob, TOWARDS, TO MEET: of- ferre, to offer; ob-veníre, to meet.
     sub, UNDER, UP FROM UNDER: sub- struere, to build beneath; sub- dúcere, to lead up
     super, UPON, OVER AND ABOVE: super- fluere, to overflow.

NOTE 1.--In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their crdinary force as prepositions, especially ad, in, circum, tráns, and govern the case of a noun: as, tránsíre flúmen, to cross a river (see Sect: 388. b).

NOTE 2.--Short a of the root is weakened to i before one consonant, to e before two: as, fació, cónfició, cónfectus; iació, éició, éiectus. But long a is retained: as, peráctus.

VERBS are also compounded with the following inseparable particles, which do not appear as prepositions in Latin:
     amb- (am-, an-), AROUND: amb-íre, to go about (cf. amphi, about).
     dis-, dí-, ASUNDER, APART: dis-cé dere, to depart (cf. duo, two); dí-vidé re, to divide.
     por-, FORWARD: por-tendere, to hold forth, predict (cf. porró, forth).
     red-, re-, BACK, AGAIN: red-é re, to return; re- clúdere, to open (from claudó, shut); re- ficere, to repair (make again).
     séd-, sé-, APART: se-cernó, to separate; cf. séd- itió, a going apart, secession ( eó, íre, to go).

Many Verbals are found compounded with a preposition, like the verbs to which they correspond:
     per- fuga, deserter; cf. per-fugió.
     trá-dux, vine-branch; cf. trá- dúcó (tráns- dúcó).
     ad- vena, stranger; cf. ad-venió.
     con- iux (con- iúnx), spouse; cf. con-iungó.
     in-dex, pointer out; cf. in-dícó.
     prae-ses, guardian; cf. prae-sideó.
     com- bibó, boon companion; cf. com-bibó, -ere.

An Adjective is sometimes modified by an adverbial prefix.

1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat; in-, not, ar regular, and are very freely prefixed to adjectives:

per-mágnus, very large. in- nocuus, harmless.

per- paucí, very few. in- imícus, unfriendly.

sub- rústicus, rather clownish. ín-sánus, insane.

sub-fuscus, darkish. ín- fínítus, boundless.

prae- longus, very long. im- púrus, impure.

NOTE.--Per and sub, in these senses, are also prefixed to verbs: as, per- terreó, terrify; sub-rídeó, smile. In ígnóscó, pardon, in- appears to be the negative prefix.

2. The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective that does not occur alone:
     in-ermis, unarmed (cf. arma, arms).
     im- bellis, unwarlike (cf. bellum, war).
     im- púnis, without punishment (cf. poena, punishment).
     in- teger, untouched, whole (cf. tangó, to touch, root TAG).
     in- vítus, unwilling (probably from root seen in ví- s, thou wishest).


END Part I (Grammar) continued Part II (Syntax)

William Harris
Prof. Em. Middlebury College
www.middlebury.edu/~harris

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