Vergil: Words following the Caesar and Cicero Lists


Open Caesar's Words for explanation..

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abeo, ire ii itum, --- to go away 2

abrumpo, rumpere rupi ruptum, --- to break off. 2

accendo -ere --- climb up, ascend 2

.accingo, cingere cinxi cinctum, --- bind on (a weaponbelt) 3

.acuo, ere acui acutum --- sharpen to a point 4

.addo, addere addidi additum, --- add,attach,. 4

.aeneus. -a -um (aheneus), --- made of bronze. 3

.aequo, are, --- make level.3

.aequor, oris, n., --- a level 1

.aer, aeris., m., --- the air 1

.aether, eris, acc. era, m., --- the air 1

.aetherius, a um, --- airborne 3

.aevum, in, n., --- time 2

.affor, ari fatus --- speak to 2

.agito, are, --- move, drive,3

.agnosco, -noscere -novi -nitum, --- recognize 3

.ala, -ae, f., --- wing of a bird 3

.albus, -a -um, --- white, translucent 3

.almus, -a -um, --- nourishing, gentle3

.altaria, - ium, n. pl., --- altars 3

.ambiguus, -a -um, --- uncertain 2

.ambo, -ae -o, --- both (of a natural pair 1

.amens,. -entis, --- out of one s mind 3

.amictus, -us, m., --- mantle coat 3

.amnis, -is, m., --- river. 1

.amplector 3

.anima, -ae, f., --- breath 2

.antrum, -i, n., --- a cave, grotto, 2

.appareo,. -ere -ui -itum, --- appear 3

.apto, -are --- fit together 3

.ara, - ae, f., --- a raised base used for an altar, 2

.arceo, -ere -ui, --- keep closed up 3

.arcus, -us, m., --- a bow (for arrows) 3

.ardeo, ardere arsi., --- be on fire 2

.arduus, -a -um, --- high, steep (ascent)3

.arrigo -ere -rexi -rectum --- stand up 3

.artus, (arctus.) -a -um, --- joint of a body 2

.arvum,. -i, n., --- a ploughed field 3

.arx, -cis, f., --- citadel 2

.asper,. -era -erum, --- rough to the touch 1

.asto, -are (=ad-sto) --- stand by 3

.astrum. 2

.ater, atra. atrum., --- black 1

.atrium, -i, n., --- foyer 2

.attollo,. -tollere -tondi -tonsum, --- raise up, lift up, 3

.attono, -tonare -tonui -tonitum, --- strike with lightning 3

.aufero,. auferre abstuli. ablatum., --- carry away 3

.augurium, -i, n., --- Augury (art and practice) 3

.aura, -ae, --- air 1

.aureus,. -a -um, --- golden, splendid, of the "Golden Age" 4

.aurora, -ae, f., --- dawn 2

.aurum, -i, n., --- gold 1

.avarus, -a -um, --- greedy 3

.avello, -vellere -velli and -vulsi (-volsi) -vulsum (-volsum), --- pluck off 4

.axis,. (or assis.) -is, m., --- axle 2

.caecus, -a -um, --- blind 1

.caelicola, -ae, --- dwelling in heaven 5

.caeruleus -a -um --- dark bluish-green 5

.calidus -a -um --- intelligent 3

.canis, -is, c. --- dog 1

.cano, canere cecini cantum, --- sing 1

.cardo, -inis, m. --- pivot 2

.carina, -ae, f. --- keel (of a ship) 3

.carmen, -inis, n. --- song 1

.carpo, carpere carpsi carptum, --- pluck (as fruit) 1

.castus, - a -um, --- pure 2

.caterva, -ae, f. --- crowd 1

.cavus, -a -um --- hollow 2

.celero, - are, --- hurry 3

.cello, -ere --- raise up 3

.cervix, -icis, f., --- the neck. 2

.cesso -are --- cease2

.ceu, adv., --- as if 2.

.chorus, -i, m., --- singing 2

.cieo, ciere civi. citum., --- move 4

.cinis, -eris, m., --- ashes 1

.circa, adv., --- about ; prep. with acc., around, "round-about". 1

.clipeus, -i, m. and clipeum -i, n., --- a small (metal) round shield. 3

.cognomen -inis n. --- name1

.collum,. -i, n. (collus -, m.), --- neck (of a person) 2

.columba,. -ae, f., --- dove 3

.coma, -ae, f., --- a head of hair 3

.comitor, -ari, dep., --- to accompany 2

.compello, -are, --- to speak out 2

.compono, -ponere -posui -positum, --- to place together 1

.concutio, -cutere -cussi -cussum, --- to strike 2

.confundo,. -fundere -fudi -fusum, --- to mingle (liquids) 1

.coniugium, -i, n., --- marriage 3

.conscius, -a -um, --- having knowledge of 2

.conubium, -i n. --- second-class marriage.(with a non-Roman). 1

.convello -ere --- twist up 2

.convexus, -a -um, --- convex 1

.corripio, -ripere -ripui -reptum, --- to grasp 2

.coruscus, -a -um, --- quivering 5

.crimen, -inis, n., --- accusation 1

.crinis, -is, m., --- locks of hair 2

.croceus., - a -um, --- saffron (a perfume 4

.cruentus, -a -um, --- bloody 2

.cruor, -oris, m., --- blood 2

.culmen, -inis, n. --- top 2

.cupido, -inis f. --- longing 1

.curro, currere. cucurri. cursum. --- run 1

.currus, -us, m. --- chariot.2

.curvus, -a -um, --- curved 2

.daps, dapis, f. --- a sacrificial meal 2

.decet, - ere -uit, impers. 3 p.sing. only, --- it is fitting, good 1

.decorus, -a -um, --- good looking 2

.decus, -oris, n. --- honor 1

.delabor, -labi -lapsus, dep. --- fall down 2

.demitto, -mittere -misi -missum, --- drop 1

.dens, dentis, m. --- tooth (as such) 1

.descendo, -scendere -scendi -scensum, --- go down 1

.diffugio, -fugere -fugi -fugitum, --- flee 3

.digredior, -gredi -gressus, dep. --- go away 3

.dirus, -a -um, --- awful 2

.dives, -vitis, --- rich 2

.divus, -a -um, --- a god 3

.dolus, -i, m. --- trick 2

.dominor, -ari, dep. --- rule 3

.dominus, -i, m. --- master 2

.donec, (older donicum), adv. --- until 2

.donum, -i, n. --- gift 2

.dudum, adv. --- once 2

.ecce, interj. --- behold! 2

.edo, -ere or esse, edi, esum, --- to eat 3rd sg. pres. is ést !). 4

.effigies, -ei or effigia -ae, f. --- statue 2

.effundo, (ecfundo) -fundere -fudi -fusum, --- to pour out 1

.elabor, -labi -lapsus, dep. --- to slide 2

.en, --- ever 2

.ensis, -is, m. --- sword. 2

.epulae -arum f. pl. --- banquet 2

.equidem, adv. --- indeed 2

.erigo, -rigere -rexi -rectum, --- raise up 1

.error, -oris, m. --- wandering (lost and wandering) 2

.eruo, -ruere -rui -rutum, --- rush violently out 2

.exanimis, - e, and exanimus -a -um, --- without anima = life 3

.exanimus = exanimis

.excutio, -cutere -cussi -cussum, --- shake out 2

.exigo, -igere -egi -actum, --- drive on, force forward, 1

.exorior, -oriri -ortus, dep. --- rise up 2

.expleo, -ere -ivi -etum --- fill out completely 2

.expono -ere --- set forth 1

.exsequor, -sequi -secutus, dep. --- follow 1

.extemplo, (extempulo), adv. --- right away 3

.exterreo, -terrere -terrui -territuum, --- frighten, scare. 5

.exuo -ere --- talke off, strip2

.exuro, -urere -ussi -ustum, --- burn 2

.exuviae, -arum, f. pl. --- trophies 2

.facies, ei, f. --- appearance 1

.famulus -i m. / fem. (or famul) --- house servant 5

.fas indec. n. --- relikgiouis LAW1

.fastigium, -1, n. --- point 2

.fatigo, -are, --- tire 2

.felix, -icis, --- fruitful 1

.ferio, -ire --- strike 3 t

.ferox, -ocis, --- fierce 2

.ferveo, fervere ferbui (also fervo fervere fervi), --- boil 1

.fessus, -a -um, --- tired, exhausted,2

.festus, -a -um, --- holy day 2

.fido, fidere fisus sum, --- be confident 5

.fiducia, -ae, f. --- trust 2

.fidus, -a -um, --- faithful 2

.figo, figere fixi fixum, --- fix 1

.flecto, flectere flexi flexum, --- curve 2

.fletus, -us, m. --- weeping 5

.fluvius, -ii, m. --- river 2

.foedo, -are, --- to foil 2

.folium, - i, n. --- a leaf 3

.fons, fontis, m. --- spring of water 1

.for, fari fatus, dep. --- speak 2

.foris, -is, f. --- door, pair of doors; entrance. 2

.foris, adv. --- outside 2

.forma, -ae, f. --- form 1

.frango, frangere fregi fractum, --- break 1

.fremo, -ere -ui -itum, --- roar 2

.fretum, -i, n. --- straits 2

.frigidus, -a -um, --- cold 2

.frons, frondis, f. --- a branch, foliage "frond",. 2

.fugo, -are, --- cause to run away 1

.fulgeo, fulgere fulsi, --- shine 3

.fulmen, -inis, n. --- a stroke of lightning. 2

.fulvus -a -um --- dark colored, murky 5

.fumus, -i, m. --- smoke 2

.fundo, -are, --- lay foundations 2

.fundo, fundere fudi fusum, --- pour 2

.funus, -eris, n. --- funeral 1

.furia, -ae, f. --- madness 2

.furtum, -i, n. --- theft 2

.galea, -ae, f. --- helmet. 5

.gaudeo -ere --- rejoice 2

.gaudium, -i, n. --- joy 2

.gelidus, -a -um, --- cold 2

.geminus, -a -um, --- twin (by birth) 2

.gemitus, -us, m. --- a sigh 3

.gemo, gemere gemui gemitum, --- groan 2

.genitor, -oris, m. --- father. 2

.genu indecl. n --- knee 1

.germanus, -a -um, --- brother/sister 3

.gigno, gignere genui genitum, --- create 1

.glomero, - are, --- ball up 2

.gradior, gradi gressus, dep. --- walk 2

.gradus, -us, m. --- a step, pace (1/1000 of a mile)1

.gratus, -a -um, --- kind 1

.gressus, -us, m. --- step 5

.gurges, -itis, m. --- whirlpool 3

.habena, -ae, f. --- rein (plural) 2

.habito, -are, --- inhabit 2

.haereo, haerere haesi haesum, --- stick, stick to.1

.harena, -ae f. (= arena) --- dry soil 1

.hasta, -ae, f. --- spear 3

.haud, adv. (haut), --- not, by no means2

.haurio, haurire hausi haustum, --- drink 1

.herba, -ae, f. --- grass 2

.heros, herois m. --- a hero 3

.heu adv. --- alas!2

.horreo, -ere, --- bristle up shudder with cold or fear, etc.,1

.horridus, -a -um, --- rough 2

.humus, -i, f. --- earth 2

.iaculum, -i n. --- a spear 4

.ianua, -ae f. --- door 1

.ictus, - us m --- blow 2

.ignarus, -a um --- ignorant, ignorant of... 2

.imber, -bris m. --- rain 1

.immanis, -e --- huge 1

.immensus, -a -um --- huge 2

.impleo, -ere -ivi -etum --- fill up; satistate 1

.implico, -are --- weave around 2

.inanis, -e --- empty 1

.incedo, -ere -ssi -ssum --- walk 3

.includo, -ere -use -usum --- close in 2

.inclutus, -a -um (also inclytos as if Greek) --- well known 2

.incumbo, -ere -ui -itum --- lie down on, rest on2

.induo, -ere -ui -utum --- put on (clothes) 1

.infundo, ere -fudi -fusum --- pour on/over a liquid 2

.ingemino, -are --- repeat; double; double up (of effort) 4

.ingens, -ntis --- huge 2

.inscius, -a -um --- not knowing = ignorant = stupid! 3

.insons -ntis --- inmnocent, unharmful 5

.instauro, -are --- renew 2

.intendo, -ere -tendi -tensus --- stretch out, stretch tight (of a bowstring); stretch out 1

.intro, adv., --- within 3

.invado, -vadere -vasi -vasum, --- invade (mil.) 2

.inveho, -vehere -vexi -vectum, --- ride or sail in (lit.) 2

.invideo, -videre, -vidi, -visum, --- lit. look askance at: 1

.ira, -ae, f. --- anger 1

.iuvencus, -a -um, --- bullock 5

.iuvenis, -is, adj. --- youthful 3

.iuventa, -ae, f. --- youth 3

.iuventus, -utis, f. --- youth 3

.iuxta, adv. --- near 1

.labor, (labos) -oris, m. --- work, toil, a struggle1

.lacrimo, (lacrumo) -are, --- shed tears 3

.laetus, -a -um, --- (originally) lush 2

.laevus, -a -um, --- left (as opposed to right hand) 2

.latebra, -ae, f. --- hiding place 3

.latex, -ticis, m. --- water 3

.laurus, -i, f. --- laurel tree 2

.laxo, -are, --- widen 2

.lenio, -ire, --- to make mild 2

.letum, -i, n. --- death 2

.lévis, -e, --- smooth 2

.libo, -are, --- pour out (a ritual libation) 2

.limen, -inis, m. --- door step 1)

.linquo, -ere lingui lictum, --- leave 3

.liquidus, -a -um, --- liquid 1

.loco, -are, --- place 1

.longaevus, -a -um, --- aged 5

.luctus -us m. --- grief 3

.lucus, -i, m. --- grove 2"

.ludo, ludere lusi lusum, --- play 1

.lumen, -inis, n. --- light (sun 1

.luna, -ae, f. --- the moon 1

.lustro, -are, --- spread light on 2

.macto, -are, --- honor (at a sacrifice) 2

.maestus, -a -um, --- sad 1

.magalia, -ium, n. pl. --- Carthaginian native houses 5

.magister, -tri, m. --- master ; general;3)

.magnanimus, -a -um, --- great-minded. 2

.málus -a -um --- evil, bad 1

.manes, -ium, m. pl. --- ghosts of the dead) 2

.maritus, -a -um, --- husband 3

.maternus, -a -um, --- maternal 3

.mel, mellis, n. --- honey (used for sugar) 3

.membrum, -i, n. --- arm 1

.memor, -oris, --- remembering 3

.memoro, -are, --- remember 1

.mensa, -ae, f. --- table 1

.meta, -ae, f. --- pole (turning-point in oval-track racing) 3

.mico, -are -ui, --- flash 2

.minae, -arum, f. (Pl. only), --- overhanging cliffs 3

.minor, -ari, dep. --- threaten 1

.mirabilis, -e, --- remarkable 3

.misereo, -ere and misereor -eri, dep. --- pity 2

.miseror, -ari, dep. --- feel sorry for 3

.monstro, -are, --- point out 1

.monstrum, -i, n. --- a remarkable portent 1

.mortalis, -e, --- mortal 2

.mox, adv. --- soon 1

.murmur, -uris, n. --- murmur 3

.narro, -are, --- tell 1

.nefandus, -a -um, --- unspeakable (for fear).= wicked 3

.nemus, -oris, n. --- woods 2

.nepos, -otis, m. --- grandson, granddaughter; descendant (2

.nequiquam, --- in vain. 2

.niger -ra -rum --- black1

.nimbus, -i, m. --- cloud 2

.niteo, -ere, --- be bright 2

.nodus, -i, m. --- a knot in a rope 2

.nubes, -is, f. --- cloud 2

.nubilus, -a -um, --- (a weather word:) cloudy 2

.numen, -inis, n. --- a nod; "the nod" of divinity; God,1

.nusquam, --- nowhere 2

.nympha, -ae, (and nymphe -es) f. --- a female wood and water spirit 2

.obruo, -ruere -rui -rutum, --- fall down on (landslides 1

.obstipesco, (obstupesco) -stipescere -stipui, --- be struck dumb 2

.obsto, -stare -stiti -staturus, --- stand opposite 2

.obvius, -a -um, --- in the path 1

.olim, adv. : --- a) once upon a time 2

.oliva, -ae, f. --- an olive 5

.omen, -inis, n. --- an omen 1

.omnipotens, -entis, --- omnipotent 5

.onero, -are, --- load 1

.opacus, -a -um,, shady, dark; lightless, "opaque". 3

.opimus, -a -um, --- rich (spoils) 1

.ordior, odiri orsus, dep. --- begin 1

.origo, -inis, f. --- origin 1

.ostento -are --- display 5

.palma, -ae, f. --- the hand 2

.parco, parcere peperci (and parci) parsum, --- use sparingly 1

.pasco, pascere pavi pascum, --- pasture 2

.pectus, -oris, n. --- chest 2

.pecus, -udis --- cattle (generally the smaller animals 2

.pelagus -1 m. --- the sea. 3

.pendeo, pendere pependi, --- hang 1

.penetralis, -e, --- penetrating 4

.pharetra, -ae, f. --- a quiver 5

.pietas, -atis, f. --- piety 1

.piget, -gere -guit -gitum est, (impersonal verb, 3 sg..) --- it is annoying 1

.pingo, pingere pinxi pictum, --- paint 1

.pinguis, -e, --- fat 1

.pinna, -ae, f. --- feather 2

.pius, -a -um, --- "pious" 1

.placidus, -a -um, --- agreeable 2

.polus, -i, m. --- the pole 2

.pontus, -i, n. --- the sea 2

.porticus, -us, f. --- porch 3

.postis, -is f,. --- doorway 2

.praecipito, -are, --- send headlong 1

.precor, -ari, dep. --- beg for 1

.prehendo, prehendere prehendi prehensum (and prendo), --- grab 1

.profundus, -a -um, --- deep (water 2

.proles, -is, f. --- progeny 2

.promitto, -mittere -misi -missum, --- send forth 1

.prora, -ae, f. --- prow (of a ship) 3

.protinus, (protenus), adv. --- forward 2

.pubes, -is, f. --- adulthood 3

.pulso, -are, --- strike 1

.purpureus, -a -um, --- purple colored. 3

.purus -a -um --- pure1

.pyra, -ae,f. --- funeral pyre. 3

.quater adv. --- four times 3

.quatio, quatere quassi quassum, --- shake 1

.ramus, -i, m. --- a branch 3

.rapidus, -a -um, --- flowing quickly (of rivers) 2

.rapio, rapere rapui raptum, --- sieze 1

.recedo, -cedere -cessi -cessum, --- go back 1

.refugio, -fugere -fugi, --- run away 3

.regina, -ae, f. --- a queen 1

.reor, -reri -ratus --- think 2

.repono -ere -posui -positum --- put back 2

.resido, -sidere -sedi, --- sit down 2

.resolvo, -solvere -solvi -solutum, --- loosen 1

.retro, adv. --- backwards 1

.revelo, -are, --- to unveil 4

.reviso, -ere, --- pay a return visit to 3

.rideo, ridere risi risum, --- laugh 1

.rite, adv. --- properly 2

.rivus, -i, m. --- stream. 3

.rota -ae --- wheel1

.ruina, -ae, f. --- falling down 1

.rumpo, rumpere rupi ruptum, --- break open 1

.ruo, ruere rui rutum, --- rush 1

.rus, ruris, n. --- the countryside 1

.sacer, -cra -crum, --- holy 1

.sacerdos, -dotis, c. --- a priest 3

.sacro, -are, --- sanctify 2

.saeculum, (poet. saeclum) -i, n. --- an age 1

.saevus, -a -um, --- savage 1

.sal, salis, m. --- salt (crystalline NaCl) 1

.sceptrum, -i, n. --- a sceptre 3

.scindo, scindere scidi scissum, --- split 1

.scopulus, -i, m. --- rock 2

.seco, secare secui sectum, --- cut 1

.securus, -a -um, --- without worry 1

.secus, adv. --- in another manner 1

.sedeo, sedere sedi sessum, --- sit 1

.sedes, -is, f. --- seat 1

.sepulcrum, -i, n. --- grave, tomb,3

.serenus, -a -um --- serene 3

.sero, serere sevi satum, --- to plant seeds 1see next

.serpo, serpere serpsi serptum, --- creep like a snake 2

.siccus, -a -um, --- dry 1

.sidus, -eris, n. --- a star 1

.signo, -are, --- cut a mark 1

.sinus, -us, m. --- a curve, bend, curving line; lap 2

.sisto, sistere stiti statum, --- place 1

.solemnis, -e, --- annually celebrated 2

.solidus, (soldus) -a -um, --- entire 2

.solor, -ari, dep. --- comfort 5

.solum, -i, n. --- the base 1

.solvo, solvere solvi solutum, --- set loose 1

.sonitus, -us, m. --- sound 3

.sono, sonare sonui sonitum, --- to sound 2

.sopor, -oris, m. --- dep sleep 3

.sortior, -iri, dep., and sortio -ire, --- draw lots 1

.spargo, spargere sparsi sparsum, --- sprinkle 1

.spelunca, -ae, f. --- a cave. 3

.sperno -ere --- spurn1

.spiro, -are, --- breathe 1

.spolium, -i, n. --- (stripped) fur 3

.spuma, -ae, f. --- foam 3

.spumo, -are, --- to foam 2

.stella, -ae, f. --- a star 2

.sterno, sternere stravi stratum, --- lay out on the ground 1

.stipo, -are, --- to press closely 3

.stirps, (stirpes, stirpis), stirpis, f. --- stalk 2

.strideo, stridere stridi and strido stridere, --- to make a harsh noise 2

.stringo, -ere -xi -xtum --- draw tight, draw (as a weapon).2

.struo, struere struxi structum, --- strew 1

.subigo, -igere -egi -actum, --- raise 2

.sublimis, -e, --- aloft 2

.subter, supter), adv. and prep., --- beneath 2

.succurro, -currere -cursi -cursum --- come running up under 2

.super, adv. and pre. with acc. --- above, on top of1

.surgo, -ere- surrexi -ectus --- get up; get out of beg; rouse oneself, prepare for an action; grow up (of animals, children).1

.suspendo, --ere -pendi -pensus --- hang up 1

.suspicio, -ere -exi -ectum --- look up at 3

.taeda, -ae f. --- the pine tree 2

.taedet, -ere -uit taesum (impersonal vb). --- it is annoying 2

.tellus, -uris f. --- the earth 2

.tendo, -ere -tetendi -tentum --- stretch, aim at (archery); aim to... 1

.tenus, prep. --- up to 3

.terreo, -ere -ui --- frighten 1

.tondeo, -ere totondi tonsum --- cut the hair, 1

.torqueo, -ere -rsi -rtum --- twist 1

.torreo, -ere -ui tostum --- heat up, burn, singe 1

.torus, -i m. --- (a lump, round bump) ; sofa; marriage bed 2

.traicio, -ere -ieci -iectum --- throw 1

.tremo, -ere -ui --- tremble 2

.trepidus, -a -um --- fearful 2

.tridens, -ntis --- trident 2

.tristis, -e --- sad. sorrowful1

.tumidus, -a -um --- swollen up 3

.turba, -ae f. --- mob 2

.turbidus, -a -um --- confused 4

.turbo, -are --- disturb 2

.turbo, -inis f. --- a whirlpool 2

.ultor, -oris --- one who avenges 4

.umbra -ae f. --- shade, shadow 2

.umerus -i m. (also humerus) --- shoulder 2

.umidus, -a -um --- wet, moist, damp 2

.uncus, -a -um. --- hooked 2

.unda, -ae f. --- wave. water; the sea 1

.uro, -ere ussi ustum --- burn 1

.usquam, adv. --- anywhere 1

.validus -a -um --- strong,. healthy1

.vanus, -a -um --- empty 1

.vastus, -a -um --- laid waste 1

.vates, -is m. --- a seer 1

.ve, -enclitic --- or

.veho here vexi vectus --- carry1

.vello, -ere velli and vulsi, vulsum --- peck at 1

.verro, -ere verri versum --- brush up 2

.vertex, -icis --- whirlpool 1

.vescor, -i --- feed on 3

.vestis, -is f. --- clothes 2

.viridis, --- green 1

.viscus, -eris n. --- guts, entrails. 2

.visus, -us m. --- sight 4

.vita, -ae f. --- life; living; used of a lover "my life" 1

.volito, -are --- fly about 3

.volo, -are --- fly 2

.volucer, -ris -re --- flying 2

.voluto, -are --- roll around, tumble 2

.volvo, -ere -ui -utum --- turn around, rotate 2

.voveo, -ere -ui votum --- pray, vow to... 2

William Harris
Prof. Em. Middlebury College
www.middlebury.edu/~harris